Adams, D.K., and Comrie, A.C.
The North American monsoon. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society
78, (1997). 2197–2213.
Armour, J., Fawcett, P.J., and Geissman, J.W.
15 k.y. paleoclimatic and glacial record from northern New Mexico. Geology
30, (2002). 723–726.
Barnett, T.P., and Pierce, D.W.
When will Lake Mead go dry?. Water Resources Research
44, (2008). W03201 http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2007WR006704
Barnett, T.P., Pierce, D.W., Hidalgo, H.G., Bonfils, C., Santer, B.D., Das, T., Bala, G., Wood, A.W., Nozawa, T., Mirin, A.A., Cayan, D.R., and Dettinger, M.D.
Human-induced changes in the hydrology of the western United States. Science
319, (2008). 1080–1083.
Bartlein, P.J., Anderson, K.H., Anderson, P.M., Edwards, M.E., Mock, C.J., Thompson, R.S., Webb, R.S., and Whitlock, C.
Paleoclimate simulations for North America over the past 21,000 years: features of the simulated climate and comparisons with paleoenvironmental data. Quaternary Science Reviews
17, (1998). 549–585.
Battarbee, R.W., Jones, V.J., Flower, R.J., Cameron, N.G., Bennion, H., Carvalho, L., and Juggins, S.
Diatoms. Smol, J.P., Birks, H.J.B., and Last, W.M.
Tracking Environmental Change Using Lake Sediments. Vol. 3, Terrestrial, Algal, and Siliceous Indicators. (2001). Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht. 155–202.
Benson, L., Kashgarian, M., Rye, R., Lund, S., Paillet, F., Smoot, J., Kester, C., Mensing, S., Meko, D., and Lindstrom, S.
Holocene multidecadal and multicentennial droughts affecting Northern California and Nevada. Quaternary Science Reviews
21, (2002). 659–682.
D.G. Frey & E.S. Deevey review #1 — Numerical tools in palaeolimnology — progress, potentialities, and problems. Journal of Paleolimnology
20, (1998). 307–332.
Bloom, A.M., (2006). A paleolimnological investigation of climatic and hydrological conditions during the late Pleistocene and Holocene in the Sierra Nevada, California, USA. Ph.D. Dissertation. University of Utah, Department of Geography, Salt Lake City.
Bloom, A.M., Moser, K.A., Porinchu, D.F., and MacDonald, G.M.
Diatom–inference models for surface–water temperature and salinity developed from a 57-lake calibration set from the Sierra Nevada, California, USA. Journal of Paleolimnology
29, (2003). 235–255.
Bradley, R.S., Hughes, M.K., and Diaz, H.F.
Climate in Medieval time. Science
302, (2003). 404–405.
Brooks, S.J., and Birks, H.J.B.
Chironomid-inferred air temperatures from Lateglacial and Holocene sites in north-west Europe: progress and problems. Quaternary Science Reviews
20, (2001). 1723–1741.
Brooks, S.J., Langdon, P.G., and Heiri, O.
The Identification and Use of Palaearctic Chironomidae Larvae in Palaeoecology. QRA Technical Guide No. 10. (2007). Quaternary Research Association, London.
Brown, D.P., and Comrie, A.C.
A winter precipitation ‘dipole’ in the western United States associated with multidecadal ENSO variability. Geophysical Research Letters
31, (2004). L09203 http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2003GL018726
Cayan, D.R., Kammerdiener, S.A., Dettinger, M.D., Caprio, J.M., and Peterson, D.H.
Changes in the onset of spring in the western United States. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society
82, (2001). 399–415.
Cole, J.E., Overpeck, J.T., and Cook, E.R.
Multiyear La Niña events and persistent drought in the contiguous United States. Geophysical Research Letters
1647 (2002). 29 http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2001GL013561
Causes of climate change over the past 1000 years. Science
289, (2000). 270–277.
Cumming, B.F., Wilson, S.E., Hall, R.J., and Smol, J.P.
Diatoms from British Columbia (Canada) Lakes and Their Relationship to Salinity, Nutrients and other Limnological Variables. (1995). J. Cramer, Berlin.
Coastal geomorphology of Great Salt Lake and vicinity. Gwynn, J.W.
Great Salt Lake: A Scientific, Historical, and Economic Overview. (1980). Utah Geological and Mineral Survey, Salt Lake City. 69–82.
Deacon, J.E., Williams, A.E., Williams, C.D., and Williams, J.E.
Fueling population growth in Las Vegas: how large-scale groundwater withdrawal could burn regional biodiversity. Bioscience
57, (2007). 688–698.
Denniston, R.F., Asmerom, Y., Polyak, V., Dorale, J.A., Carpenter, S.J., Trodick, C., Hoye, B., and Gonzalez, L.A.
Synchronous millennial-scale climatic changes in the Great Basin and the North Atlantic during the last interglacial. Geology
35, (2007). 619–622.
Diaz, H.F., and Bradley, R.S.
Temperature variations during the last century at high elevation sites. Climatic Change
36, (1997). 253–279.
Dettinger, M.D., Cayan, D.R., Diaz, H.F., and Meko, D.M.
North–south precipitation patterns in western North America on interannual-to-decadal timescales. Journal of Climate
11, (1998). 3095–3111.
Diffenbaugh, N.S., Giorgi, F., and Pal, J.S.
Climate change hotspots in the United States. Geophysical Research Letters
Diffenbaugh, N.S., and Sloan, L.C.
Mid-Holocene orbital forcing of regional-scale climate: a case study of western North America using a high-resolution RCM. Journal of Climate
17, (2004). 2927–2937.
Douglas, M.S.V., and Smol, J.P
Limnology of high arctic ponds (Cape Herschel, Ellesmere Island, N.W.T.). Archiv fur Hydrobiologie
131, (1994). 401–434.
Douglas, M.S.V., and Smol, J.P.
Freshwater diatoms as indicators of environmental change in the High Arctic. Stoermer, E.F., and Smol, J.P.
The Diatoms: Application for the Environmental and Earth Sciences. (1999). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. 227–244.
The Basin and Range province — origin and tectonic significance. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences
10, (1982). 409–440.
Edwards, T.L., Crucifix, M., and Harrison, S.P.
Using the past to constrain the future: how the palaeorecord can improve estimates of global warming. Progress in Physical Geography
31, (2007). 481–500.
Feng, X.H., and Epstein, S.
Climatic implications of an 8000-year hydrogen isotope time-series from bristlecone pine trees. Science
265, (1994). 1079–1081.
Mammalian responses to Middle Holocene climatic change in the Great Basin of the western United States. Journal of Biogeography
27, (2000). 181–192.
Harrison, S.P., Kutzbach, J.E., Liu, Z., Bartlein, P.J., Otto-Bliesner, B., Muhs, D., Prentice, C., and Thompson, R.S.
Mid-Holocene climates of the Americas: a dynamical response to changed seasonality. Climate Dynamics
20, (2003). 663–688.
Hay, M.B., Michelutti, N., and Smol, J.P.
Ecological patterns of diatom assemblages from Mackenzie Delta lakes, Northwest Territories, Canada. Canadian Journal of Botany
78, (2000). 19–33.
Heiri, O., and Lotter, A.F.
Effect of low count sums on quantitative environmental reconstructions: an example using subfossil chironomids. Journal of Paleolimnology
26, (2001). 343–350.
Heiri, O., Lotter, A.F., and Lemcke, G.
Loss on ignition as a method for estimating organic and carbonate content in sediments: reproducibility and comparability of results. Journal of Paleolimnology
25, (2001). 101–110.
Diversity and evenness — unifying notation and its conaequencse. Ecology
54, (1973). 427–432.
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)
Climate change 2007: the physical science basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment. Solomon, S., Qin, D., Manning, M., Chen, Z., Marquis, M., Averyt, K.B., Tignor, M., and Miller, H.L.
Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. (2007). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
Krammer, K., and Lange-Bertalot, H.
Bacillariophyceae. Ettl, H., Gerloff, J., Heynig, H., and Mollenhauer, D.
Süßwasserflora von Mitteleuropa, Band 2 (1–4). (1986–1991). Gustav Fisher Verlag, Stuttgart/Jena.
Knowles, N., Dettinger, M.D., and Cayan, D.R.
Trends in snowfall versus rainfall in the western United States. Journal of Climate
19, (2006). 4545–4559.
Lamarche, V.C., (1973). Holocene Climatic variations inferred from treeline fluctuations in the White Mountains, California. , 632–660.
Paleoclimatic inferences from long tree-ring records. Science
183, (1974). 1043–1048.
Larocque, I., and Hall, R.I.
Chironomids as quantitative indicators of mean July air temperature: validation by comparison with century-long meteorological records from northern Sweden. Journal of Paleolimnology
29, (2003). 475–493.
Larocque, I., Grosjean, M., Heiri, O., Bigler, C., and Blass, A.
Comparison between chironomid-inferred July temperatures and meteorological data AD 1850–2001 from varved Lake Silvaplana, Switzerland. Journal of Paleolimnology
41, (2009). 329–342.
Submerged tree stumps as indicators of middle Holocene aridity in the Lake Tahoe Basin. Journal of California and Great Basin Anthropology
12, (1990). 146–157.
Lotter, A.F., and Bigler, C.
Do diatoms in the Swiss Alps reflect the length of ice-cover?. Aquatic Sciences
62, (2000). 125–141.
Severe and sustained drought in southern California and the West: present conditions and insights from the past on causes and impacts. Quaternary International
173, (2007). 87–100.
MacDonald, G.M., Moser, K.A., Bloom, A.M., Porinchu, D.F., Potito, A.P., Wolfe, B.B., Edwards, T.W.D., Petel, A., Orme, A.R., and Orme, A.J.
Evidence of temperature depression and hydrological variations in the eastern Sierra Nevada during the Younger Dryas stade. Quaternary Research
70, (2008). 131–140.
Madsen, D.B., Rhode, D., Grayson, D.K., Broughton, J.M., Livingston, S.D., Hunt, J., Quade, J., Schmitt, D.N., and Shaver, M.W.
Late Quaternary environmental change in the Bonneville basin, western USA. Palaeogeography Palaeoclimatology Palaeoecology
167, (2001). 243–271.
Menounos, B., Clague, J.J., Osborn, G., Luckman, B.H., Lakeman, T.R., and Minkus, R.
Western Canadian glaciers advance in concert with climate change circa 4.2 ka. Geophysical Research Letters
35, (2008). L07501 http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2008GL033172
Mensing, S.A., Benson, L.V., Kashgarian, M., and Lund, S.
A Holocene pollen record of persistent droughts from Pyramid Lake, Nevada, USA. Quaternary Research
62, (2004). 29–38.
Mensing, S., Smith, J., Norman, K.B, and Allan, M.
Extended drought in the Great Basin of western North America in the last two millenia reconstructed from pollen records. Quaternary International
188, (2008). 79–89.
Metcalfe, S.E., O'Hara, S.L., Caballero, M., and Davies, S.J.
Records of Late Pleistocene–Holocene climatic change in Mexico — a review. Quaternary Science Reviews
19, (2000). 699–721.
Millet, L., Arnaud, F., Heiri, O., Magny, M., Verneaux, V., and Desmet, M.
Late-Holocene summer temperature reconstruction from chironomid assemblages of Lake Anterne, northern French Alps. Holocene
19, (2009). 317–328.
Mock, C.J., and Brunelle-Daines, A.R.
A modern analogue of western United States summer palaeoclimate at 6000 years before present. Holocene
9, (1999). 541–545.
Moy, C.M., Seltzer, G.O., Rodbell, D.T., and Anderson, D.M.
Variability of El Nino/southern oscillation activity at millennial timescales during the Holocene epoch. Nature
420, (2002). 162–165.
Pepin, N.C., and Lundquist, J.D.
Temperature trends at high elevations: patterns across the globe. Geophysical Research Letters
35, (2008). L14701 http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2008GL034026
Porinchu, D.F., MacDonald, G.M., Bloom, A.M., and Moser, K.A.
The modern distribution of chironomid sub-fossils (Insecta: Diptera) in the Sierra Nevada, California: potential for paleoclimatic reconstructions. Journal of Paleolimnology
28, (2002). 355–375.
Porinchu, D.F., MacDonald, G.M., Bloom, A.M., and Moser, K.A.
Late Pleistocene and early Holocene climate and limnological changes in the Sierra Nevada, California, USA inferred from midges (Insecta: Diptera: Chironomidae). Palaeogeography Palaeoclimatology Palaeoecology
198, (2003). 403–422.
Porinchu, D.F., Moser, K.A., and Munroe, J.S.
Development of a midge-based summer surface water temperature inference model for the great basin of the western united states. Arctic Antarctic and Alpine Research
39, (2007). 566–577.
Porinchu, D. F., Reinemann, S., Mark, B. G., Box, J. E., and Rolland, N.
under review Application of a midge-based inference model for air temperature reveals evidence of late-20th century warming in sub-alpine lakes in the central Great Basin, United States. .
Porter, S.C., and Denton, G.H.
Chronology of Neoglaciation in North American Cordillera. American Journal of Science
265, (1967). 177–210.
Potito, A.P., Porinchu, D.F., MacDonald, G.M., and Moser, K.A.
A late Quaternary chironomid-inferred temperature record from the Sierra Nevada, Califomia, with connections to northeast Pacific sea surface temperatures. Quaternary Research
66, (2006). 356–363.
Prather, C., and Hickman, M.
History of a presently slightly acidic lake in northeastern Alberta, Canada as determined through analysis of the diatom record. Journal of Paleolimnology
24, (2000). 183–198.
Multidimensional scaling as a research tool in Quaternary palynology: a review of theory and methods. Revue of Palaeobotany and Palynology
31, (1980). 71–104.
Quinlan, R., and Smol, J.P.
Setting minimum head capsule abundance and taxa deletion criteria in chironomid-based inference models. Journal of Paleolimnology
26, (2001). 327–342.
Redmond, K.T., and Koch, R.W.
Surface climate and streamflow variability in the western United-States and their relationship to larege-scale circulation indexes. Water Resources Research
27, (1991). 2381–2399.
Reimer, P.J., Baillie, M.G.L., Bard, E., Bayliss, A., Beck, J.W., Bertrand, C.J.H., Blackwell, P.G., Buck, C.E., Burr, G.S., Cutler, K.B., Damon, P.E., Edwards, R.L., Fairbanks, R.G., Friedrich, M., Guilderson, T.P., Hogg, A.G., Hughen, K.A., Kromer, B., McCormac, G., Manning, S., Ramsey, C.B., Reimer, R.W., Remmele, S., Southon, J.R., Stuiver, M., Talamo, S., Taylor, F.W., van der Plicht, J., and Weyhenmeyer, C.E.
IntCal04 terrestrial radiocarbon age calibration, 0–26 cal kyr BP. Radiocarbon
46, (2004). 1029–1058.
Seager, R., Ting, M.F., Held, I., Kushnir, Y., Lu, J., Vecchi, G., Huang, H.P., Harnik, N., Leetmaa, A., Lau, N.C., Li, C.H., Velez, J., and Naik, N.
Model projections of an imminent transition to a more arid climate in southwestern North America. Science
316, (2007). 1181–1184.
Shin, S.I., Sardeshmukh, P.D., Webb, R.S., Oglesby, R.J., and Barsugli, J.J.
Understanding the mid-Holocene climate. Journal of Climate
19, (2006). 2801–2817.
Smith, F.A., and Betancourt, J.L.
Predicting woodrat (Neotoma) responses to anthropogenic warming from studies of the palaeomidden record. Journal of Biogeography
33, (2006). 2061–2076.
Smith, T.M., and Reynolds, R.W.
A global merged land–air–sea surface temperature reconstruction based on historical observations (1880–1997). Journal of Climate
18, (2005). 2021–2036.
Paleoclimate proxy data from freshwater arctic diatoms. Vereinigung für Theoretische und Andewandte Limnologie
23, (1988). 837–844.
Extreme and persistent drought in California and Patagonia during the Medieval time. Nature
369, (1994). 546–549.
Tausch, R.J., Nowak, C.L., and Mensing, S.A.
Climate change and associated vegetation dynamics during the Holocene: the paleoecological record. Chambers, J.C., Miller, J.R., and MacMahon, J.A.
Great Basin Riparian Areas: Ecology, Management, and Restoration. The Science and Practice of Ecological Restoration. (2004). Island Press, Washington, DC. 24–48.
Telford, R.J., Heegaard, E., and Birks, H.J.B.
The intercept is a poor estimate of a calibrated radiocarbon age. Holocene
14, (2004). 296–298.
ter Braak, C.J.F., and Šmilauer, P. (2002). Canoco Reference manual and CanoDraw for Windows User's Guide.: Software for Canonical Community Ordination (version 4.5). — Microcomputer Power, Ithaca, New York.
Late Quaternary environments in Ruby Valley, Nevada. Quaternary Research
37, (1992). 1–15.
Thompson, R.S., and Anderson, K.H.
Biomes of western North America at 18,000, 6000 and 0 14C yr BP reconstructed from pollen and packrat midden data. Journal of Biogeography
27, (2000). 555–584.
Thompson, R.S., Whitlock, C., Bartlein, P.J., Harrison, S.P., and Spaulding, W.G.
Climatic changes in the western United States since 18,000 yr B.P. Wright, H.E., Kutzbach, T., Webb, T.I., Ruddiman, W.F., Street-Perrott, F.A., and Bartlein, P.J.
Global Climates Since the Last Glacial Maximum. (1993). University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis. 468–513.
Tomback, D.F., and Resler, L.M.
Invasive pathogens at alpine treeline: consequences for treeline dynamics. Physical Geography
28, (2007). 397–418.
U.S. Census Bureau, (2007). Table 2: cumulative estimates of population change for the United States, regions, states, and Puerto Rico and region and state rankings.: , http://
Valero-Garces, B.L., Laird, K.R., Fritz, S.C., Kelts, K., Ito, E., and Grimm, E.C.
Holocene climate in the Northern Great Plains inferred from sediment stratigraphy, stable isotopes, carbonate geochemistry, diatoms, and pollen at Moon Lake, North Dakota. Quaternary Research
48, (1997). 359–369.
Velle, G., Brooks, S.J., Birks, H.J.B., and Willassen, E.
Chironomids as a tool for inferring Holocene climate: an assessment based on six sites in southern Scandinavia. Quaternary Science Reviews
24, (2005). 1429–1462.
Viau, A.E., Gajewski, K., Fines, P., Atkinson, D.E., and Sawada, M.C.
Widespread evidence of 1500 yr climate variability in North America during the past 14 000 yr. Geology
30, (2002). 455–458.
Midges: chironomids and related diptera. Smol, J.P., Birks, H.J.B., and Last, W.M.
Tracking Environmental Change Using Lake Sediments. Vol. 4, Zoological Indicators. (2001). Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht.
Westerling, A.L., Gershunov, A., Brown, T.J., Cayan, D.R., and Dettinger, M.D.
Climate and wildfire in the western United States. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society
84, (2003). 595–604.
Geologic Map of the Wheeler Peak and Garrison Quadrangles, Nevada and Utah. (1969). U.S. Geological Survey, Washington, D.C..
Chironomidae of the Holarctic Region: Keys and Diagnoses. (1983). Entomologica scandinavica, Lund, Sweden.
Wise, E.A., (2009). Climatic response of the intermountain west to the Pacific Northwest–Desert Southwest dipole..
WRCC, (2008). Western Regional Climate Center. http://www.wrcc.dri.edu/.