Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home

Middle Wisconsin glacial advance into the Appalachian Plateau, Sixmile Creek, Tompkins Co., NY

  • Daniel E. Karig (a1) and Norton G. Miller (a2)
Abstract

Areal mapping of the middle Wisconsin varved clay site along Sixmile Creek near Ithaca, New York, has revealed a much more widespread and varied array of sediments than previously thought. Lacustrine clays, some varved, are interbedded with sands and gravels interpreted as sub-aqueous fan deposits, and both are overlain by a deformation till. Nine radiocarbon dates indicate a 34–37 14C ka BP age for the lacustrine sediment, with the deformation till less than a few thousand years younger. Beneath this sequence is a deposit dated at ± 42 14C ka BP. Both strata represent a tundra climate with a mean July temperature of about 10°C. The Sixmile Creek deformation till must correlate with the 35 14C ka BP till along the Genesee River, 125 km to the NW, and defines a Cherrytree stade glacial advance into the Appalachian Plateau, much further south than what has generally been accepted. Such an advance would require drainage from a proglacial lake in the western Ontario basin to flow westward instead of northeastward. The Sixmile strata suggest a colder than accepted middle Wisconsin stage. Recent data indicate that this stage is one of progressive cooling, with large climatic fluctuations.

Copyright
Corresponding author
*Corresponding author. E-mail address: dek9@cornell.edu (D.E. Karig).
Footnotes
Hide All
1 Deceased.
Footnotes
References
Hide All
Ashworth, A., Willenbring, J., (1998). Fossil beetles and climate change at Sixmile Creek, Ithaca, New York. American Paleontologist 6, 23.
Ashworth, A.C., Miller, N.G., Schmidt, V.E., Willenbring, J., (1997). The Sixmile Creek Site, Ithaca, NY, and potential problems with mid-Wisconsin regional paleoclimatic interpretations. Geological Society of America Annual Meeting, Abstracts with Programs 29, 37.
Berger, G.W., Eyles, N., (1994). Thermoluminescence chronology of Toronto-area Quaternary sediments and implications for the extent of the midcontinent ice sheet(s). Geology 22, 3134.
Birks, H.H., (2000). Aquatic macrophyte vegetation development in Krakenes Lake, western Norway, during the late-glacial and early-Holocene. Journal of Paleolimnology 23, 719.
Bloom, A.L., (1972). Schedule and guidebook. Friends of the Pleistocene 35th Annual Reunion, Cornell University. 20.
Brennand, T.A., Lian, O.B., (2009). Insight into Quaternary environmental change in the Lake Ontario basin revealed through new chronological and glaciological information. Geological Society of America Annual Meeting, Abstracts with Programs 41, 641.
Brookfield, M.E., Gwinn, Q.H.J., Martin, I.P., (1982). Quaternary sequences along the north shore of Lake Ontario: Oshawa–Port Hope. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 19, 18361850.
Cong, S., Ashworth, A.C., Schwerdt, D.P., (1996). Fossil beetle evidence for a short warm interval near 40,000 yr BP at Titusville, Pennsylvania. Quaternary Research 45, 216225.
de Vernal, A., Causse, C., Hillaire-Marcel, C., Mott, R.J., Occhietti, S., (1986). Palynostratigraphy and Th/U ages of upper Pleistocene interglacial and interstadial depositson Cape Breton Island, eastern Canada. Geology 14, 554557.
Dredge, L.A., Thorleifson, L.H., (1987). The Middle Wisconsinan history of the Laurentide Ice Sheet. G"ographie Physique et Quaternaire 41, 215235.
Dreimanis, A., (1970). Late-Pleistocene lakes in the Ontario and Erie Basins. Conference on Great Lakes Research, 12th, Proceedings. 170180.
Elias, S.A., (1999). Mid-Wisconsin seasonal temperatures reconstructed from fossil beetle assemblages in eastern North America: comparisons with other proxy records from the Northern Hemisphere. Journal of Quaternary Science 14, 255262.
Eyles, C.H., Eyles, N., (1983). Sedimentation in a large lake: a reinterpretation of the late Pleistocene stratigraphy at Scarborough Bluffs, Ontario, Canada. Geology 11, 146152.
Eyles, N., Westgate, J.A., (1987). Restricted regional extent of the Laurentide Ice Sheet in the Great Lakes basins during early Wisconsin glaciation. Geology 15, 537540.
Eyles, N., Williams, N.E., (1992). The sedimentary and biological record of the last interglacial"glacial transition at Toronto, Canada. Clarke, P.U., Lea, P.D. The last interglacial-glacial transition in North America. Geological Society of America Special Paper 270, 119138.
Fernow, L.R., (1956). A Fossil Plant Locality in Sixmile Valley. Unpublished Senior thesis, Department of Geology, Cornell University, ; 12 pp.
Frechette, B., de Vernal, A., (2013). Evidence for large-amplitude biome and climate changes in Atlantic Canada during the last interglacial and mid-Wisconsinan periods. Quaternary Research 79, 242255.
Hatch, G.E., (1940). Embankment Design for an Earth Dam on Six Mile Creek. Department of Civil Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York.(M.Sc. thesis).
Karrow, P.F., (1967). Pleistocene Geology of the Scarborough Area: Ontario Department of Mines Geological Report 46.
Karrow, P.F., (1974). Till stratigraphy in parts of Southwestern Ontario. Geological Society of America Bulletin 85, 761768.
Karrow, P.F., (2004). Late Quaternary Stratigraphic comparisons in south-central Ontario and western New York and the OIS 5E to early 3 interval. Northeastern Geology and Environmental Sciences 26, 202210.
Karrow, P.F>, Warner, B.G., (1984). A subsurface Middle Wkisconsinan interstadial site at Waterloo, Ontario, Canada. Boreas 13, 6785.
Karrow, P.F., Dreimanis, A., Barnett, P.J., (2000). A proposed diachronic revision of Late Quaternary time-stratigraphic classification in the eastern and northern Great Lakes Area. Quaternary Research 54, 112.
Karrow, P.F., McAndrews, J.H., Miller, B.B., Morgan, A.V., Seymour, K.L., White, O.L., (2001). Illinoian to Late Wisconsinan stratigraphy at Woodbridge, Ontario. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 38, 921942.
Kirby, M.E., Andrews, J.T., (1999). Mid-Wisconsin Laurentide Ice Sheet growth and decay: implications for Heinrich events 3 and 4. Paleoceanography 14, 211-223.
Miller, N.G., (1996). Age and paleoecology on an interstadial plant bed, Tompkins County, South-central New York. Geological Society of America Annual Meeting, Abstracts with Programs 28, 82.
Muller, E.H., (1957). Filled bedrock gorges in the drainage basin of Cayuga Lake, New York. Geological Society of America Annual Meeting, Abstracts with Programs 68, 1771.
Muller, E.H., (1965). The Finger Lakes region. In Part 2. International Association for Quaternary Research, VIIth Congress, Guidebook for Field Conference A, New England-New York State. 3992.
Muller, E.H., Cadwell, D.H., (1986). Surficial Geologic Map of New York-Finger Lakes Sheet: New York State Museum. Albany, Geological Survey Map and Chart Series #40, 1:250,000 .
Muller, E.H., Calkin, P.E., (1993). Timing of Pleistocene glacial events in New York State. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 30, 18291845.
Mullins, H.T., Hinchey, E.J., Wellner, R.W., Stephens, D.B., Anderson, jr., W.T., Dwyer, T.R., Hine, A.C., (1996). Seismic stratigraphy of the Finger Lakes: a continental record of Heinrich event H-1 and Laurentide Ice Sheet instability. Mullins, H.T., Eyles, N. Subsurface Geologic Investigations of the New York Finger Lakes: Implications for Late Quaternary Deglaciation and Environmental Change. Geological Society of America Special Paper 311, 136.
Phillips, E.R., Evans, D.J.A., Auton, C.A., (2002). Polyphase deformation at an oscillating ice margin following the Loch Lomond Readvance, central Scotland, UK. Sedimentary Geology 149, 157182.
Ramsey, C.R., (2012). A complete terrestrial radiocarbon record for 11.2 to 52.8 kyr B.P. Science 338, 370.
Ridge, J.C., (2003). The last deglaciation of the northeastern United States: a combined varve, paleomagnetic, and calibrated 14C chronology. Cremeens, D.L., Hart, J.P. Geoarcheology of landscapes in the glaciated northeast. New York State Museum Bulletin 497, 1545.
Schmidt, V.E., (1947). Varves in the Finger Lakes Region of New York State. Ph. D. thesisDepartment of Geology, Cornell University, .
Schmidt, V.E., (1996). Middle Wisconsin varves near Ithaca, Central New York. Geological Society of America Annual Meeting, Abstracts with Programs 28, 97.
von Engeln, O.D., (1961). The Finger Lakes Region: Its Origin and Nature. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, N.Y..(156 pp.).
Warner, B.G., Morgan, A.V., Karrow, P.F., (1988). A Wisconsin interstadial arctic flora and insect fauna from Clarksburg, Southwestern Ontario, Canada. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology and Palaeoecology 68, 2747.
Young, R.A., Burr, G.S., (2006). Middle Wisconsin glaciation in the Genesee Valley, N.Y.: a stratigraphic record contemporaneous with Heinrich Event H4. Geomorphology 75, 226247.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Quaternary Research
  • ISSN: 0033-5894
  • EISSN: 1096-0287
  • URL: /core/journals/quaternary-research
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed