Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Radiocarbon Chronology of Complexes With Seima-Turbino Type Objects (Bronze Age) in Southwestern Siberia

  • Z V Marchenko (a1) (a2), S V Svyatko (a3), V I Molodin (a1), A E Grishin (a1) and M P Rykun (a4)...
Abstract
Abstract

This paper discusses the chronology of burial grounds containing specific Seima-Turbino type bronze weaponry (spears, knives, and celts). The “transcultural” Seima-Turbino phenomenon relates to a wide distribution of specific objects found within the sites of different Bronze Age cultures in Eurasia, not immediately related to each other. The majority of the Seima-Turbino objects represent occasional findings, and they are rarely recovered from burial grounds. Here, we present a new set of 14C dates from cemeteries in western Siberia, including the key Asian site Rostovka, with the largest number of graves containing Seima-Turbino objects. Currently, the presented database is the most extensive for the Seima-Turbino complexes. The resulting radiocarbon (14C) chronology for the western Siberian sites (22nd–20th centuries cal BC) is older than the existing chronology based on typological analysis (16th–15th centuries BC) and some earlier 14C dates for the Seima-Turbino sites in eastern Europe. Another important aspect of this work is 14C dating of complexes within specific bronze objects—daggers with figured handles—which some researchers have related to the Seima-Turbino type objects. These items are mostly represented by occasional finds in Central Asia, however, in western Siberia these have been recovered from burials, too. The 14C dating attributes these daggers to the end of the 3rd millennium cal BC, suggesting their similar timing to the Seima-Turbino objects. Further research into freshwater reservoir offsets in the region is essential for a more reliable reconstruction of the chronology of the Seima-Turbino phenomenon and the daggers with figured handles.

Copyright
Corresponding author
*Corresponding author. Email: afrika_77@mail.ru.
Footnotes
Hide All

Selected Papers from the 8th Radiocarbon & Archaeology Symposium, Edinburgh, UK, 27 June–1 July 2016

Footnotes
References
Hide All
Alekhin YP, Vladimirov VN. 1984. Razvedochnye raboty v Predgornom Altae [Exploration work in the Altai foothill]. In: Arkheologicheskie otkrytiya 1982 goda. Moscow: Nauka Publishing. p 189–90. In Russian.
Bayliss A, Tyers I. 2004. Interpreting radiocarbon dates using evidence from tree rings. Radiocarbon 46(2):957964.
Bolshov SV. 2012. A contribution to the study of the Eastern Links of the Bronze Age culture of the Northern Middle Volga. Archaeology, Ethnology and Anthropology of Eurasia 1(40):108113.
Bronk Ramsey C. 1995. Radiocarbon calibration and analysis of stratigraphy: the OxCal program. Radiocarbon 37(2):425430.
Bronk Ramsey C. 2001. Development of the radiocarbon calibration program OxCal. Radiocarbon 43(2A):355363.
Chernikov SS. 1960. Vostochnyi Kazakhstan v epokhu bronzy [Eastern Kazakhstan in the Bronze Age]. Materialy i Issledovaniya po Arkheologii SSSR 88. 272 p. In Russian.
Chernykh EN. 1970. Drevneishaya metallurgiya Urala i Povolzhya [Ancient Metallurgy of Urals and Volga River basin]. Materialy i Issledovaniya po Arkheologii SSSR 172. 180 p. In Russian.
Chernykh EN. 1992. Ancient Metallurgy in the USSR: The Early Metal Age. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 335 p.
Chernykh EN. 2013. Kultury nomadov v megastructure Evraziiskogo mira [Nomadic cultures in the megastructure of the Eurasian world]. V. 1. Moscow: Yazyki Slavyanskoi Kultury Publishing. 368 p. In Russian.
Chernykh EN. 2015. Kochevoi mir Evrasii: nomady Zapada v kontse bronzovogo veka [Nomadic world of Eurasia: Western Nomads in the Late Bronze Age]. Pririoda 2:4355. In Russian.
Chernykh EN, Kuzminykh SV. 1987. Pamyatniki Seimisko-Turbinskogo tipa v Evrazii [The Seima-Turbino type sites in Eurasia]. Epokha bronzy lesnoi polosy SSSR. Moscow: Nauka Publishing. 472 p. In Russian.
Chernykh EN, Orlovskaya LB. 2013. O baze dannykh kalendarnoi radiouglerodnoi khronologii «dopis’mennoi» epokhi kul’tur Zapadnoi Evrazii [About database of calendar radiocarbon chronology for «preliterate» age of cultures in Western Eurasia]. Analiticheskie issledovaniya Laboratorii estestvennonauchnyikh metodov. V. 3. Moscow: IA RAN Publishing. p 8–15. In Russian.
Chlenova NL. 1976. Karasukskie kinzhaly [The Karasuk culture daggers]. Moscow: Nauka Publishing. 104 p. In Russian.
DeNiro MJ. 1985. Postmortem preservation and alteration of in vivo bone collagen isotope ratios in relation to palaeodietary reconstruction. Nature 317:806809.
Görsdorf J, Parzinger H, Nagler A. 2001. New radiocarbon dates of the North Asian steppe zone and its consequences for the chronology. Radiocarbon 43(2B):11151120.
Grigoriev SA. 2002. Ancient Indo-Europeans. Chelyabinsk: Rifei Publishing. 496 p.
Grushin SP. 2009. Altai v sisteme metallurgicheskikh provintsii eneolita i bronzovogo veka [Altai in the system metallurgical province of Eneolithic and Bronze Ages]. In: Grushin SP, Papin DV, Pozdnyakova OA, Tyurina EA, Fedoruk AS, Khavrin SV. Altai v sisteme metallurgicheskikh provintsii eneolita i bronzovogo veka. Barnaul: ASU Publishing: p 122131. In Russian.
Grushin SP, Merz VK, Papin DV, Peresvetov GY. 2006. Materialy epokhi bronzy iz Pavlodarskogo Priirtysh’ya [Bronze Age materials from the Pavlodar’s Irtysh River basin]. In: Grushin SP, editor. Altai v sisteme metallurgicheskikh provintsii bronzovogo veka. Barnaul: ASU Publishing. p 417. In Russian.
Hanks BK, Epimakhov AV, Renfrew AC. 2007. Towards a refined chronology for the Bronze Age of the southern Urals, Russia. Antiquity 81(312):353367.
Khalikov AH, Lebedinskaya GV, Gerasimova MM. 1966. Pepkinskii kurgan (abashevskii chelovek) [Pepkinskii Kurgan (Abashevo Men)]. Ioshkar-Ola: Marknigizdat Publishing. 60 p. In Russian.
Kiryushin YF. 1987. Novye mogil’niki rannei bronzy na Verkhnei Obi [The new Bronze Age burial grounds from the Upper Ob River basin]. In: Kiryushin YF, editor. Arkheologicheskie issledovaniya na Altae. Barnaul: ASU Publishing. p 100125. In Russian.
Kiryushin YF, Grushin SP, Tishkin AA. 2003. Pogrebalnyi obryad naseleniya epokhi rannei bronzy Verkhnego Priob’ya (po materialam gruntovogo mogil’nika Teleutskii Vzvoz-1) [Burial Rite Practiced by Early Bronze Age Population in the Upper Ob River Basin Based on Data Resulted from the Study of the Teleutsky Vzvoz 1 Burial Ground]. Barnaul: ASU Publishing. 333 p. In Russian.
Kiryushin YF, Grushin SP, Tishkin AA. 2006. Sluchainye nakhodki bronzovykh predmetov v severo-zapadnykh predgor’yakh Altaia [Occasional finds of bronze objects from northwestern part of Altai’s foothills]. In: Grushin SP, editor. Altai v sisteme metallurgicheskikh provintsii bronzovogo veka. Barnaul: ASU Publishing. p 4553. In Russian.
Kovalev AA. 2013. Novye dannye o svyazyakh kul’tur Zapadnoi Sibiri, Mongolii i Kitaya v pervoi polovine II tys. do n.e. [New evidence on the communications of cultures of western Siberia, Mongolia and China in first half of 2nd Millennium BC]. In: Tishkin AA, editor. Sovremennye resheniya aktual’nykh problem Evrasiiskoi arkheologii. Barnaul: ASU Publishing. p 140146. In Russian.
Kovtun IV. 2013. Predistoriya indoariiskoi mifologii [Prehistory of Indo-Aryan Mythology]. Kemerovo: Aziya-Print Publishing. 702 p. In Russian.
Kozhin PM. 1993. Sibirskaya falanga epokhi bronzy [Siberian phalanx of Bronze Age]. In: Medvedev VE, Khudyakov YS, editors. Voennoe delo naseleniya yuga Zapadnoi Sibiri i Dal’nego Vostoka. Novosibirsk: Nauka Publishing. p 1641. In Russian.
Kuryushin YF, Grushin SP. 2009. Early and Middle Bronze Age portable art pieces from the forest-steppe zone of the Ob-Irtysh region. Archaeology, Ethnology and Anthropology of Eurasia 4(37):6775.
Kuzminykh SV. 2011. Seiminsko-Turbinskaya problema: novye materialy [Seima-Turbino problem: new evidence]. Kratkie soobshcheniya Instituta Arkheologii 225:240263. In Russian.
Kuznetsov PF. 2003. K voprosu o khronoogii abashevskoi kul’tury [To question about chronology of Abashevo culture]. In: Bochkarev VS, Korenevskii SN, Kuznetsov PF, Kuz’mina OV, Munchaev RM, Petrovskaya MK, Pryakhin AD, Trofimov AA, editors. Abashevskaya istoriko-kul’turnaya obshchnost’: istoki, razvitie, nasledie. Cheboksary. p. 86–8. In Russian.
Marchenko ZV, Orlova LA, Panov VS, Zubova AV, Molodin VI, Pozdnyakova OA, Grishin AE, Uslamin EA. 2015. Paleodiet, radiocarbon chronology, and the possibility of fresh-water reservoir effect for Preobrazhenka 6 burial ground, western Siberia: preliminary results. Radiocarbon 57(4):595610.
Marchenko ZV, Panov VS, Grishin AE, Zubova AV. 2016. Rekonstruktsiya i dinamika struktury pitaniya odinovskogo naseleniya Barabinskoi lesostepi na protyazhenii III tys. do n.e.: arkhelogicheskie i isotopnye dannye [Reconstruction and dynamics of diet structure the people of Odino Culture from Baraba forest-steppe during 3rd Mil. BC: archaeological and isotopic data]. Vestnik arkheologii, antropologii i etnografii 3(34):164178. In Russian.
Matyushchenko VI, Sinitsyna GV. 1988. Mogil’nik u derevni Rostovka vblizi Omska [Ground Burial around Rostovka Settlement Near Omsk City]. Tomsk: TSU Publishing. 136 p. In Russian.
Molodin VI. 1983. Pogrebenie liteishchika iz mogil’nika Sopka 2 [The tomb of a smelter at the burial site of Sopka 2]. In: Kiryushin YF, editor. Drevnie gornyaki i metallurgi Sibiri. Barnaul: ASU Publishing. p 96109. In Russian.
Molodin VI. 1985. Baraba v epokhu bronzy [Baraba in the Bronze Age]. Novosibirsk: Nauka Publishing. 200 p. In Russian.
Molodin VI. 1993. Novyi vid bronzovykh kinzhalov v pogrebeniyakh krotovskoi kul’tury [New type of bronze dagger in the Krotovo culture graves]. In: Medvedev VE, Khudyakov YS, editors. Voennoe delo naseleniya yuga Zapadnoi Sibiri i Dal’nego Vostoka. Novosibirsk: Nauka Publishing. p 416. In Russian.
Molodin VI. 2001. Pamyatnik Sopka 2 na reke Omi. Kul’turno-khronlogicheskii analiz pogrebal’nykh kompleksov epokhi neolita i rannego metalla [The site of Sopka 2 on the Om River. Cultural and Chronological Analysis of the Neolithic and Early Metal Age Burial Complexes]. V. 1. Novosibirsk: IAET SO RAN Publishing. 128 p. In Russian.
Molodin VI. 2012. Pamyatnik Sopka 2 na reke Omi. Kul’turno-khronlogicheskii analiz pogrebal’nykh kompleksov odinovskoi kul’tury [The Site of Sopka 2 on the Om River. Cultural and Chronological Aanalysis of Burial Complexes Associated with the Odino Culture]. V. 3. Novosibirsk: IAET SO RAN Publishing. 220 p.
Molodin VI. 2013. Seiminsko-Turbinskie bronzy v “zakrytykh” kompleksakh odinovskoi kultury (Barabiskaya lesostep) [Seima-Turbino bronze objects from “closed” complexes of the Odino Culture (Baraba forest-steppe)]. In: Molodin VI, Shunkov MV, editors. Fundamentalnye problemy arkheologii, antropologii i etnografii Evrazii. Novosibirsk: IAET Publishing. p 309324. In Russian.
Molodin VI. 2015. Fenomen bronzovykh kinzhalov iz pogrebalnykh kompleksov krotovskoi kultury (khronologiya, territoriya rasprostraneniya, istoki) [Phenomenon of bronze daggers from closed complexes of the Krotovo culture (chronology, area distribution, provenance)] Vestnik Kemerovskogo Gosudarstvennogo Universiteta 2(62). V. 6. p 97–107. In Russian.
Molodin VI, Komissarov SA. 2001. Seiminskoe kopye iz Tsinkhaya [The Seima type spear from Qinghai]. In: Dervyanko AP, Molodin VI, editors. Problemy arkheologii, etnografii, antropologii Sibiri i sopredel’nykh territorii. V. 7. Novosibirsk: IAET SO RAN Publishing. p 374381. In Russian.
Molodin VI, Sofeikov OV, Deich BA, Grishin AE, Chemyakina MA, Manshtein AK, Balkov EV, Shatov AG. 2003. Novyi pamayatnik epokhi bronzy v Barabinskoi lesostepi (mogil’nik Tartas 1) [New Bronze Age site in Baraba forest-steppe (burial ground Tartas 1)]. In: Derevyanko AP, Molodin VI, editors. Problemy arkheologii, etnografii, antropologii Sibiri i sopredel’nykh territorii. V. 9, part 1. Novosibirsk: IAET SO RAN Publishing. p 441446. In Russian.
Molodin VI, Chemyakina MA, Pozdnyakova OA. 2007 Arkheologo-geofizicheskie issledovaniya pamyatnika Preobrazhenka 6 v Barabinskoi lesostepi [Archaeo-geophysical studies carried out at the site of Preobrazhenka 6 in the Baraba forest-steppe]. In: Derevyanko AP, Molodin VI, editors. Problemy Arkheologii, Etnografii, Antropologii Sibiri i Sopredelnykh Territorii. V. 13. Novosibirsk: IAET SO RAN Publishing. p 339344. In Russian.
Molodin VI, Marchenko ZV, Grishin AE, Orlova LA. 2010. Novye dannye po radiouglerodnoi khronologii pogrebal’nykh kompleksov mogil’nika Sopka 2 epokhi rannei-razvitoi bronzy [New data on radiocarbon chronology of funerary complexes associated with the Early and Middle Bronze Age burial site of Sopka 2]. In: Dervyanko AP, Molodin VI, editors. Problemy arkheologii, etnografii, antropologii Sibiri i sopredel’nykh territorii. V. 16. Novosibirsk: IAET SO RAN Publishing. p 240246. In Russian.
Molodin VI, Hansen S, Mylnikova LN, Nagler A, Kobeleva LS, Durakov IA, Efremova NS, Novikova OI, Nesterova MS, Nenakhov DA, Kovyrshina YN, Mosechkina NN, Vasil’eva YA. 2011. Arkheologicheskie issledovaniya mogil’nika Tartas 1 v 2011 godu: osnovnye resul’taty [Archaeological researches on the burial Tartas 1 in 2011 year: basic results]. In: Derevyanko AP, Molodin VI, editors. Problemy arkheologii, etnografii, antropologii Sibiri i sopredel’nykh territorii. V. 17. Novosibirsk: IAET SO RAN Publishing. p 206211. In Russian.
Molodin VI, Durakov IA, Sofeikov OV, Nenakhov DA. 2012a. Bronzovyi kelt turbinskogo tipa iz Tsentralnoi Baraby [Bronze celt of Seima-Turbino type from the Middle Baraba]. In: Derevyanko AP, Molodin VI, editors. Problemy arkheologii, etnografii, antropologii Sibiri i sopredel’nykh territorii. V. 18. Novosibirsk: IAET SO RAN Publishing. p 226230. In Russian.
Molodin VI, Marchenko ZV, Kuzmin YV, Grishin AE, Van Strydonck M, Orlova LA. 2012b. Radiocarbon chronology of burial grounds of the Andronovo Period (Middle Bronze Age) in Baraba Forest Steppe, western Siberia. Radiocarbon 54(3–4):737747.
Molodin VI, Mylnikova LN, Nesterova MS, Borzykh KA, Ivanova DP, Golovkov PS, Selin DV, Orlova LA, Vasilev SK. 2013. Konstruktivnye i planigraficheskie osobennosti zhilishcha 5 poseleniya krotovskoi kultury Vengerovo 2 [Constructional and planigrafical features the house 5 of Krotovo Culture settlement Vengerovo 2]. In: Derevyanko AP, Molodin VI, editors. Problemy arkheologii, etnografii, antropologii Sibiri i sopredel’nykh territorii. V. 19. Novosibirsk: IAET SO RAN Publishing. p 276281. In Russian.
Molodin VI, Epimakhov AV, Marchenko ZV. 2014. Radiouglerodnaya khronologiya kultur epokhi bronzy Urala i Zapadnoi Sibiri: printsipy i podkhody, dostizheniya i problemy [Radiocarbon chronology of the Urals and western Siberia Bronze Age cultures: principles and approaches, achievements and problems]. Vestnik Novosibirskogo Gosudarstvennogo Universiteta. Seria: Istoriya i Filologiya. V. 13, Vypusk 3: Arkheologiya i Etnografiya. p 136-67.
Molodin VI, Mylnikova LN, Durakov IA, Borzykh KA, Selin DV, Nesterova MS, Kovyrshina YN. 2015. Proyavlenie seiminsko-turbinskogo fenomena na poselenii krotovskoi kul’tury Vengerovo 2 (Barabiskaya lesostep’) [Manifestation of Seima-Turbino phenomenon on the Krotovo culture settlement Vengerovo 2 (Baraba forest-steppe)]. In: Derevyanko AP, Molodin VI, Shunkov MV, Novikova OI, Baulo AV, Grishin AE, Derevyanko EI, Nesterov SP, editors. Problemy arkheologii, etnografii, antropologii Sibiri i sopredel’nykh territorii. V. 21. Novosibirsk: IAET SO RAN Publishing. p 321325. In Russian.
Molodin VI, Grishin AE. 2016. Pamyatnik Sopka 2 na reke Omi. Kul’turno-khronlogicheskii analiz pogrebal’nykh kompleksov krotovskoi kultury [The Site of Sopka 2 on the Om River. Cultural and Chronological Analysis Burial Complexes Associated with the Krotovo Culture]. V. 4. Novosibirsk: IAET SO RAN Publishing. 452 p. In Russian.
Molodin VI, Mylnikova LN, Nesterova MS, Efremova NS. 2016. Osobennosti struktury poseleniya krotovskoi kultury Vengerovo 2 (Barabinskaya lesostep) [Structural features of Krotovo Culture settlement Vengerovo 2]. In: Derevyanko AP, Molodin VI, Shunkov MV, Novikova OI, Baulo AV, Grishin AE, Derevyanko EI, Nesterov SP, editors. Problemy arkheologii, etnografii, antropologii Sibiri i sopredel’nykh territorii. V. 22. Novosibirsk: IAET SO RAN Publishing. p 339342. In Russian.
Papin DV, Fedoruk AS. 2009. Pozdnii period bronzovogo veka i perekhodnoe vremya ot bronzovogo k rannemu zheleznomu veku [The Late Bronze Age and transition period from Bronze to Early Iron Age]. In: Grushin SP, Papin DV, Pozdnyakova OA, Tyurina EA, Fedoruk AS, Khavrin SV. Altai v sisteme metallurgicheskikh provintsii eneolita i bronzovogo veka. Barnaul: ASU Publishing. p 75121. In Russian.
Parzinger G. 2000. Seiminsko-Turbinskii phenomen i formirovanie sibirskogo zverinnogo stilya. Arkheologiya, Etnographiya i Antropologiya Evrazii. 1(1):6675. In Russian.
Samashev ZS, Zhumabekova G. 1993. K voprosu o kul’turnoi atribitsii nekotorykh sluchainykh nakhodok iz Kazakhstana [To issue about cultural attribution of some case findings from Kazakhstan]. In: Izvestiya Natsional’noi Akademii Nauk Respubliki Kazakhstan. Seriya Obshchestvennye nauki 5(191). Almaty: Gylym Publishing. p 23–33. In Russian.
Schulting RJ, Ramsey CB, Bazaliiskii VI, Goriunova OI, Weber A. 2014. Freshwater reservoir offsets investigated through paired human-faunal 14C dating and stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis at Lake Baikal, Siberia. Radiocarbon 56(3):9911008.
Schulting RJ, Bronk Ramsey C, Bazaliiskii VI, Weber A. 2015. Highly variable freshwater reservoir offsets found along the Upper Lena Watershed, Cis-Baikal, Southeast Siberia. Radiocarbon 57(4):581593.
Shishlina NI, Skorobogatov AM, Kaiser E, Usachuk AN. 2015. Radiouglerodnoe datirovanie parnykh obraztsov iz mogil’nika Rozhdestveno: rezul’taty analiza i obsuzhdenie [Radiocarbon dating paired samples from burial ground Rozhdestveno: results and discussion]. Izvestiya Samarskogo nauchnogo tsentra Possiiskoi Akakdemii Nauk 17(3). p 262272. In Russian.
Solovyov BS. 2003. Ob abashevskom komponente Yurinskogo mogil’nika [About Abashevo component of Yurino necropolis]. In: Bochkarev VS, Korenevskii SN, Kuznetsov PF, Kuz’mina OV, Munchaev RM, Petrovskaya MK, Pryakhin AD, Trofimov AA, editors. Abashevskaya istoriko-kul’turnaya obshchnost’: istoki, razvitie, nasledie. Cheboksary. p 188–92. In Russian.
Solovyov BS. 2005. Yurinskii (Ust’-Vetluzhskii) mogil’nik (itogi raskopok 2001–2004 gg.) [Yurino (Ust’-Vetluga) burial ground (results excavations of 2001–2004 years)]. Rossiiskaya arkheologiya 4:103112. In Russian.
Solovyov BS. 2013. Kul’turnye komponenty Ust’-Vetluzhskogo mogil’nika [Cultural components of Ust’-Vetluga burial ground]. Povolzhskaya arkheoogiya 2(4):1839. In Russian.
Svyatko SV, Mallory JP, Murphy EM, Polyakov AV, Reimer PJ, Schulting RJ. 2009. New radiocarbon dates and a review of the chronology of prehistoric populations from the Minusinsk basin, southern Siberia, Russia. Radiocarbon 51(1):243273.
Svyatko SV, Mertz IV, Reimer PJ. 2015. Freshwater reservoir effect on redating of Eurasian steppe cultures: first results for Eneolithic and Early Bronze Age Northeast Kazakhstan. Radiocarbon 57(4):625644.
Svyatko SV, Schulting R, Poliakov A, Reimer PJ. (in press). A lack of freshwater reservoir effects in human radiocarbon dates in the Eneolithic to Iron Age in the Minusinsk Basin. Radiocarbon.
Trufanov AY, editor. 2011. Satyga 16 – seiminsko-turbinskii mogil’nik v taezhnoi zone Zapadnoi Sibiri [Satyga 16 – Seima-Turbino Necropolis in Forest Zone of Western Siberia]. Ekaterinburg: Uralskii Rabochiy Publishing. 192 p. In Russian.
van der Plicht J, Shishlina NI, Zazovskaya EP. 2016. Radiocarbon dating: chronology of archaeological cultures and the reservoir effect. Moscow: Buki Vedi Publishing. 112 p. In Russian.
van Klinken GJ. 1999. Bone collagen quality indicators for palaeodietary and radiocarbon measurements. Journal of Archaeological Science 26(6):687695.
Vinnik DF, Kuz’mina EE. 1981. Vtoroi Karakol’skii klad Kirgizii [The Second Karakol Hoard in Kyrgyzstan]. Kratkie soobshcheniya Instituta Arkheologii 167:4853. In Russian.
Yunger H, Karpelan K. 2005. O radiouglerodnyikh datakh Ust’-Vetluzhskogo mogil’nika [On radiocarbon dates produced for the burial site of Ust-Vetluzhsky]. Rossiiskaya Arkheologiya 4:112. In Russian.
Ward GK, Wilson SR. 1978. Procedures for comparing and combining radiocarbon age determinations: a critique. Archaeometry 20:1931.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Radiocarbon
  • ISSN: 0033-8222
  • EISSN: 1945-5755
  • URL: /core/journals/radiocarbon
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 17
Total number of PDF views: 36 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 223 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 21st June 2017 - 17th January 2018. This data will be updated every 24 hours.