Skip to main content
×
Home

The potential of herbaceous native Australian legumes as grain crops: a review

  • Lindsay W. Bell (a1), Richard G. Bennett (a2), Megan H. Ryan (a2) and Heather Clarke (a3)
Abstract
Abstract

Many agricultural systems around the world are challenged by declining soil resources, a dry climate and increases in input costs. The cultivation of plants that are better adapted than current crop species to nutrient poor soils, a dry climate and low-input agricultural systems would aid the continued profitability and environmental sustainability of agricultural systems. This paper examines herbaceous native Australian legumes for their capacity to be developed as grain crops adapted to dry environments. The 14 genera that contain herbaceous species are Canavalia, Crotalaria, Cullen, Desmodium, Glycine, Glycyrrhiza, Hardenbergia, Indigofera, Kennedia, Lotus, Rhynchosia, Swainsona, Trigonella and Vigna. A number of these genera (e.g., Glycine, Crotalaria, Trigonella and Vigna) include already cultivated exotic grain legumes. Species were evaluated based on the extent to which their natural distribution corresponded to arid and semi-arid climatic regions, as well as the existing information on traits related to harvestability (uniformity of ripening, propensity to retain pod, pod shattering and growth habit), grain qualities (seed size, chemistry, color and the absence of toxins) and fecundity. Published data on seed yield were rare, and for many other traits information was limited. The Australian species of Vigna, Canavalia and Desmodium mainly have tropical distributions and were considered poorly suited for semi-arid temperate cropping systems. Of the remaining genera Glycyrrhiza and Crotalaria species showed many suitable traits, including an erect growth habit, a low propensity to shatter, flowers and fruits borne at the end of branches and moderate to large seeds (5 and 38 mg, respectively). The species for which sufficient information was available that were considered highest priority for further investigation were Glycine canescens, Cullen tenax, Swainsona canescens, Swainsona colutoides, Trigonella suavissima, Kennedia prorepens, Glycyrrhiza acanthocarpa, Crotalaria cunninghamii and Rhynchosia minima.

Copyright
Corresponding author
*Corresponding author: Lindsay.Bell@csiro.au
References
Hide All
1Brummer E.C. 1998. Diversity, stability, and sustainable agriculture. Agronomy Journal 90:12.
2Glover J.D. 2005. The necessity and possibility of perennial grain production systems. Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems 20:14.
3Matson P.A., Parton W.J., Power A.G., and Swift M.J. 1997. Agricultural intensification and ecosystem properties. Science 277:504.
4Bell L.W., Ewing M.A., and Wade L.J. 2010. Perennial wheat: a review of environmental and agronomic prospects for development in Australia. Crop and Pasture Science, in press.
5Cox T., Bender M., Picone C., Van Tassel D.L., Holland J.B., Brummer E.C., Zoeller B.E., Paterson A.H., and Jackson W. 2002. Breeding perennial grain crops. Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences 21:5991.
6Morris J.B. 1997. Special-purpose legume genetic resources conserved for agricultural, industrial, and pharmaceutical use. Economic Botany 51:251263.
7Lodge G.M. 1996. Temperate native Australian grass improvement by selection. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research 39:487497.
8Millington A.J. 1958. The potential of some native West Australian plants as pasture species. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 42:16.
9Britten E.J. and De Lacy I. 1979. Assessment of the genetic potential for pasture purposes of the Psoralea eriantha-patens complex, a native legume of the semiarid zone. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture and Animal Husbandry 19:5358.
10Cohen R.D.H. and Wilson G.P.M. 1981. Laboratory estimates of the nutritive value of some herbaceous native legumes. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture and Animal Husbandry 21:583587.
11Dear B.S., Li G.D., Hayes R.C., Hughes S.J., Charman N., and Ballard R.A. 2007. Cullen australasicum (syn. Psoralea australasica): a review and some preliminary studies related to its potential as a low rainfall perennial pasture legume. The Rangeland Journal 29:121132.
12Gutteridge R.C. and Whiteman P.C. 1975. Effect of defoliation frequency on growth and survival of four accessions of Psoralea eriantha. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture and Animal Husbandry 15:493497.
13Robinson K., Bell L.W., Bennett R.G., Henry D.A., Tibbett M., and Ryan M.H. 2007. Perennial legumes native to Australia—a preliminary investigation of nutritive value and response to cutting. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 47:170176.
14Lister P.R., Holford P., Haigh T., and Morrison D.A. 1996. Acacia in Australia: Ethnobotany and potential food crop. In Janick J. (ed.). Progress in New Crops. ASHS Press, Alexandria, VA. p. 228236.
15Davies C.L., Waugh D.L., and Lefroy E.C. 2005. Variation in seed yield and its components in the Australian native grass Microlaena stipoides as a guide to its potential as a perennial grain crop. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 56:309316.
16Rivett D.E., Tucker D.J., and Jones G.P. 1983. The chemical composition of seeds from some Australian plants. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 34:427432.
17Buirchell B.J. and Sweetingham M.W. 2006. Lupin genetic improvement for targeted environments and markets. In 13th Australian Society of Agronomy Conference, Perth, Western Australia. Australian Society of Agronomy. Available at Web site http://www.regional.org.au/au/asa/2006/plenary/environment/4808_buirchellb.htm#TopOfPage&rsquo (accessed August 7, 2010).
18Berger J.D., Adhikari K.N., Wilkinson D., Buirchell B.J., and Sweetingham M.W. 2008. Ecogeography of the Old World lupins. 1. Ecotypic variation in yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus L.). Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 59:691701.
19Kulakow P., Benson L., and Vail J. 1990. Prospects for domesticating Illinois bundleflower. In Janick J. and Simon J. (eds). Advances in New Crops. Timber Press, Portland, OR. p. 168171.
20Vaughan D.A., Balazs E., and Heslop-Harrison J.S. 2007. From crop domestication to super-domestication. Annals of Botany 100:893901.
21Fuller D.Q. 2007. Contrasting patterns in crop domestication and domestication rates: recent archaeobotanical insights from the old world. Annals of Botany 100:903924.
22Brand-Miller J.C. and Holt S.H.A. 1998. Australian Aboriginal plant foods: a consideration of their nutritional composition and health implications. Nutrition Research Reviews 11:5–23.
23Casas A., Otero-Arnaiz A., Perez-Negron E., and Valiente-Banuet A. 2007. In situ management and domestication of plants in Mesoamerica. Annals of Botany 100:11011115.
24Erskine W., Smartt J., and Muehlbauer F. 1994. Mimicry of lentil and the domestication of common vetch and grass pea. Economic Botany 48:326332.
25Hartman G.L., Wang T.C., and Hymowitz T. 1992. Sources of resistance to soybean rust in perennial Glycine species. Plant Disease 76:396399.
26Singh B.B., Gupta C.C., and Singh B.D. 1974. Sources of field resistance to rust and yellow mosaic diseases in soybean. Indian Journal of Genetics and Plant Breeding 34:400404.
27Martyn A., Tyler J., Offord C., and McConchie R. 2003. Swainsona sejuncta: a species of ornamental promise or a potential weed? Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 43:13691381.
28Australian Vertual Herbarium. 2008. [Online Database]. Centre for Plant Biodiversity Research. Available at Web site http://www.chah.gov.au/apc/index.html
29Hutchinson M.F., McIntyre S., Hobbs R.J., Stein J.L., Garnett S., and Kinloch J. 2005. Integrating a global agro-climatic classification with bioregional boundaries in Australia. Global Ecology and Biogeography 14:197212.
30Weeden N.F. 2007. Genetic changes accompanying the domestication of Pisum sativum: is there a common genetic basis to the ‘domestication syndrome’ for legumes? Annals of Botany 100:10171025.
31Smartt J. 1976. Comparative evolution of pulse crops. Euphytica 25:337339.
32Bailey M.A., Mian M.A.R., Carter T.E. Jr., Ashley D.A., and Boerma H.R. 1997. Pod dehiscence of soybean: identification of quantitative trait loci. Journal of Heredity 88:152154.
33Garcia-Diaz C.A. and Steiner J.J. 2000. Birdsfoot trefoil seed production: III. Seed shatter and optimal harvest time. Crop Science 40:457462.
34Leishman M.R., Wright I.J., Moles A.T., and Westoby M. 2000. Chapter 2—The Evolutionary Ecology of Seed Size. In Fenner M. (ed.). Seeds: The Ecology of Regeneration in Plant Communities. CAB International, Wallingford, UK. p. 3157.
35Cowling W., Buirchell B., and Tapia M. 1988. Lupin Lupinus L. International Plant Genetic Resources Institute, Rome, Italy.
36Bourgaud F., Allard N., Forlot P., and Guckert A. 1990. Study of two pharmaceutically useful Psoralea (Leguminosae) species: influence of inoculation on growth, grain and dry matter yield. Agronomie 10:18.
37Setchell K.D. 1998. Phytoestrogens: the biochemistry, physiology, and implications for human health of soy isoflavones. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 68:1333S1346S.
38Lin R., Renshaw D., Luckett D., Clements J., Yan G., Adhikari K., Buirchell B., Sweetingham M., and Yang H. 2009. Development of a sequence-specific PCR marker linked to the gene ‘pauper’ conferring low-alkaloids in white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) for marker assisted selection. Molecular Breeding 23:153161.
39Jermyn M.A. 1985. Endemic Australian legumes as possible crop plants - preliminary studies with Erythrina vespertilio and other leguminous seeds. In Jones G.P. (ed.). The Food Potential of Seeds from Australian Native Plants. Deakin University Press, Geelong, Australia. p. 93–118.
40Belmar R. and Morris T.R. 1994. Effects of raw and treated jack beans (Canavalia ensiformis) and canavanine on the short-term feed intake of chicks and pigs. Journal of Agricultural Science (Cambridge) 123:407414.
41Rüdiger H. and Gabius H.-J. 2001. Plant lectins: occurrence, biochemistry, functions and applications. Glycoconjugate Journal 18:589613.
42Sridhar K. and Seena S. 2006. Nutritional and antinutritional significance of four unconventional legumes of the genus Canavalia—a comparative study. Food Chemistry 99:267288.
43Legume Web—ILDIS World Database of Legumes version 10. 2008 [updated November 6, 2008; cited]. Available at Web site http://www.ildis.org/LegumeWeb
44The Australian Arid Lands Botanic Garden. 2008[updated 2008; cited January 12, 2010]. Available at Web site http://www.australian-aridlands-botanic-garden.org/general/plants/plant0.htm
45Cunningham G., Mulham W., Milthorpe P., and Leigh J. 1981. Plants of Western New South Wales. Soil Conservation Service of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia.
46PlantNET—The Plant Information Network System of Botanic Gardens Trust. Botanic Gardens Trust, Sydney, Australia; 2010 [updated 2010, February 4, 2010; cited]. Available at Web site http://plantnet.rbgsyd.nsw.gov.au
47Everist S.L. 1974. Poisonous Plants of Australia. Angus & Robertson, Sydney.
48Crib A.B. and Crib J.W. 1976. Wild Food in Australia. Fontana, Collins, Australia.
49Grimes J.W. 1997. A revision of Cullen (Leguminosae: Papilionoideae). Australian Systematic Botany 10:565648.
50Burbridge N.T. 1980. Psoralea pallida, a new species of Fabaceae from arid Australia. Telopea 2:127128.
51Bennett R.G., Ryan M.H., Colmer T.D., and Real D. 2010. Prioritisation of novel pasture species for use in water-limited agriculture: a case study of Cullen in the western Australian wheatbelt. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution, in press.
52Suriyagoda L.D.B., Ryan M.H., Renton M., and Lambers H. 2010. Multiple adaptive responses of Australian native perennial legumes with pasture potential to grow in phosphorus- and moisture-limited environments. Annals of Botany 105:755767.
53Kerridge P.C. and Skerman P.J. 1968. The distribution and growth characteristics of the native legume Psoralea eriantha in Western Queensland. Tropical Grasslands 2:4150.
54Britten E.J. and De Lacy I.H. 1977. Comparative photoperiod response of different accessions in the P. eriantha-patens group of the legume genus Psoralea. In 3rd International Congress of the Society for the Advancement of Breeding Researches in Asia and Oceania (SABRAO), Canberra, Australia. p. 2226.
55Britten E.J. and Dundas I.S. 1985. A dimorphic pollination system in a potentially valuable semiarid pasture legume, the Psoralea patens complex. In Proceedings of the XV International Grassland Congress, August 24–31, 1985, Kyoto, Japan. Science Council of Japan and Japanese Society of Grassland Science, Nishi-nasuno, Tochigi, Japan. p. 209210.
56Kroiss L., Moody M., Barker S.J., Byrne M., and Ryan M. 2009. Development, characterization and transferability of microsatellite markers for Cullen australasicum (Leguminosae). Conservation Genetics 10:18031805.
57Silcock R.G. and Smith F.T. 1990. Viable seed retention under field conditions by western Queensland pasture species. Tropical Grasslands 24:6574.
58Skerman P.J. 1957. Bullamon lucerne (Psoralea eriantha Benth) A plant worth watching. Journal of the Australian Institute of Agricultural Science 23:337339.
59Innocenti G., Bourgaud F., Piovan A., and Favretto D. 1997. Furocoumarins and other secondary metabolites from Psoralea canescens. International Journal of Pharmacognosy: A Journal of Crude Drug Research 35:232236.
60Innocenti G., Piovan A., Filippini R., Caniato R., and Cappelletti E.M. 1997. Quantitative recovery of furanocoumarins from Psoralea bituminosa. Phytochemical Analysis 8:8486.
61Nguyen C., Bouque V., Bourgaud F., and Guckert A. 1997. Quantification of daidzein and furanocoumarin conjugates of Psoralea cinerea L. (Leguminosae) . Phytochemical Analysis 8:2731.
62Innocenti G., Dall'Acqua F., Guiotto A. and Caporale G. 1977. Investigation of skin-photosensitizing activity of various kinds of Psoralea. Planta Medica 31:151155.
63Raghav C.S., Kidwai M.A., Singh B.M., Suneja P., Mohan J., Kumar A., Pareek S.K., Singh M., and Somayajulu K.K. 2003. Agronomical and chemical evaluation of babchi (Cullen corylifolia) germplasm. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences 73:567569.
64Innocenti G., Cappelletti E.M., and Caporale G. 1984. Morphological and chemical characteristics of some Australian Psoralea species. International Journal of Crude Drug Research 22:97–109.
65Bouque V., Bourgaud F., Nguyen C., and Guckert A. 1998. Production of daidzein by callus cultures of Psoralea species and comparison with plants. Plant Cell Tissue and Organ Culture 53:3540.
66Kao W.Y., Tsai T.T., and Shih C.N. 2003. Photosynthetic gas exchange and chlorophyll a-fluorescence of three wild soybean species in response to NaCl treatments. Photosynthetica 41:415419.
67Hart S.E., Glenn S., and Kenworthy W.W. 1991. Tolerance and the basis for selectivity to 2,4-D in perennial Glycine species. Weed Science 39:535539.
68Burdon J. 1988. Major gene resistance to Phakopsora pachyrhizi in Glycine canescens, a wild relative of soybean. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 75:923928.
69Jones R.M., Brown A.H.D., and Coote J.N. 1996. Variation in growth and forage quality of Glycine latifolia (Benth.) Newell and Hymowitz. Genetic Resources Communication 26:111.
70Pang J., Tibbett M., Denton M.D., Lambers H., Siddique K.H.M., Bolland M.D.A., Revell C.K., and Ryan M.H. 2010. Variation in seedling growth of 11 perennial legumes in response to phosphorus supply. Plant and Soil 328:133143.
71Kenworthy W.J., Brown A.H.D., and Thibou G.A. 1989. Variation in flowering response to photoperiod in perennial Glycine species. Crop Science 29:678682.
72Lin S.J., Lay H.L., Wu S.T., and Thseng F.S. 2005. Contents of certain isoflavones in Glycine dolichocarpa, G. tabacina and G. tomentella collected in Taiwan. Journal of Food and Drug Analysis 13:260266.
73Vaughan D.A. and Hymowitz T. 1984. Leaf flavonoids of Glycine subgenus Glycine in relation to systematics. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 12:189192.
74Aplin T.E.H. and Cannon J.R. 1970. Distribution of alkaloids in some Western Australian plants. Economic Botany 25:366380.
75Li G.D., Lodge G.M., Moore G.A., Craig A.D., Dear B.S., Boschma S.P., Albertsen T.O., Miller S.M., Harden S., Hayes R.C., Hughes S.J., Snowball R., Smith A.B., and Cullis B.C. 2008. Evaluation of perennial pasture legumes and herbs to identify species with high herbage production and persistence in mixed farming zones in southern Australia. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 48:449466.
76Ross I.A. 2001. Medicinal Plants of the World Vol. 2: Chemical Constituents, Traditional and Modern Uses. Humana Press Inc., Totowa, NJ.
77Wilson P. and Wilson M. 2006. Chapter 3—Seed and fruit structure. In Seedman L. and Merritt D. (eds). Australian Seeds—A Guide to their Collection, Identification and Biology. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia. p. 1119.
78Aylward J.H., Court R.D., Haydock K.P., Strickland R.W., and Hegarty M.P. 1987. Indigofera species with agronomic potential in the tropics. Rat toxicity studies . Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 38:177186.
79Gracie A. 1996. Agnote 657. Birdsville Disease. Northern Territory Department of Primary Industries, Darwin, Australia.
80GRIN (Germplasm Resources Information Network), Beltsville, MD: USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program [cited]. Available at Web site http://www.ars-grin.gov/ (accessed August 7, 2010).
81Cocks P.S. 2001. Ecology of herbaceous perennial legumes: a review of characteristics that may provide management options for the control of salinity and waterlogging in dryland cropping systems. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 52:137151.
82Silsbury J.H. 1952. Studies in the Genus Kennedya (vent.) with a view to its development as a pasture legume [Honours]. University of Western Australia.
83Silsbury J.H. 1958. Agricultural potentialities of the genus Kennedya Vent. in Western Australia. Journal of the Australian Institute of Agricultural Science 24:237242.
84Silsbury J.H. and Brittan N.H. 1955. Distribution and ecology of the genus Kennedya [i.e. Kennedia] Vent. in Western Australia. Australian Journal of Botany 3:113135.
85Hocking P.J. 1980. The mineral nutrition of developing fruits of Kennedia prostrata R. Br. Ex Ait., a perennial Australian legume. Australian Journal of Botany 28:633644.
86Hocking P.J. and Kortt A.A. 1987. Growth and nutrient accumulation by fruits of the perennial legume, Hardenbergia violacea, with special reference to myrmecochory. New Phytologist 105:89–102.
87Clements J.C., Dracup M., Buirchell B.J. and Smith C.G. 2005. Variation for hull and pod wall percentage and other traits in a germplasm collection and historical cultivars of lupins. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 56:7583.
88Moles A.T., Warton D.I. and Westoby M. 2003. Seed size and survival in the soil in arid Australia. Austral Ecology 28:575585.
89Real D., Sandral G., Warden J., Nutt L., Bennett R., and Kidd D. 2005. Breeding Lotus australis Andrews for low cyanide content. In XX International Grasslands Congress: Offered Papers, Dublin, Ireland. Wageningen Academic Publishers, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
90Gebrehiwot L. and Beuselinck P.R. 2001. Seasonal variations in hydrogen cyanide concentration of three Lotus species. Agronomy Journal 93:603608.
91Harding W.A.T., Pengelly B.C., Cameron D.G., Pedley L., and Williams R.J. 1989. Classification of a diverse collection of Rhynchosia and some allied species. Genetic Resources Communication No. 13. CSIRO Division of Tropical Crops and Pastures, Brisbane, Australia.
92Florabase—The Western Australian Flora. Western Australian Herbarium, Department of Environment and Conservation; 1998 [updated 1998; cited]; Available at Web site http://florabase.dec.wa.gov.au/
93Brand J. and Cherikoff V. 1985. Nutrients in native plants 1. In Jones G.P. (ed.). The Food Potential of Seeds from Australian Native Plants. Deakin University Press, Geelong, Australia. p. 3145.
94Gardiner M.R., Linto A.C., and Applin T.E.H. 1969. Toxicity of Swainsona canescens for sheep in Western Australia. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 20:8797.
95Halloran G.M. and Pennell A.L. 1981. Distribution and variability in development of the genus Trigonella in Asia Minor and its possible use in Australian environments. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 32:793800.
96Acharya S., Srichamroen A., Basu S., Ooraikul B., and Basu T. 2006. Improvement in the nutraceutical properties of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.). Nutraceutical and Functional Food 28:19.
97McCormick K., Norton R., and Eagles H. 2009. Phenotypic variation within a fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) germplasm collection. II. Cultivar selection based on traits associated with seed yield. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 56:651661.
98Hymowitz T. 1990. Grain Legumes. In Janick J. and Simon J. (eds). Advances in New Crops. Timber Press, Portland, OR. p. 5457.
99Rogers M.E., Craig A.D., Munns R.E., Colmer T.D., Nichols P.G.H., Malcolm C.V., Barrett-Lennard E.G., Brown A.J., Semple W.S., Evans P.M., Cowley K., Hughes S.J., Snowball R., Bennett S.J., Sweeney G.C., Dear B.S., and Ewing M.A. 2005. The potential for developing fodder plants for the salt-affected areas of southern and eastern Australia: an overview. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 45:301329.
100Dear B.S., Moore G.A., and Hughes S.J. 2003. Adaptation and potential contribution of temperate perennial legumes to the southern Australian wheatbelt: a review. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 43:118.
101Bordia A., Verma S.K., and Srivastava K.C. 1997. Effect of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) and fenugreek (Trigonella foenumgraecum L.) on blood lipids, blood sugar and platelet aggregation in patients with coronary artery disease. Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids 56:379384.
102Lawn R.J. and Watkinson A.R. 2002. Habitats, morphological diversity, and distribution of the genus Vigna Savi in Australia. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 53:13051316.
103Lawn R.J. and Holland A.E. 2003. Variation in the Vigna lanceolata complex for traits of taxonomic, adaptive or agronomic interest. Australian Journal of Botany 51:295307.
104Lawn R.J. and Rebetzke G.J. 2006. Variation among Australian accessions of the wild mungbean (Vigna radiata ssp. sublobata) for traits of agronomic, adaptive, or taxonomic interest. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 57:119132.
105Grant T., Lawn R.J., and Bielig L.M. 2003. Variation among Australian accessions of Vigna vexillata for traits of agronomic, adaptive, or taxonomic interest. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 54:243250.
106Rebetzke G.J. and Lawn R.J. 2006. Adaptive responses of wild mungbean (Vigna radiata ssp. sublobata) to photo-thermal environment. II. Growth, biomass, and seed yield. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 57:929937.
107Hughes S.J., Snowball R., Reed K.F.M., Cohen B., Gajda K., Williams A.R., and Groeneweg S.L. 2008. The systematic collection and characterisation of herbaceous forage species for recharge and discharge environments in southern Australia. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 48:397408.
108Jurado E., Westoby M., and Nelson D. 1991. Diaspore weight, dispersal, growth form and perenniality of central Australian plants. Journal of Ecology 79:811828.
109Auld T.D. and O'Connell M.A. 1991. Predicting patterns of post-fire germination in 35 eastern Australian Fabaceae. Austral Ecology 16:5370.
110McDonald C.K. 2002. Germination response to temperature in tropical and subtropical pasture legumes. 1. Constant temperature. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 42:407419.
111Bell D.T., Rokich D.P., McChesney C.J., and Plummer J.A. 1995. Effects of temperature, light and gibberellic acid on the germination of seeds of 43 species native to Western Australia. Journal of Vegetation Science 6:797806.
112Denton M.D., Sasse C., Tibbett M., and Ryan M.H. 2006. Root distributions of Australian herbaceous perennial legumes in response to phosphorus placement. Functional Plant Biology 33:10911102.
113James A.T. and Lawn R.J. 1991. Inheritance of selected traits in accessions of Vigna vexillata (L) A. Rich of Australian and African origin. Australian Journal of Botany 39:415429.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems
  • ISSN: 1742-1705
  • EISSN: 1742-1713
  • URL: /core/journals/renewable-agriculture-and-food-systems
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 7
Total number of PDF views: 41 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 314 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 18th November 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.