Skip to main content Accessibility help

Climate change mitigation beyond agriculture: a review of food system opportunities and implications

  • Meredith T. Niles (a1), Richie Ahuja (a2), Todd Barker (a3), Jimena Esquivel (a4), Sophie Gutterman (a3), Martin C. Heller (a5), Nelson Mango (a6), Diana Portner (a3), Rex Raimond (a3), Cristina Tirado (a7) and Sonja Vermeulen (a8)...


A large body of research has explored opportunities to mitigate climate change in agricultural systems; however, less research has explored opportunities across the food system. Here we expand the existing research with a review of potential mitigation opportunities across the entire food system, including in pre-production, production, processing, transport, consumption and loss and waste. We detail and synthesize recent research on the topic, and explore the applicability of different climate mitigation strategies in varying country contexts with different economic and agricultural systems. Further, we highlight some potential adaptation co-benefits of food system mitigation strategies and explore the potential implications of such strategies on food systems as a whole. We suggest that a food systems research approach is greatly needed to capture such potential synergies, and highlight key areas of additional research including a greater focus on low- and middle-income countries in particular. We conclude by discussing the policy and finance opportunities needed to advance mitigation strategies in food systems.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Climate change mitigation beyond agriculture: a review of food system opportunities and implications
      Available formats

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Climate change mitigation beyond agriculture: a review of food system opportunities and implications
      Available formats

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Climate change mitigation beyond agriculture: a review of food system opportunities and implications
      Available formats


This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence (, which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Corresponding author

Author for correspondence: Meredith T. Niles, E-mail:


Hide All
Abbade, EB (2015) Environmental impacts of food supply and obesogenic severity worldwide. British Food Journal, Emerald 117(12), 28632879. doi: 10.1108/BFJ-12-2014-0404.
Aguilera, E, Lassaletta, L, Gattinger, A and Gimeno, BS (2013) Managing soil carbon for climate change mitigation and adaptation in Mediterranean cropping systems: a meta-analysis. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 168, 2536. doi: 10.1016/j.agee.2013.02.003.
Aleksandrowicz, L, Green, R, Joy, EJM, Smith, P and Haines, A (2016) The impacts of dietary change on greenhouse gas emissions, land use, water use, and health: a systematic review. PLoS ONE, Public Library of Science 11(11), e0165797. doi: 10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0165797.
Altieri, MA, Nicholls, CI, Henao, A and Lana, MA (2015) Agroecology and the design of climate change-resilient farming systems. Agronomy for Sustainable Development 35(3), 869890. doi: 10.1007/s13593-015-0285-2.
Bajzelj, B, Richards, KS, Allwood, JM, Smith, P, Dennis, JS, Curmi, E and Gilligan, CA (2014) Importance of food-demand management for climate mitigation. Nature Climate Change, Nature Publishing Group 4(10), 924929. doi: 10.1038/nclimate2353.
Berners-Lee, M, Hoolohan, C, Cammack, H and Hewitt, CN (2012) The relative greenhouse gas impacts of realistic dietary choices. Energy Policy 43, 184190. doi: 10.1016/j.enpol.2011.12.054.
Blanke, M (2015) Challenges of reducing fresh produce waste in Europe—from farm to fork. Agriculture 5(3), 389399. doi: 10.3390/agriculture5030389.
Briggs, ADM, Kehlbacher, A, Tiffin, R and Scarborough, P (2016) Simulating the impact on health of internalising the cost of carbon in food prices combined with a tax on sugar-sweetened beverages. BMC Public Health 16(1), 107. doi: 10.1186/s12889-016-2723-8.
Brown, ME, Antle, JM, Backlund, P, Carr, EG, Easterling, WE, Walsh, MK, Ammann, C, Attavanich, W, Barrett, CB, Bellemare, MF, Dancheck, V, Funk, C, Grace, K, Ingram, JSI, Jiang, H, Maletta, H, Mata, T, Murray, A, Ngugi, M, Ojima, D, O'Neill, B and Tebaldi, C (2015) Climate Change, Global Food Security, and the U.S. Food System. Report. Washington, DC: USDA Technical Document. doi: 10.7930/J0862DC7.
Byerlee, D, Stevenson, J and Villoria, N (2014) Does intensification slow crop land expansion or encourage deforestation? Global Food Security 3(2), 9298. doi: 10.1016/j.gfs.2014.04.001.
Challinor, AJ, Watson, J, Lobell, DB, Howden, SM, Smith, DR and Chhetri, N (2014) A meta-analysis of crop yield under climate change and adaptation. Nature Climate Change, Nature Publishing Group 4(4), 287291. doi: 10.1038/nclimate2153.
Clonan, A, Roberts, KE and Holdsworth, M (2016) Socioeconomic and demographic drivers of red and processed meat consumption: implications for health and environmental sustainability. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 2016/03/29, Cambridge University Press 75(3), 367373. doi: 10.1017/S0029665116000100.
Clune, S, Crossin, E and Verghese, K (2017) Systematic review of greenhouse gas emissions for different fresh food categories. Journal of Cleaner Production 140(Part), 766783. doi: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2016.04.082.
Coley, D, Howard, M and Winter, M (2009) Local food, food miles and carbon emissions: a comparison of farm shop and mass distribution approaches. Food Policy 34(2), 150.
Congreves, KA and Van Eerd, LL (2015) Nitrogen cycling and management in intensive horticultural systems. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 102(3), 299318. doi: 10.1007/s10705-015-9704-7.
Coulomb, D (2008) Refrigeration and cold chain serving the global food industry and creating a better future: two key IIR challenges for improved health and environment. Trends in Food Science & Technology 19(8), 413417. doi: 10.1016/j.tifs.2008.03.006.
De Pinto, A, Li, M, Haruna, A, Hyman, GG, Martinez, MAL, Creamer, B, Kwon, H-Y, Garcia, JBV, Tapasco, J and Martinez, JD (2016) Low emission development strategies in agriculture. An agriculture, forestry, and other land uses (AFOLU) perspective. World Development 87, 180203. doi: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2016.06.013.
Di, HJ and Cameron, KC (2016) Inhibition of nitrification to mitigate nitrate leaching and nitrous oxide emissions in grazed grassland: a review. Journal of Soils and Sediments 16(5), 14011420. doi: 10.1007/s11368-016-1403-8.
Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee (2015) Scientific Report of the 2015 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee. Available at
Eagle, AJ, Olander, LP, Henry, K, Haugen-kozyra, K, Millar, N and Robertston, G (2012) Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Potential of Agricultural Land Management in the United States. A Synthesis of the Literature. Durham, NC. Available at
Eshel, G, Shepon, A, Makov, T and Milo, R (2014) Land, irrigation water, greenhouse gas, and reactive nitrogen burdens of meat, eggs, and dairy production in the United States. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 111(33), 1199612001. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1402183111.
FAO (2011a) Food Losses, Global Food Waste—Extent, Causes and Prevention. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
FAO (2011b) World Livestock 2011- Livestock in Food Security. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization.
FAO (2013) Food Wastage Footprint Impact on Natural Resources: A Summary Report. Rome. Available at
Fischer, CG and Garnett, T (2016) Plates, pyramids, planet: developments in national healthy and sustainable dietary guidelines: a state of play assessment.
Foley, JA, Ramankutty, N, Brauman, KA, Cassidy, ES, Gerber, JS, Johnston, M, Mueller, ND, O'Connell, C, Ray, DK and West, PC (2011) Solutions for a cultivated planet. Nature 478(7369), 337342.
Foresight (2011) The Future of Food and Farming. London. Available at
Fusi, A, Castellani, V, Bacenetti, J, Cocetta, G, Fiala, M and Guidetti, R (2016) The environmental impact of the production of fresh cut salad: a case study in Italy. The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment 21(2), 162175. doi: 10.1007/s11367-015-1019-z.
Garnett, (2007) Food refrigeration: what is the contribution to greenhouse gas emissions and how might emissions be reduced.
Garnett, T (2011) Where are the best opportunities for reducing greenhouse gas emissions in the food system (including the food chain)? Food Policy 36(suppl.), S23S32. doi: 10.1016/j.foodpol.2010.10.010.
Gephart, JA, Davis, KF, Emery, KA, Leach, AM, Galloway, JN and Pace, ML (2016) The environmental cost of subsistence: optimizing diets to minimize footprints. Science of the Total Environment 553, 120127. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.02.050.
Global Methane Initiative (no date) Global Methane Emissions and Mitigation Opportunities. Available at
Global Research Alliance (2014) Reducing greenhouse gas emissions from livestock: best practice and emerging options. Available at
González, AD, Frostell, B and Carlsson-Kanyama, A (2011) Protein efficiency per unit energy and per unit greenhouse gas emissions: potential contribution of diet choices to climate change mitigation. Food Policy 36(5), 562570. doi: 10.1016/j.foodpol.2011.07.003.
Green, R, Milner, J, Dangour, AD, Haines, A, Chalabi, Z, Markandya, A, Spadaro, J and Wilkinson, P (2015) The potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the UK through healthy and realistic dietary change. Climatic Change 129(1), 253265. doi: 10.1007/s10584-015-1329-y.
Hanssen, OJ, Vold, M, Schakenda, V, Tufte, P-A, Møller, H, Olsen, NV and Skaret, J (2017) Environmental profile, packaging intensity and food waste generation for three types of dinner meals. Journal of Cleaner Production 142(Part), 395402. doi: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2015.12.012.
Heard, BR and Miller, SA (2016) Critical research needed to examine the environmental impacts of expanded refrigeration on the food system. Environmental Science & Technology, American Chemical Society 50(22), 1206012071. doi: 10.1021/acs.est.6b02740.
Heller, MC and Keoleian, GA (2003) Assessing the sustainability of the US food system: a life cycle perspective. Agricultural Systems 76(3), 1007.
Heller, MC and Keoleian, GA (2015) Greenhouse gas emission estimates of U.S. dietary choices and food loss. Journal of Industrial Ecology 19(3), 391401. doi: 10.1111/jiec.12174.
Hendrie, AG, Baird, D, Ridoutt, B, Hadjikakou, M and Noakes, M (2016) Overconsumption of energy and excessive discretionary food intake inflates dietary greenhouse gas emissions in Australia. Nutrients 8(11), 690. doi: 10.3390/nu8110690.
HLPE (2014) Food Losses and Waste in the Context of Sustainable Food Systems. Rome. Available at
Hoolohan, C, Berners-Lee, M, McKinstry-West, J and Hewitt, CN (2013) Mitigating the greenhouse gas emissions embodied in food through realistic consumer choices. Energy Policy 63, 10651074. doi: 10.1016/j.enpol.2013.09.046.
Hristov, AN, Ott, T, Tricarico, J, Rotz, A, Waghorn, G, Adesogan, A, Dijkstra, J, Montes, F, Oh, J, Kebreab, E, Oosting, SJ, Gerber, PJ, Henderson, B, Makkar, HPS and Firkins, JL (2013) SPECIAL TOPICS—mitigation of methane and nitrous oxide emissions from animal operations: III. A review of animal management mitigation options1. Journal of Animal Science, Madison, WI: American Society of Animal Science 91, 50955113. doi: 10.2527/jas.2013-6585.
Irz, X, Leroy, P, Réquillart, V and Soler, L-G (2016) Welfare and sustainability effects of dietary recommendations. Ecological Economics 130, 139155. doi: 10.1016/j.ecolecon.2016.06.025.
Jakob, M, Steckel, JC, Klasen, S, Lay, J, Grunewald, N, Martinez-Zarzoso, I, Renner, S and Edenhofer, O (2014) Feasible mitigation actions in developing countries. Nature Climate Change, Nature Publishing Group, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited. All Rights Reserved 4(11), 961968. doi: 10.1038/nclimate2370.
James, SJ and James, C (2010) The food cold-chain and climate change. Food Research International, Elsevier Ltd 43(7), 19441956. doi: 10.1016/j.foodres.2010.02.001.
James, SJ and James, C (2013) Sustainable cold chain. In Tiwari, BK, Norton, T and Holden, NM (eds). Sustainable Food Processing. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, pp. 463496. doi: 10.1002/9781118634301.ch19.
Jones, AD, Hoey, L, Blesh, J, Miller, L, Green, A and Shapiro, LF (2016) A systematic review of the measurement of sustainable diets. Advances in Nutrition: an International Review Journal 7(4), 641664. doi: 10.3945/an.115.011015.
Khan, ZR, Midega, CAO, Pittchar, JO, Murage, AW, Birkett, MA, Bruce, TJA and Pickett, JA (2014) Achieving food security for one million sub-Saharan African poor through push–pull innovation by 2020. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 369(1639). Available at
Kim, HC, Keoleian, GA and Horie, YA (2006) Optimal household refrigerator replacement policy for life cycle energy, greenhouse gas emissions, and cost. Energy Policy 34, 2310.
Knapp, JR, Laur, GL, Vadas, PA, Weiss, WP and Tricarico, JM (2014) Invited review: enteric methane in dairy cattle production: quantifying the opportunities and impact of reducing emissions. Journal of Dairy Science, Elsevier 97(6), 32313261. doi: 10.3168/jds.2013-7234.
Krause, MJ, Chickering, G W, Townsend, TG and Reinhart, DR (2016) Critical review of the methane generation potential of municipal solid waste. Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology, Taylor & Francis 46(13), 11171182. doi: 10.1080/10643389.2016.1204812.
Lampert, P, Soode, E, Menrad, K and Theuvsen, L (2016) Distributing asparagus: a climate perspective considering producer and consumer aspects. Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems, Taylor & Francis 40(2), 169186. doi: 10.1080/21683565.2015.1118718.
Ledgard, SF, Lieffering, M, Coup, D and O'Brien, B (2011) Carbon footprinting of New Zealand lamb from the perspective of an exporting nation. Animal Frontiers, Madison, WI: American Society of Animal Science 1, 4045. doi: 10.2527/af.2011-0010.
Lloyd, SJ, Kovats, RS and Chalabi, Z (2011) Climate change, crop yields, and undernutrition: development of a model to quantify the impact of climate scenarios on child undernutrition. Environmental Health Perspectives 119, 18171823.
Macdiarmid, JI (2013) Is a healthy diet an environmentally sustainable diet? Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 2012/11/28, Cambridge University Press 72(1), 1320. doi: 10.1017/S0029665112002893.
Mangalassery, S, Sjögersten, S, Sparkes, DL and Mooney, SJ (2015) Examining the potential for climate change mitigation from zero tillage. The Journal of Agricultural Science 153(7), 11511173.
Mason, P and Lang, T (2017) Sustainable Diets: How Ecological Nutrition Can Transform Consumption and the Food System, 1st edn. Oxon, UK and New York, NY: Routledge.
McDaniel, MD, Tiemann, LK and Grandy, AS (2014) Does agricultural crop diversity enhance soil microbial biomass and organic matter dynamics? A meta-analysis. Ecological Applications, Ecological Society of America 24(3), 560570. doi: 10.1890/13-0616.1.
Merrigan, K, Griffin, T, Wilde, P, Robien, K, Goldberg, J and Dietz, W (2015) Designing a sustainable diet. Science 350(6257), 165 LP165166. Available at
Milà i Canals, L, Cowell, SJ, Sim, S and Basson, L (2007) Comparing domestic versus imported apples: a focus on energy use. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 14(5), 338344.
Monsivais, P, Scarborough, P, Lloyd, T, Mizdrak, A, Luben, R, Mulligan, AA, Wareham, NJ and Woodcock, J (2015) Greater accordance with the dietary approaches to stop hypertension dietary pattern is associated with lower diet-related greenhouse gas production but higher dietary costs in the United Kingdom. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 102(1), 138145. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.114.090639.
Montes, F, Meinen, R, Dell, C, Rotz, A, Hristov, AN, Oh, J, Waghorn, G, Gerber, PJ, Henderson, B, Makkar, HPS and Dijkstra, J (2013) SPECIAL TOPICS—mitigation of methane and nitrous oxide emissions from animal operations: II. A review of manure management mitigation options1. Journal of Animal Science, Madison, WI: American Society of Animal Science 91, 50705094. doi: 10.2527/jas.2013-6584.
Myers, SS, Zanobetti, A, Kloog, I, Huybers, P, Leakey, ADB, Bloom, AJ, Carlisle, E, Dietterich, LH, Fitzgerald, G, Hasegawa, T, Holbrook, NM, Nelson, RL, Ottman, MJ, Raboy, V, Sakai, H, Sartor, KA, Schwartz, J, Seneweera, S, Tausz, M and Usui, Y (2014) Increasing CO2 threatens human nutrition. Nature, Nature Publishing Group 510(7503), 139142. doi: 10.1038/nature13179.
Nelson, GC, Rosegrant, MW, Koo, J, Robertson, R, Sulser, T, Zhu, T, Ringler, C, Msangi, S, Palazzo, A, Batka, M, Magalhaes, M, Valmonte-Santos, R, Ewing, M and Lee, D (2009) Climate Change: Impact on Agriculture and Costs of Adaptation. International Food Policy Research Institute. Available at
Nelson, ME, Hamm, MW, Hu, FB, Abrams, SA and Griffin, TS (2016) Alignment of healthy dietary patterns and environmental sustainability: a systematic review. Advances in Nutrition: an International Review Journal 7(6), 10051025. doi: 10.3945/an.116.012567.
Nemecek, T, Jungbluth, N, i Canals, LM and Schenck, R (2016) Environmental impacts of food consumption and nutrition: where are we and what is next? The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment 21(5), 607620. doi: 10.1007/s11367-016-1071-3.
Niles, MT, Ahuja, R, Esquivel, J, Mango, N, Duncan, M, Heller, M and Tirado, C (2017) Climate Change and Food Systems: Assessing Impacts and Opportunities. Available at
PACA (2013) Aflatoxin Impacts and Potential Solutions in Agriculture, Trade, and Health. Available at
Pairotti, MB, Cerutti, AK, Martini, F, Vesce, E, Padovan, D and Beltramo, R (2015) Energy consumption and GHG emission of the Mediterranean diet: a systemic assessment using a hybrid LCA-IO method. Journal of Cleaner Production 103, 507516. doi: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2013.12.082.
Paustian, K, Lehmann, J, Ogle, S, Reay, D, Robertson, GP and Smith, P (2016) Climate-smart soils. Nature, Nature Publishing Group, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited. All Rights Reserved 532(7597), 4957. doi: 10.1038/nature17174.
Payne, CLR, Scarborough, P and Cobiac, L (2016) Do low-carbon-emission diets lead to higher nutritional quality and positive health outcomes? A systematic review of the literature. Public Health Nutrition, 2016/03/15, Cambridge University Press 19(14), 26542661. doi: 10.1017/S1368980016000495.
Popkin, BM (2001) The nutrition transition and obesity in the developing world. The Journal of Nutrition 131(3), 871S873S. Available at
Popkin, BM, Adair, LS and Ng, SW (2012) Global nutrition transition and the pandemic of obesity in developing countries. Nutrition Reviews 70, 321. doi: 10.1111/j.1753-4887.2011.00456.x.
Popp, A, Lotze-Campen, H and Bodirsky, B (2010) Food consumption, diet shifts and associated non-CO2 greenhouse gases from agricultural production. Global Environmental Change 20(3), 451462. doi: 10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2010.02.001.
Porter, SD and Reay, DS (2016) Addressing food supply chain and consumption inefficiencies: potential for climate change mitigation. Regional Environmental Change 16(8), 22792290. doi: 10.1007/s10113-015-0783-4.
Porter, SD, Reay, DS, Higgins, P and Bomberg, E (2016) A half-century of production-phase greenhouse gas emissions from food loss & waste in the global food supply chain. Science of the Total Environment 571, 721729. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.07.041.
Pradhan, P, Reusser, DE and Kropp, JP (2013) Embodied greenhouse gas emissions in diets. PLoS ONE, Public Library of Science 8(5), e62228. doi: 10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0062228.
Quested, TE, Marsh, E, Stunell, D and Parry, AD (2013) Spaghetti soup: the complex world of food waste behaviours. Resources, Conservation and Recycling 79, 4351. doi: 10.1016/j.resconrec.2013.04.011.
Rezaei Rashti, M, Wang, W, Moody, P, Chen, C and Ghadiri, H (2015) Fertiliser-induced nitrous oxide emissions from vegetable production in the world and the regulating factors: a review. Atmospheric Environment 112, 225233. doi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2015.04.036.
Richards, M, Bruun, TB, Campbell, B, Gregersen, LE, Huyer, S, Kuntze, V, Madsen, STN, Oldvig, MB and Vasileiou, I (2016) How countries plan to address agricultural adaptation and mitigation: An analysis of Intended Nationally Determined Contributions. CCAFS dataset version 1.2. Copenhagen, Denmark: CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS).
Rippke, U, Ramirez-Villegas, J, Jarvis, A, Vermeulen, SJ, Parker, L, Mer, F, Diekkruger, B, Challinor, AJ and Howden, M (2016) Timescales of transformational climate change adaptation in sub-Saharan African agriculture. Nature Climate Change, Nature Publishing Group 6(6), 605609. doi: 10.1038/nclimate2947.
Rockström, J, Stordalen, GA and Horton, R (2017a) Acting in the anthropocene: the EAT–Lancet commission. The Lancet, Elsevier 387(10036), 23642365. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(16)30681-X.
Rockström, J, Williams, J, Daily, G, Noble, A, Matthews, N, Gordon, L, Wetterstrand, H, DeClerck, F, Shah, M, Steduto, P, de Fraiture, C, Hatibu, N, Unver, O, Bird, J, Sibanda, L and Smith, J (2017b) Sustainable intensification of agriculture for human prosperity and global sustainability. Ambio 46(1), 417. doi: 10.1007/s13280-016-0793-6.
Rothwell, A, Ridoutt, B, Page, G and Bellotti, W (2016) Environmental performance of local food: trade-offs and implications for climate resilience in a developed city. Journal of Cleaner Production 114(suppl. C), 420430. doi: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2015.04.096.
Sabaté, J, Sranacharoenpong, K, Harwatt, H, Wien, M and Soret, S (2015) The environmental cost of protein food choices. Public Health Nutrition, 2014/11/06, Cambridge University Press 18(11), 20672073. doi: 10.1017/S1368980014002377.
Saxe, H, Larsen, TM and Mogensen, L (2013) The global warming potential of two healthy Nordic diets compared with the average Danish diet. Climatic Change 116(2), 249262. doi: 10.1007/s10584-012-0495-4.
Scarborough, P, Allender, S, Clarke, D, Wickramasinghe, K and Rayner, M (2012) Modelling the health impact of environmentally sustainable dietary scenarios in the UK. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 66, 710715. doi: 10.1038/ejcn.2012.34.
Scarborough, P, Appleby, PN, Mizdrak, A, Briggs, ADM, Travis, RC, Bradbury, KE and Key, TJ (2014) Dietary greenhouse gas emissions of meat-eaters, fish-eaters, vegetarians and vegans in the UK. Climatic Change 125(2), 179192. doi: 10.1007/s10584-014-1169-1.
Schanes, K, Giljum, S and Hertwich, E (2016) Low carbon lifestyles: a framework to structure consumption strategies and options to reduce carbon footprints. Journal of Cleaner Production 139, 10331043. doi: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2016.08.154.
Schmidt Rivera, XC, Espinoza Orias, N and Azapagic, A (2014) Life cycle environmental impacts of convenience food: comparison of ready and home-made meals. Journal of Cleaner Production 73, 294.
Smith, P, Haberl, H, Popp, A, Erb, K, Lauk, C, Harper, R, Tubiello, FN, de Siqueira Pinto, A, Jafari, M, Sohi, S, Masera, O, Böttcher, H, Berndes, G, Bustamante, M, Ahammad, H, Clark, H, Dong, H, Elsiddig, EA, Mbow, C, Ravindranath, NH, Rice, CW, Robledo Abad, C, Romanovskaya, A, Sperling, F, Herrero, M, House, JI and Rose, S (2013) How much land-based greenhouse gas mitigation can be achieved without compromising food security and environmental goals? Global Change Biology 19(8), 22852302. doi: 10.1111/gcb.12160.
Smith, P, Bustamante, M, Ahmmad, H, Clark, H, Dong, H, Elsiddig, EA, Haberl, H, Harper, R, House, J, Jafari, M, Masera, O, Mbow, C, Ravindranath, NH, Rice, CW, Robledo Abad, C, Romanovskaya, A, Sperling, F and Tubiello, F (2014) Agriculture, forestry, and other land use (AFOLU). In Edenhofer, O, Pichs-Madruga, R, Sokona, Y, Farahani, E, Kadner, S, Seyboth, K, Adler, A, Baum, I, Brunner, S, Eickemeier, P, Kriemann, B, Savolainen, J, Schomer, S, von Stechow, C, Zwickel, T and Minx, JC (eds). Climate Change 2014: Mitigation of Climate Change. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge, UK; New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, pp. 811922. Available at
Sommer, R and Bossio, D (2014) Dynamics and climate change mitigation potential of soil organic carbon sequestration. Journal of Environmental Management 144, 8387. doi: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2014.05.017.
Springmann, M, Godfray, HCJ, Rayner, M and Scarborough, P (2016) Analysis and valuation of the health and climate change cobenefits of dietary change. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 113(15), 41464151. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1523119113.
Springmann, M, Mason-D/’Croz, D, Robinson, S, Wiebe, K, Godfray, HCJ, Rayner, M and Scarborough, P (2017) Mitigation potential and global health impacts from emissions pricing of food commodities. Nature Climate Change, Nature Publishing Group 7(1), 6974. doi: 10.1038/nclimate3155.
Stadelmann, M, Michaelowa, A and Roberts, JT (2013) Difficulties in accounting for private finance in international climate policy. Climate Policy, Taylor & Francis 13(6), 718737. doi: 10.1080/14693062.2013.791146.
Steckel, JC, Jakob, M, Flachsland, C, Kornek, U, Lessmann, K and Edenhofer, O (2017) From climate finance toward sustainable development finance. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 8(1), e437en/a. doi: 10.1002/wcc.437.
Swarts, N, Montagu, K, Oliver, G, Southam-Rogers, L, Hardie, M, Corkrey, R, Rogers, G and Close, D (2016) Benchmarking nitrous oxide emissions in deciduous tree cropping systems. Soil Research 54(5), 500511. doi: 10.1071/SR15326.
Tassou, S, De-Lille, G and Ge, Y (2009) Food transport refrigeration- approaches to reduce energy consumption and environmental impacts of road transport. Applied Thermal Engineering2 29(8), 14671477.
Temme, EHM, Bakker, HME, Seves, SM, Verkaik-Kloosterman, J, Dekkers, AL, van Raaij, JMA and Ocké, MC (2015) How may a shift towards a more sustainable food consumption pattern affect nutrient intakes of Dutch children? Public Health Nutrition, 2015/09/07, Cambridge University Press 18(13), 24682478. doi: 10.1017/S1368980015002426.
Thapa, R, Chatterjee, A, Awale, R, McGranahan, DA and Daigh, A (2016) Effect of enhanced efficiency fertilizers on nitrous oxide emissions and crop yields: a meta-analysis. Soil Science Society of America Journal, Madison, WI: The Soil Science Society of America, Inc. 80, 11211134. doi: 10.2136/sssaj2016.06.0179.
Thornton, PK, van de Steeg, J, Notenbaert, A and Herrero, M (2009) The impacts of climate change on livestock and livestock systems in developing countries: a review of what we know and what we need to know. Agricultural Systems 101, 113127. doi: 10.1016/j.agsy.2009.05.002.
Tilman, D and Clark, M (2014) Global diets link environmental sustainability and human health. Nature, Nature Publishing Group, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited. All Rights Reserved 515(7528), 518522. doi: 10.1038/nature13959.
Tilman, D and Clark, M (2015) Food, agriculture & the environment: can we feed the world & save the earth? Daedalus, MIT Press 144(4), 823. doi: 10.1162/DAED_a_00350.
Tirado, MC, Clarke, R, Jaykus, LA, McQuatters-Gollop, A and Frank, JM (2010) Climate change and food safety: a review. Food Research International, Elsevier Ltd 43(7), 17451765. doi: 10.1016/j.foodres.2010.07.003.
Tirado, MC, Crahay, P, Mahy, L, Zanev, C, Neira, M, Msangi, S, Brown, R, Scaramella, C, Coitinho, DC and Müller, A (2013) Climate change and nutrition: creating a climate for nutrition security. Food and Nutrition Bulletin, SAGE Publications Inc 34(4), 533547. doi: 10.1177/156482651303400415.
Tirado, MC, Hunnes, D, Cohen, MJ and Lartey, A (2015) Climate change and nutrition in Africa. Journal of Hunger & Environmental Nutrition, Taylor & Francis 10(1), 2246. doi: 10.1080/19320248.2014.908447.
van der Goot, AJ, Pelgrom, PJ, Berghout, JA, Geerts, ME, Jankowiak, L, Hardt, NA, Keijer, J, Schutyser, MAI, Nikiforidis, CV and Boom, RM (2016) Concepts for further sustainable production of foods. Journal of Food Engineering 168, 4251.
van Dooren, C, Marinussen, M, Blonk, H, Aiking, H and Vellinga, P (2014) Exploring dietary guidelines based on ecological and nutritional values: a comparison of six dietary patterns. Food Policy 44, 3646. doi: 10.1016/j.foodpol.2013.11.002.
Varanasi, A, Prasad, PVV and Jugulam, M (2016) Impact of climate change factors on weeds and herbicide efficacy. In Advances in Agronomy, pp. 107146. doi: 10.1016/bs.agron.2015.09.002.
Vermeulen, SJ, Campbell, BM and Ingram, JSI (2012) Climate change and food systems. Annual Review of Environment and Resources 37, 195222.
Vetter, SH, Sapkota, TB, Hillier, J, Stirling, CM, Macdiarmid, JI, Aleksandrowicz, L, Green, R, Joy, EJM, Dangour, AD and Smith, P (2017) Greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural food production to supply Indian diets: implications for climate change mitigation. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 237, 234241. doi: 10.1016/j.agee.2016.12.024.
Vieux, F, Darmon, N, Touazi, D and Soler, L (2012) Greenhouse gas emissions of self-selected individual diets in France: changing the diet structure or consuming less? Ecological Economics 75, 91101. doi: 10.1016/j.ecolecon.2012.01.003.
Vignola, R, Harvey, CA, Bautista-Solis, P, Avelino, J, Rapidel, B, Donatti, C and Martinez, R (2015) Ecosystem-based adaptation for smallholder farmers: definitions, opportunities and constraints. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 211(suppl. C), 126132. doi: 10.1016/j.agee.2015.05.013.
Vignola, R, Leclerc, G, Morales, M and Gonzalez, J (2017) Leadership for moving the climate change adaptation agenda from planning to action. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 26–27(suppl. C), 8489. doi: 10.1016/j.cosust.2017.03.005.
Vitousek, P, Naylor, R, Crews, T, David, MB, Drinkwater, LE, Holland, E, Johnes, PJ, Katzenberger, J, Martinelli, LA and Matson, PA (2009) Nutrient imbalances in agricultural development. Science 324(5934), 15191520. doi: 10.1126/science.1170261.
Wang, L (2013) Energy consumption and reduction strategies in food processing. In Tiwari, BK, Norton, T and Holden, NM (eds). Sustainable Food Processing. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Weaver, CM, Dwyer, J, Fulgoni, VL, King, JC, Leveille, GA, MacDonald, RS, Ordovas, J and Schnakenberg, D (2014) Processed foods: contributions to nutrition. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 99(6), 15251542. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.114.089284.
Weber, CL and Matthews, HS (2008) Food-miles and the relative climate impacts of food choices in the united states. Environmental Science & Technology 42(10), 35083513.
West, TO and Post, WM (2002) Soil organic carbon sequestration by tillage and crop rotation: a global data analysis. Soil Science Society of America Journal 66, 19301946.
Westhoek, H, Lesschen, JP, Rood, T, Wagner, S, De Marco, A, Murphy-Bokern, D, Leip, A, van Grinsven, H, Sutton, MA and Oenema, O (2014) Food choices, health and environment: effects of cutting Europe's meat and dairy intake. Global Environmental Change 26, 196205. doi: 10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2014.02.004.
Wilson, NLW, Rickard, BJ, Saputo, R and Ho, S-T (2017) Food waste: the role of date labels, package size, and product category. Food Quality and Preference 55, 3544. doi: 10.1016/j.foodqual.2016.08.004.
Yohe, GW, Lasco, RD, Ahmad, QK, Arnell, NW, Cohen, SJ and Hope, C (2007) Perspectives on climate change and sustainability. In Parry, ML, Canziani, OF, Palutikof, JP, van der Linden, PJ and Hanson, CE (eds). Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability, Contribution of Working Group ii to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernment Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, pp. 811841.
Zhang, H, Wu, J and Lu, P (2011) A study of the radiative forcing and global warming potentials of hydrofluorocarbons. Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer 112(2), 220229. doi: 10.1016/j.jqsrt.2010.05.012.


Related content

Powered by UNSILO

Climate change mitigation beyond agriculture: a review of food system opportunities and implications

  • Meredith T. Niles (a1), Richie Ahuja (a2), Todd Barker (a3), Jimena Esquivel (a4), Sophie Gutterman (a3), Martin C. Heller (a5), Nelson Mango (a6), Diana Portner (a3), Rex Raimond (a3), Cristina Tirado (a7) and Sonja Vermeulen (a8)...


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.