1Coughenour C.M. and Chamala S. 2000. Conservation Tillage and Cropping Innovation: Constructing the new Culture of Agriculture. Iowa State University Press, Ames, IA.
2Triplett G.B. and Dick W.A. 2008. No-tillage crop production: a revolution in agriculture! Agronomy Journal 100:S153–S165.
3Alvarez R. and Steinbach H.S. 2009. A review of the effects of tillage systems on some soil physical properties, water content, nitrate availability and crops yield in the Argentine Pampas. Soil and Tillage Research 104:1–15.
4Angers D.A., Bolinder M.A., Carter M.R., Gregorich E.G., Drury C.F., Liang B.C., Voroney R.P., Simard R.R., Donald R.G., Beyaert R.P., and Martel J. 1997. Impact of tillage practices on organic carbon and nitrogen storage in cool, humid soils of eastern Canada. Soil and Tillage Research 41:191–201.
5Carter M.R. 1992. Influence of reduced tillage systems on organic matter, microbial biomass, macro-aggregate distribution and stuctural staibility of the surface soil in a humid climate. Soil and Tillage Research 23:361–372.
6D'Haene K., Sleutel S., De Neve S., Gabriels D., and Hofman G. 2009. The effect of reduced tillage agriculture on carbon dynamics in silt loam soils. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 84:249–265.
7Doran J.W. 1980. Soil microbial and biochemical changes associated with reduced tillage. Soil Science Society of America Journal 44:765–771.
8Ernst G. and Emmerling C. 2009. Impact of five different tillage systems on soil organic carbon content and the density, biomass, and community composition of earthworms after a ten year period. European Journal of Soil Biology 45:247–251.
9Fabrizzi K.P., Rice C.W., Amado T.J.C., Fiorin J., Barbagelata P., and Melchiori R. 2009. Protection of soil organic C and N in temperate and tropical soils: effect of native and agroecosystems. Biogeochemistry 92:129–143.
10Hummel R.L., Walgenbach J.F., Hoyt G.D., and Kennedy G.G. 2002. Effects of production system on vegetable arthropods and their natural enemies. Agriculture Ecosystems and Environment 93:165–176.
11Kladivko E.J. 2001. Tillage systems and soil ecology. Soil and Tillage Research 61:61–76.
12Peigné J., Ball B.C., Roger-Estrade J., and David C. 2007. Is conservation tillage suitable for organic farming? A review. Soil Use and Management 23:129–144.
13Stinner B.R. and House G.J. 1990. Arthropods and other invertebrates in conservation-tillage agriculture. Annual Review of Entomology 35:299–318.
14Angers D.A., Bissonnette N., Légère A., and Samson N. 1993. Microbial and biochemical changes induced by rotation and tillage in soil under barley production. Canadian Journal of Soil Science 73:39–50.
15Cambardella C.A. and Elliott E.T. 1992. Particulate soil organic-matter changes across a grassland cultivation sequence. Soil Science Society of America Journal 56:777–783.
16Davidson E.A. and Ackerman I.L. 1993. Changes in soil carbon inventories following cultivation of previously untilled soils. Biogeochemistry 20:161–193.
17Gregorich E.G. and Janzen H.H. 1996. Storage of soil carbon in the light fraction and macroorganic matter. In Carter M.R. and Stewart B.A. (eds). Structure and Organic Matter Storage in Agricultural Soils. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, USA. p. 167–192.
18Six J., Elliott E.T., and Paustian K. 2000. Soil macroaggregate turnover and microaggregate formation: a mechanism for C sequestration under no-tillage agriculture. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 32:2099–2103.
19Dimitri C. and Greene C. 2002. Recent Growth Patterns in the U.S. Organic Foods Market. Agriculture Information Bulletin Number 777. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, Market and Trade Economics Division and Resource Economics Division, Washington, DC.
20Hughner R.S., McDonagh P., Prothero A., Shultz C.J. II, and Stanton J. 2007. Who are organic food consumers? A compilation and review of why people purchase organic food. Journal of Consumer Behavior 6:94–110.
21Letourneau D.K. and Bothwell S.G. 2008. Comparison of organic and conventional farms: challenging ecologists to make biodiversity functional. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 6:430–438.
22Berlin L., Lockeretz W., and Bell R. 2009. Purchasing foods produced on organic, small and local farms: a mixed method analysis of New England consumers. Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems 24:267–275.
23Govaerts B., Verhulst N., Castellanos-Navarrete A., Sayre K.D., Dixon J., and Dendooven L. 2009. Conservation agriculture and soil carbon sequestration: between myth and farmer reality. Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences 28:97–122.
24Pearson D., Henryks J., and Jones H. 2010. Organic food: what we know (and do not know) about consumers. Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems 26:171–177.
25Lu Y.C., Teasdale J.R., and Huang W.Y. 2003. An economic and environmental tradeoff analysis of sustainable agriculture cropping systems. Journal of Sustainable Agriculture 22:25–41.
26Munro T.L., Cook H.F., and Lee H.C. 2002. Sustainability indicators used to compare properties of organic and conventionally managed topsoils. Biological Agriculture and Horticulture 20:201–214.
27Koepke U. (ed.)2003. Conservation agriculture with and without agrochemical use. In Proceedings of the Second World Congress on Conservation Agriculture, Iguassu Falls, Paraná, Brazil. Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome.
28Nelson A.G., Froese J.C., and Entz M.H. 2010. Organic and conventional field crop soil and land management practices in Canada. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 90:339–343.
29Teasdale J.R., Coffman C.B., and Mangum R.W. 2007. Potential long-term benefits of no-tillage and organic cropping systems for grain production and soil improvement. Agronomy Journal 99:1297–1305.
30Araújo A.S.F., Leite L.F.C., Santos V.B., and Carneiro R.F.V. 2009. Soil microbial activity in conventional and organic agricultural systems. Sustainability 1:268–276.
31Bengtsson J., Ahnstrom J., and Weibull A.C. 2005. The effects of organic agriculture on biodiversity and abundance: a meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Ecology 42:261–269.
32Gerhardt R.A. 1997. A comparative analysis of the effects of organic and conventional farming systems on soil structure. Biological Agriculture and Horticulture 14:139–157.
33Pimentel D., Harvey C., Resosudarmo P., Sinclair K., Kurz D., McNair M., Crist S., Shpritz L., Fitton L., Saffouri R., and Blair R. 1995. Environmental and economic costs of soil erosion and conservation benefits. Science 267:1117–1123.
34Wander M.M., Hedrick D.S., Kaufman D., Traina S.J., Stinner B.R., Kehrmeyer S.R., and White D.C. 1995. The functional significance of the microbial biomass in organic and conventionally managed soils. Plant and Soil 170:87–97.
35Wander M.M., Traina S.J., Stinner B.R., and Peters S.E. 1994. Organic and conventional management effects on biologically active soil organic matter pools. Soil Science Society of America Journal 58:1130–1139.
36Erhart E. and Hartl W. 2009. Soil protection through organic farming: a review. In Lichtfouse E. (ed.). Organic Farming, Pest Control and Remediation of Soil Pollutants. Springer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands. p. 203–226.
37Berner A., Hildermann I., Fließbach A., Pfiffner L., Niggli U., and Mäder P. 2008. Crop yield and soil fertility response to reduced tillage under organic management. Soil and Tillage Research 101:89–96.
38Emmerling C. 2007. Reduced and conservation tillage effects on soil ecological properties in an organic farming system. Biological Agriculture and Horticulture 24:363–377.
39Krauss M., Berner A., Burger D., Wiemken A., Niggli U., and Mäder P. 2010. Reduced tillage in temperate organic farming: implications for crop management and forage production. Soil Use and Management 26:12–20.
40Peigné J., Védie H., Demeusy J., Gerber M., Vian J.F., Gautronneau Y., Cannavaccuiolo M., Aveline A., Giteau L.L., and Berry D. 2009. Techniques sans labour en agriculture biologique. Innovations Agronomiques 4:23–32.
41Vian J.F., Peigné J., Chaussod R., and Roger-Estrade J. 2009. Effects of four tillage systems on soil structure and soil microbial biomass in organic farming. Soil Use and Management 25:1–10.
42Lehocká Z., Klimeková M., Bieliková M., and Mendel L. 2009. The effect of different tillage systems under organic management on soil quality indicators. Agronomy Research 7(Special issue 1):369–373.
43Teasdale J.R. 2007. Strategies for soil conservation in no-tillage and organic farming systems. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 62:144A–147A.
44Kuepper G. 2001. Pursuing conservation tillage systems for organic crop production. Organic Matters. ATTRA National Sustainable Agriculture Information Service. National Center for Appropriate Technology, Butte, MT.
45Köpke U. (ed.)2008. Sustainable soil cultivation strategies: approaches in conventional and organic agriculture. ECOMIT: Proceedings of the 5th International Scientific Conference on Sustainable Farming Systems, November 5–7, 2008, Piešt'any, Slovakia. Slovak Association for Sustainable Agriculture, Považany, Slovakia.
46Schmidt H. 2008. Transfervorbereitende Evaluation und Kombination von Praxiserfahrungen und Forschungsergebnissen zu Konzepten reduzierter Bodenbearbeitung im Ökologischen Landbau. Stiftung Ökologie & Landbau, Bad Dürkheim, Germany.
47Schmidt H. 2010. Öko-Ackerbau ohne tiefes Pflügen: Praxisbeispiele und Forschungsergebnisse. Verlag Dr. Köster, Berlin, Germany.
48Teasdale J.R., Beste C.E., and Potts W.E. 1991. Response of weeds to tillage and cover crop residue. Weed Science 39:195–199.
49Sustainable Agriculture Network Handbook Series 9. 2007. Managing Cover Crops Profitably. 3rd ed.Sustainable Agriculture Network, Beltsville, MD.
50Haramoto E.R. and Gallandt E.R. 2004. Brassica cover cropping for weed management: a review. Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems 19:187–198.
51Lu Y.C., Watkins K.B., Teasdale J.R., and Abdul-Baki A.A. 2000. Cover crops in sustainable food production. Food Reviews International 16:121–157.
52Havlin J.L., Kissel D.E., Maddux L.D., Claassen M.M., and Long J.H. 1990. Crop rotation and tillage effects on soil organic carbon and nitrogen. Soil Science Society of America Journal 54:448–452.
53Kuo S., Sainju U.M., and Jellum E.J. 1997. Winter cover crop effects on soil organic carbon and carbohydrate in soil. Soil Science Society of America Journal 61:145–152.
54Ngouajio M. and McGiffen M.E. 2002. Going organic changes weed population dynamics. HortTechnology 12:590–596.
55Zinati G.M. 2002. Transition from conventional to organic farming systems: I. Challenges, recommendations, and guidelines for pest management. HortTechnology 12:606–610.
56Mirsky S.B., Lanyon L.E., and Needelman B.A. 2008. Evaluating soil management using particulate and chemically labile soil organic matter fractions. Soil Science Society of America Journal 72:180–185.
57Weil R.W., Islam K.R., Stine M., Gruver J.B., and Samson-Liebig S.E. 2003. Estimating active carbon for soil quality assessment: a simplified method for laboratory and field use. American Journal of Alternative Agriculture 18:3–17.
58Kaye J.P. and Hart S.C. 1997. Competition for nitrogen between plants and soil microorganisms. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 12:139–143.
59Cole C.V., Duxbury J., Freney J., Heinemeyer O., Minami K., Mosier A., Paustian K., Rosenberg N., Sampson N., Sauerbeck D., and Zhao Q. 1997. Global estimates of potential mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions by agriculture. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 49:221–228.
60Islam K.R. and Weil R.R. 2000. Land use effects on soil quality in a tropical forest ecosystem of Bangladesh. Agriculture Ecosystems and Environment 79:9–16.
61Reicosky D.C. and Archer D.W. 2007. Moldboard plow tillage depth and short-term carbon dioxide release. Soil and Tillage Research 94:109–121.
62Six J., Elliott E.T., and Paustian K. 1999. Aggregate and soil organic matter dynamics under conventional and no-tillage systems. Soil Science Society of America Journal 63:1350–1358.
63Pekrun C., Kaul H.-P., and Claupein W. 2003. Soil tillage for sustainable nutrient management. In El Titi A. (ed.). Soil Tillage in Agroecosystems. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. p. 83–113.
64Duiker S.W. and Beegle D.B. 2006. Soil fertility distributions in long-term no-till, chisel/disk and moldboard plow/disk systems. Soil and Tillage Research 88:30–41.
65Lal R. 1976. No-tillage effects on soil properties under different crops in western Nigeria. Soil Science Society of America Journal 40:762–768.
66Mathers N.J. and Nash D.M. 2009. Effects of tillage practices on soil and water phosphorus and nitrogen fractions in a chromosol at Rutherglen in Victoria, Australia. Australian Journal of Soil Research 47:46–59.
67Jabbour R. and Barbercheck M.E. 2009. Soil management effects on entomopathogenic fungi during the transition to organic agriculture in a feed grain rotation. Biological Control 51:435–443.
68Smith R.G., Barbercheck M.E., Mortensen D.A., Hyde J., and Hulting A.J. 2011. Yield and net returns during the transition to organic feed grain production. Agronomy Journal 103:51–59.
69Smith R.G., Jabbour R., Hulting A.J., Barbercheck M.E., and Mortensen D.A. 2009. Effects of initial seed-bank density on weed seedling emergence during the transition to an organic feed-grain crop rotation. Weed Science 57:533–540.
70National Organic Program. 2010. What is organic? U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC. Available at Web site http://www.ams.usda.gov/AMSv1.0/NOP (accessed 13 December 2010).
71Hamblin A.P. 1981. Filter-paper method for routine measurement of field water potential. Journal of Hydrology 53:355–360.
72Mehlich A. 1984. Mehlich 3 soil test extractant: a modification of Mehlich 2 extractant. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 15:1409–1416.
73Wolf A.M. and Beegle D.B. 1995. Recommended soil tests for macronutrients: phosphorus, potassium, calcium, and magnesium. In Sims J.T. and Wolf A. (eds). Recommended Soil Testing Procedures for the Northeastern United States, 2nd ed. Northeast Regional Bulletin No. 493. Agricultural Experiment Station, University of Delaware, Newark, DE. p. 25–34.
74Ross D. 1995. Recommended soil tests for determining soil cation exchange capacity. In Sims J.T. and Wolf A. (eds). Recommended Soil Testing Procedures for the Northeastern United States, 2nd ed. Northeast Regional Bulletin No. 493. Agricultural Experiment Station, University of Delaware, Newark, DE. p. 62–69.
75Schulte E.E. 1995. Recommended soil organic matter tests. In Sims J.T. and Wolf A. (eds). Recommended Soil Testing Procedures for the Northeastern United States, 2nd ed. Northeast Regional Bulletin No. 493. Agricultural Experiment Station, University of Delaware, Newark, DE. p. 47–56.
76Schumacher B.A. 2002. Methods for the determination of total organic carbon (TOC) in soils and sediments. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Report No. EPA/600/R-02/069 (NTIS PB2003-100822). U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.
77Kaye J.P., Binkley D., Zou X.M., and Parrotta J.A. 2002. Non-labile soil 15nitrogen retention beneath three tree species in a tropical plantation. Soil Science Society of America Journal 66:612–619.
78Vogeler I., Rogasik J., Funder U., Panten K., and Schnug E. 2009. Effect of tillage systems and P-fertilization on soil physical and chemical properties, crop yield and nutrient uptake. Soil and Tillage Research 103:137–143.
79Baumgartner K., Steenwerth K.L., and Veilleux L. 2008. Cover-crop systems affect weed communities in a California vineyard. Weed Science 56:596–605.