Skip to main content
×
Home

Steppe lion remains imported by Ice Age spotted hyenas into the Late Pleistocene Perick Caves hyena den in northern Germany

Abstract
Abstract

Upper Pleistocene remains of the Ice Age steppe lion Panthera leo spelaea (Goldfuss, 1810) have been found in the Perick Caves, Sauerland Karst, NW Germany. Bones from many hyenas and their imported prey dating from the Lower to Middle Weichselian have also been recovered from the Perick Cave hyena den. These are commonly cracked or exhibit deep chew marks. The absence of lion cub bones, in contrast to hyena and cave bear cub remains in the Perick Caves, and other caves of northern Germany, excludes the possibility that P. leo spelaea used the cave for raising cubs. Only in the Wilhelms Cave was a single skeleton of a cub found in a hyena den. Evidence of the chewing, nibbling and cracking of lion bones and crania must have resulted from the importation and destruction of lion carcasses (4% of the prey fauna). Similar evidence was preserved at other hyena den caves and open air sites in Germany. The bone material from the Perick and other Central European caves points to antagonistic hyena and lion conflicts, similar to clashes of their modern African relatives.

Copyright
Corresponding author
cdiedri@gmx.net, http://www.paleologic.de
References
Hide All
Altuna J. Fund eines Skelettes des Höhlenlöwen (Panthera leo spelaea Goldfuss) in Arrikrutz, Baskenland. Bonner zoologische Beiträge 32, 1–2 (1981). 3146.
Argant A. Étude de 'exemplaire de Panthera spelaea (Goldfuss, 1810) (Mammalia, Carnivora, Felidae) du gisement Pleistocène moyen recent de la grotte d' Aze (Saone et Loire). Revue de Paléobiologie 7, 2 (1988). 449466.
Boule M. Les grands chats des caverns. Annales de Paleontologie 1, (1906). 6995.
Brain C.K. The Hunters or the Hunted? An Introduction to African Cave Taphonomy. (1981). University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
Bunn H.T. Comparative analyses of modern bone assemblages from a San hunter-gatherer camp in the Kalahari Desert, Botswana, and from a spotted hyena den near Nairobi, Keynia. British Archaeological Reports 283, (1983). 143148.
Cuvier G.L.C.F.D. Baron de Sur les ossements fossiles des Hyènes. Annales du Museé Histoire Naturelle 6, (1805). 127
Cuvier G.L.C.F.D. Baron de Sur les ossements du genre de l' ours, qui se trouvent en grande quantité dans certaines cavernes d`Allemagne et de Hongarie. Annales du Musée histoire naturelle 8, (1806). 325
Darga R. Südostbayrisches Naturkunde- und Mammut-Museum Siegsdorf. (1998). Weltkunst-Verlag, München. 158
Diedrich C. Eine oberpleistozäne Population von Crocuta crocuta spelaea (Goldfuss, 1823) aus dem eiszeitlichen Fleckenhyänenhorst Perick-Höhlen von Hemer (Sauerland, NW Deutschland) und ihr Kannibalismus. Philippia 12, 2 (2005). 93115.
Diedrich C. Die oberpleistozäne Population von Ursus spelaeus Rosenmüller, 1794 aus dem eiszeitlichen Fleckenhyänenhorst Perick-Höhlen von Hemer (Sauerland, NW Deutschland). Philippia 12, 4 (2006). 275346.
Diedrich C. The fairy tale about the “cave lions” Panthera leo spelaea (Goldfuss, 1810) of Europe – Late Ice Age spotted hyenas and Ice Age steppe lions in conflicts – lion killers and scavengers around Prague (Central Bohemia). Scripta Facultatis Scientiarum Universitatis Masarykianae Geology 35, 2005 (2007). 107112.
Diedrich C. Upper Pleistocene Panthera leo spelaea (Goldfuss, 1810) skeleton remains from Praha-Podbaba and contribution to other lion finds from loess and river terrace sites in Central Bohemia (Czech Republic). Bulletin of Geosciences 82, 2 (2007). 99117.
Diedrich C. The rediscovered holotypes of the Upper Pleistocene spotted hyena Crocuta crocuta spelaea (Goldfuss, 1823) and the steppe lion Panthera leo spelaea (Goldfuss, 1810) and taphonomic discussion to the Geilenreuther Cave hyena den (South-Germany). Journal of the Linnean Society London 154, (2008). 822831.
Diedrich C. (2009a). Pleistocene Panthera leo spelaea (Goldfuss, 1810) remains from the Balve Cave (NW Germany) — a hyena den and Middle Palaeolithic human site. International Journal of Osteoarchaeology (accepted) .
Diedrich C. (2009b). Late Pleistocene lion Panthera leo spelaea (Goldfuss, 1819) remains from the Keppler Cave (Sauerland Karst, NW Germany). Cranium, 26: (accepted) .
Diedrich C., and Žák K. Upper Pleistocene hyena Crocuta crocuta spelaea (Goldfuss, 1823) prey deposit and den sites in horizontal and vertical caves of the Bohemian Karst (Czech Republic). Bulletin of Geosciences 81, 4 (2006). 237276.
Dietrich W.O. Fossile Löwen im europäischen und afrikanischen Pleistozän. Paläontologische Abhandlungen, A, Paläozoologie 3, 2 (1968). 323366.
Estes R. The Safari Companion: A Guide to Watching African Mammals. (1999). Chelsea Green Publishing Company, Vermont. 459
Ford J. (2005). Predators at war. National Geographic, DVD, 97 min.
Goldfuss G.A. Die Umgebungen von Muggendorf. (1810). Ein Taschenbuch für Freunde der Natur und Altertumskunde, Erlangen. 351
Giebel C.G. Über Säugethier-Knochen aus der Sundwich-Höhle. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geognosie, Geologie und Petrefaktenkunde 1842, (1849). 5668.
Gross C. (1992). Das Skelett des Höhlenlöwen (Panthera leo spelaea Goldfuss, 1810) aus Siegsdorf/Ldkr. Traunstein im Vergleich mit anderen Funden aus Deutschland und den Niederlanden. Unpublished Dissertation, Tierärztliche Fakultät der Maximilians-Universität, München , pp. 129.
Grzimek B. Grzimeks Enzyklopädie Säugetiere. (1997). Brockhaus, Mannheim. 656
Günther K. Die altsteinzeitlichen Funde der Balver Höhle. Bodenaltertümer Westfalens 8, (1964). 1165.
Henschel J.R., and Tilson R.L. How much does a spotted hyena eat? Perspective from the Namib Desert. African Journal of Ecology 26, (1988). 155247.
Hill A. Bone modification by modern spotted hyenas. Bonnichsen R., and Sorg M.H. Bone Modification. (1989). Center for the Study of the First Americans, Orono, Maine. 169178.
Joubert D. and Joubert B. (2003). Eternal Enemies: Lions and Hyenas . Wildlife Films Botswana for National Geographic, DVD. 56min.
Klinghardt F. Vergleichende Untersuchungen über das Gehirn und Gehirnrelief einiger rezenter und fossiler Raubtiere. Palaeontographica 74, (1931). 135179.
Kruuk H. The Spotted Hyena. A Story Of Predation And Social Behavior. (1972). University of Chicago Press, Chicago. 335
Lam Y.M. Variability in the behavior of spotted hyaenas as taphonomic agents. Journal of Archaeological Science 19, (1992). 389406.
Meise H. (1926). Heinrichshöhle zu Sundwig in Westfalen . Hemer/Westf., Selbstverlag von Heinrich Meise, Gebrüder Burris., pp. 8.
Nöggerath J. (1823). Das Gebirge in Rheinland-Westphalen nach mineralogischem und chemischem Bezuge. Zweiter Band . Bonn, Eduard Weber., pp. x + 387 + 3.
Nöggerath J. (1824). Das Gebirge in Rheinland-Westphalen nach mineralogischem und chemischem Bezuge. Dritter Band . Bonn, Eduard Weber., pp. viii + 291 + 1.
Norman W., and Youngsteadt O. Prehistoric bear signs and black bear (Ursus americanus) utilization of Hurricane River Cave, Arkansas. NSS Bulletin 42, (1980). 37.
Palomares F., and Caro T.M. Intraspecific killing among mammalian carnivores. The American Naturalist 153, 1999 (1999). 492508.
Rosendahl W., and Darga R. Homo sapiens neanderthalensis et Panthera leo spelaea - du nouveau à propos du site de Siegsdorf (Chiemgau), Bavière/Allemagne. Revista Palbiologica 23, 2 (2004). 110.
Schaller G. The Serengeti Lion. A Study of Predator–Prey Relations. (1972). University of Chicago Press, Chicago. 494
Smuts G.L., Anderson J.L., and Austin J.L. Age determination of the African lion (Panthera leo). Journal of Zoology 185, (1978). 115148.
Sutcliffe A.J. Spotted Hyaena: crusher, gnawer, digester and collector of bones. Nature 227, (1970). 1101113.
Turner A. Dental sex dimorphism in European lions (Panthera leo L.) of the Upper Pleistocene: Palaeoecological and palaeoethological implications. Annales Zoologici Fennici 21, (1984). 18.
Weber H.-W. Höhlenkataster Westfalen 1987. Antiberg 31, 32 (1989). 173.
Ziegler R. Das Mammut (Mammuthus primigenius Blumenbach) von Siegsdorf bei Traunstein (Bayern) und seine Begleitfauna. Münchner Geowissenschaftliche Abhandlungen, A 26, (1994). 4980.
Zygowski D.W. Bibliographie zur Karst- und Höhlenkunde in Westfalen (unter Einschluβ des Bergischen Landes). Abhandlungen des Westfälischen Museums für Naturkunde, Beihefte 50, (1988). 1295.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Quaternary Research
  • ISSN: 0033-5894
  • EISSN: 1096-0287
  • URL: /core/journals/quaternary-research
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Type Description Title
WORD
Supplementary Materials

Diedrich supplementary material
Table S1

 Word (71 KB)
71 KB

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 5 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 55 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 20th January 2017 - 18th November 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.