Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 8
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Abdelazim, Ibrahim A. Abdelrazak, Khaled M. Al-Kadi, Mohamed Yehia, Amr H. Nusair, Bassam M. Sami and Faza, Mohannad Abu 2014. Effect of raloxifene hydrochloride on bone mineral density and bone turnover in Kuwaiti postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Archives of Osteoporosis, Vol. 9, Issue. 1,


    COMPSTON, J. E. 2007. osteoporosis, corticosteroids and inflammatory bowel disease. Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, Vol. 9, Issue. 3, p. 237.


    Davis, Susan R. OʼNeill, Sheila M. Eden, John Baber, Rodney Ekangaki, Abie Stocks, Jodie M. and Thiebaud, Daniel 2004. Transition from estrogen therapy to raloxifene in postmenopausal women: effects on treatment satisfaction and the endometrium—a pilot study. Menopause, Vol. 11, Issue. 2, p. 167.


    Blanchet, C. Giguère, Y. Prud’homme, D. Turcot-Lemay, L. Dumont, M. Leduc, G. Côte, S. Laflamme, N. Rousseau, F. and Dodin, S. 2003. Leisure Physical Activity is Associated with Quantitative Ultrasound Measurements Independently of Bone Mineral Density in Postmenopausal Women. Calcified Tissue International, Vol. 73, Issue. 4, p. 339.


    O'Neill, S. M. Eden, J. Baber, R. Ekangaki, A. Stocks, J. M. Wolthers, T. and Davis, S. R. 2003. Transition to raloxifene with and without low-dose estrogen therapy in postmenopausal women: effects on serum lipids and fibrinogen - a pilot study. Climacteric, Vol. 6, Issue. 4, p. 347.


    DAVIES, GRAHAM C. HUSTER, WILLIAM J. LU, YILI PLOUFFE, LEO and LAKSHMANAN, MARK 1999. Adverse Events Reported by Postmenopausal Women in Controlled Trials With Raloxifene. Obstetrics & Gynecology, Vol. 93, Issue. 4, p. 558.


    Compston, Juliet E. 1997. 7 Hormone replacement therapy. Baillière's Clinical Rheumatology, Vol. 11, Issue. 3, p. 583.


    Hänggi, Willy Bersinger, Niklaus Altermatt, Hans Jörg and Birkhäuser, Martin Hans 1997. Comparison of transvaginal ultrasonography and endometrial biopsy in endometrial surveillance in postmenopausal HRT users. Maturitas, Vol. 27, Issue. 2, p. 133.


    ×

Hormone replacement therapy for osteoporosis: clinical and pathophysiological aspects

  • JE Compston (a1)
  • DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0962279900000880
  • Published online: 01 March 2009
Abstract

The pathogenetic role of oestrogen deficiency in osteoporosis was first postulated by Fuller Albright in 1941 and has subsequently become well established. Hormone replacement therapy prevents menopausal bone loss and is the only treatment which has convincingly been shown to reduce fracture risk at both the spine and hip. The mechanisms by which oestrogens affect bone, however, are poorly understood and many aspects of treatment remain ill-defined, in particular with respect to the duration of therapy and its long-term risks and benefits.

Copyright
Corresponding author
JE Compston, Department of Medicine, University of Cambridge Clinical School, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge CB2 2QQ, UK
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

1F Albright , PH Smith , AM Richardson . Postmenopausal osteoporosis. JAMA 1941; 116: 2465–74.

3LJ Melton , EA Chrischilles , C Cooper , AW Lane , BL Riggs . Perspective. How many women have osteoporosis? J Bone Miner Res 1992; 7: 10051010.

4JA Kanis , FA Pitt . Epidemiology of osteoporosis. Bone 1992; 13 (suppl 1): 715.

5O Schaadt , H Bohr . Different trends of age-related diminution of bone mineral content in the lumbar spine, femoral neck and femoral shaft in women. Calcif Tissue Int 1988; 42: 7176.

6BL Riggs , HW Wahner , LJ Melton , LS Richelson , HL Judd , KP Offord . Rates of bone loss in the appendicular and axial skeletons of women. Evidence of substantial vertebral bone loss before menopause. J Clin Invest 1986; 77: 1487–91.

7A Rodin , B Murby , MA Smith Premenopausal bone loss in the lumbar spine and neck of femur: a study of 225 Caucasian women. Bone 1990; 11: 15.

8CE Cann , HK Genant , FO Kolbo , B Ettinger . Quantitative computed tomography for prediction of vertebral fracture risk. Bone 1985; 6: 17.

10PJM Elders , JC Netelenbos , P Lips , FC van Ginkel , PF van der Stelt . Accelerated vertebral bone loss in relation to the menopause: a cross-sectional study on lumbar bone density in 286 women of 46–55 years of age. Bone Miner 1988; 5: 1119.

11L Nilas , C Christiansen . Rates of bone loss in normal women: evidence of accelerated trabecular bone loss after the menopause. Eur J Clin Invest 1988; 18: 529–34.

12HK Genant , CE Cann , B Ettinger , SG Gilbert . Quantitative computed tomography of vertebral spongiosa: a sensitive method for detecting early bone loss after oophorectomy. Ann Intern Med 1982; 97: 699705.

16SL Hui , CW Slemenda , CC Johnston . The contribution of bone loss to postmenopausal osteoporosis. Osteoporos Int 1990; 1: 3034.

17NA Rigotti , SR Nussbaum , DB Herzog , RM Neer . Osteoporosis in women with anorexia nervosa. N Engl J Med 1984; 311: 1601–606.

18RM Shore , RW Chesney , RB Mazess , PG Rose , GJ Bergman . Skeletal demineralisation in Turner's syndrome. Calcif Tissue Int 1982; 34: 519–22.

19A Klibanski , SL Greenspan . Increase in bone mass after treatment of hyperprolactinaemic amenorrhoea. N Engl J Med 1986; 315: 542–46.

20BL Drinkwater , K Nilson , CH Chestnut , WJ Bremmer , S Shainholtz , MB Southworth . Bone mineral content of amenorrhoeic and eumenorrhoeic athletes. N Engl J Med 1984; 311: 277–81.

21WH Matta , RW Shaw , R Hesp , R Evans . Reversible trabecular bone density loss following induced hypo-oestrogenism with the GnRH analogue buserelin in premenopausal women. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 1988; 29: 4551.

23S Murphy , K-T Khaw , JE Compston . Lack of relationship between hip and spine bone mineral density and oral contraceptive use. Eur J Clin Invest 1993; 23: 108–11.

26C Christiansen , MS Christensen , PL McNair , C Hagen , KE Stocklund , I Transbol . Prevention of early postmenopausal bone loss: conducted 2-year study in 315 normal females. Eur J Clin Invest 1980; 10: 273–79.

27B Ettinger , HK Genant , CE Cann . Long-term oestrogen replacement therapy prevents bone loss and fractures. Ann Intern Med 1985; 102: 319–24.

28C Christiansen , BJ Riis . 17β-estradiol and continuous norethisterone: a unique treatment for established osteoporosis in elderly women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1990; 71: 836–41.

30JC Gallagher , WT Kable , D Goldgar . Effect of progestin therapy on cortical and trabecular bone: comparison with estrogen. Am J Med 1991; 90: 171–78.

32NS Weiss , CL Ure , JH Ballard , AR Williams , JR Daling . Decreased risk of fractures of the hip and lower forearm with postmenopausal use of estrogens. N Engl J Med 1980; 303: 1195–98.

33A Paganini-Hill , RK Ross , VR Gerkins , BE Henderson , M Arthur , TM Mack . Menopausal estrogen therapy and hip fractures. Ann Intern Med 1981; 95: 2831.

34DP Kiel , DT Felson , JJ Anderson , PWF Wilson , MA Moskowitz . Hip fracture and the use of estrogens in postmenopausal women: the Framingham study. N Engl J Med 1987; 317: 1169–74.

35T Naessen , I Persson , H-O Adami , R Bergstrom , L Bergkvist . Hormone replacement therapy and risk for first hip fracture. Ann Intern Med 1990; 113: 95103.

36BL Riggs , E Seeman , SF Hodgson , DR Taves , WM O'Fallon . Effect of the fluoride/calcium regimen on vertebral fracture occurrence in postmenopausal osteoporosis. N Engl J Med 1982; 306: 446–50.

39DT Felson , Y Zhang , MT Hannan , DP Kiel , PWF Wilson , JJ Anderson . The effect of postmenopausal estrogen therapy on bone density in elderly women. N Engl J Med 1993; 329: 1141–46.

41RD Wasnich , PD Ross , LK Heilbrun , JM Vogel . Prediction of postmenopausal fracture risk with bone mineral measurements. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1985; 153: 745–51.

42SL Hui , CW Slemenda , CC Johnston . Age and bone mass as predictors of fracture in a prospective study. J Clin Invest 1988; 81: 1804–809.

43P Gärdsell , O Johnell , B Nilsson . Predicting fractures in women by using forearm bone densitometry. Calcif Tissue Int 1989; 44: 235–42.

44SR Cummings , DM Black , MC Nevitt Bone density at various sites for prediction of hip fractures. Lancet 1993; 341: 7275.

45KG Faulkner , SR Cummings , CC Glüer , L Palermo , D Black , HK Genant . Simple measurement of femoral geometry predicts hip fracture. J Bone Miner Res 1993; 8: 1211–17.

46PD Ross , JW Davis , RS Epstein , RD Wasnich . Pre-existing fractures and bone mass predict vertebral fracture incidence in women. Ann Intern Med 1991; 114: 919–23.

47CW Slemenda , SL Hui , C Longcope , H Wellman , CC Johnston . Predictors of bone mass in perimenopausal women. A prospective study of clinical data using photon absorptiometry. Ann Intern Med 1990; 112: 96101.

48D Grady , SM Rubin , DB Petitti Hormone therapy to prevent disease and prolong life in postmenopausal women. Ann Intern Med 1992; 117: 1016–37.

49L Bergkvist , HO Adami , I Persson , R Hoover , C Schairer . The risk of breast cancer after estrogen and estrogen-progestin replacement. N Engl J Med 1989; 321: 293–97.

50GA Colditz , MJ Stampfer , WC Willett , CH Hennekens , B Rosner , FE Speizer . Prospective study of estrogen replacement therapy and risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. JAMA 1990; 264: 2648–53.

51TL Bush , E Barrett-Connor , LD Cowan Cardiovascular mortality and non-contraceptive use of estrogen in women: results from the Lipid Research Clinics Program Follow-Up Study. Circulation 1987; 75: 1102–109.

52E Barrett-Connor , TL Bush . Estrogen and coronary heart disease in women. JAMA 1991; 265: 1861–67.

53PH Wolf , JH Madans , FF Finucane , M Higgins , JC Kleinman . Reduction of cardiovascular disease-related mortality among postmenopausal women who use hormones: evidence from a national cohort. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1991; 164: 489–94.

54AA Nabulsi , AR Folsom , A White Association of hormone replacement therapy with various cardiovascular risk factors in postmenopausal women. N Engl J Med 1993; 328: 1069–75.

55M Falkeborn , I Persson , H-O Adami The risk of acute myocardial infarction after oestrogen and oestrogen-progestogen replacement. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1992; 99: 821–28.

56M Falkeborn , I Persson , A Terént , H-O Adami , H Lithell , R Bergström . Hormone replacement therapy and the risk of stroke. Arch Intern Med 1993; 153: 1201–209.

57AM Parfitt . The cellular basis of bone remodelling. The quantum concept re-examined in light of recent advances in cell biology of bone. Calcif Tissue Int 1984; 36 (suppl): S37S45.

58LE Lanyon . The success and failure of the adaptive response to functional load-bearing in averting vertebral fracture. Bone 1992; 13 (suppl 2): S17S21.

59BAA Scheven , JWM Visser , PJ Nijweide . In vitro osteoclast generation from different bone marrow fractions, including a highly enriched haematopoietic stem cell population. Nature 1986; 321: 7981.

60MA Horton , J Davies . Perspectives: adhesion receptors in bone. J Bone Miner Res 1989; 4: 803807.

63JE Compston , PI Croucher . Histomorphometric assessment of trabecular bone remodelling in osteoporosis. Bone Miner 1991; 14: 91102.

64HM Frost . Tetracycline-based histological analysis of bone remodelling. Calcif Tissue Int 1969; 3: 211–37.

65EF Eriksen . Normal and pathological remodelling of human trabecular bone: three dimensional reconstruction of the remodelling sequence in normals and in metabolic bone disease. Endocr Rev 1986; 7: 379408.

66NJ Garrahan , PI Croucher , JE Compston . A computerised technique for the quantitative assessment of resorption cavities in trabecular bone. Bone 1990; 11: 241–46.

67ME Cohen-Solal , M-S Shih , MW Lundy , AM Parfitt . A new method for measuring cancellous bone erosion depth: application to the cellular mechanisms of bone loss in postmenopausal osteoporosis. J Bone Miner Res 1991; 6:1331–38.

69BR MacDonald , M Gowen . Cytokines and bone. Br J Rheumatol 1992; 31: 149–55.

70JC Gallagher , D Godgar . Treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis with high doses of synthetic calcitriol. Ann Intern Med 1990; 113: 649–55.

71BP Lukert , LG Raisz . Glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis: pathogenesis and management. Ann Intern Med 1990; 112: 352–64.

72J Reeve , PJ Meunier , JA Parsons . Anabolic effect of human parathyroid fragment on trabecular bone in involutional osteoporosis: a multicentre trial. Br Med J 1980; 280: 1340–44.

73DJ O'Halloran , A Tsatsoulis , RW Whitehouse , SJ Holmes , JE Adams , SM Shalet . Increased bone density after recombinant human growth hormone (GH) therapy in adults with isolated growth hormone deficiency. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1993; 76: 1344–48.

74TJ Allain , AM McGregor . Thyroid hormones and bone. J Endocrinol 1993; 139: 918.

75R Felix , MG Cecchini , H Fleisch . Macrophage colony stimulating factor restores in vivo bone resorption in the op/op osteopetrotic mouse. Endocrinology 1990; 127: 2592–94.

77BEC Nordin , AG Need , HA Morris , M Horowitz , WG Robertson . Evidence for a renal calcium leak in postmenopausal women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1991; 72: 401407.

78JJ Stepan , J Pospichal , J Presl , V Pacovsky . Bone loss and biochemical indices of bone remodelling in surgically induced postmenopausal women. Bone 1987; 8: 279–84.

79TJ Wronski , PL Lowry , CC Walsh , LA Ignazewski . Skeletal alterations in ovariectomised rats. Calcif Tissue Int 1985; 37: 324–28.

80S Vedi , JE Compston , A Webb , JR Tighe . Histomorphometric analysis of dynamic parameters of trabecular bone formation in the iliac crest of normal British subjects. Metab Bone Dis Relat Res 1983; 5: 6974.

81R Eastell , PD Delmas , SF Hodgson , EF Eriksen , KG Mann , BL Riggs . Bone formation rate in older normal women: concurrent assessment with bone histomorphometry, calcium kinetics, and biochemical markers. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1988; 67: 741–48.

84EF Eriksen , SF Hodgson , R Eastell , SL Cedel , WM O'Fallon , BL Riggs . Cancellous bone remodelling in type I (postmenopausal) osteoporosis: quantitative assessment of rates of formation, resorption and bone loss at tissue and cellular levels. J Bone Miner Res 1990; 5: 311–19.

85AJ Darby , PJ Meunier . Mean wall thickness and formation periods of trabecular bone packets in idiopathic osteoporosis. Calcif Tissue Int 1981; 33: 199204.

86M Garcia-Carasco , MC De Vernejoul , Y Sterkers , C Morieux , D Kuntz , L Miravet . Decreased bone formation in osteoporotic patients compared to age-matched controls. Calcif Tissue Int 1989; 44: 173–75.

87M Arlot , Edouard, PJ Meunier , RM Neer , J Reeve . Impaired osteoblast function in osteoporosis: comparison between calcium balance and dynamic histomorphometry. Br Med J 1984; 289: 517–20.

88T Steiniche , C Hasling , P Charles , EF Eriksen , L Mosekilde , F Melsen . A randomised study on the effects of oestrogen-gestagen or high dose oral calcium on trabecular bone remodelling in postmenopausal osteoporosis. Bone 1989; 10: 313–20.

89EF Eriksen , DS Colvard , NJ Berg Evidence of estrogen receptors in normal human osteoblast-like cells. Science 1988; 241: 8486.

90BS Komm , CM Terpening , DJ Benz Estrogen binding, receptor mRNA and biologic response in osteoblast-like osteosarcoma cells. Science 1988; 241: 8185.

91R Pacifici , C Brown , E Puscheck Effect of surgical menopause and estrogen replacement on cytokine release from human blood mononuclear cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1991; 88: 5134–38.

92SH Ralston , RGG Russell , M Gowen . Estrogen inhibits release of tumour necrosis factor from peripheral blood mononuclear cells in postmenopausal women. J Bone Miner Res 1990; 5: 983–88.

93RL Jilka , G Hangoc , G Girasole Increased osteoclast development after estrogen loss: mediation by interleukin-6. Science 1992; 257: 8891.

94TK Gray , S Mohan , TA Linkhart , DJ Baylink . Estradiol stimulates in vitro the secretion of insulin-like growth factors by the clonal osteoblastic cell-line, UMR 106. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1989; 158: 407–12.

95M Ernst , JK Heath , GA Rodan . Estradiol effects on proliferation, messenger ribonucleic acid for collagen and insulin-like growth factor-1, and parathyroid hormone-stimulating adenylate cyclase activity in osteoblastic cells from calvariae and long bones. Endocrinology 1989; 125: 825–33.

96JE Compston , RWE Mellish , PI Croucher , R Newcombe , NJ Garrahan . Structural mechanisms of trabecular bone loss in man. Bone Miner 1989; 6: 339–50.

97AM Parfitt , CHE Mathews , AR Villanueva , M Kleerekoper , B Frame , DS Rao . Relationship between surface, volume and thickness of iliac trabecular bone in ageing and in osteoporosis. J Clin Invest 1983; 72: 1396–409.

98RWE Mellish , NJ Garrahan , JE Compston . Age-related changes in trabecular width and spacing in human iliac crest biopsies. Bone Miner 1989; 6: 331–38.

99PI Croucher , NJ Garrahan , JE Compston . Structural mechanisms of trabecular bone loss in primary osteoporosis: specific disease mechanism or early ageing? Bone Miner 1994; 25: 111–21.

101WS Browner , DG Seely , TM Vogt , SR Cummings . Non-trauma mortality in elderly women with low bone mineral density. Lancet 1991; 338: 355–58.

104A Gotfredson , C Christiansen , T Palshof . The effect of tamoxifen on bone mineral content in premenopausal women with breast cancer. Cancer 1984; 53: 853–57.

105RR Love , RB Mazess , HS Barden Effects of tamoxifen on bone mineral density in postmenopausl women with breast cancer. N Engl J Med 1992; 326: 852–56.

106RL Ward , G Morgan , D Dalley , PJ Kelly . Tamoxifen reduces bone turnover and prevents lumbar spine and proximal femoral bone loss in early postmenopausal women. Bone Miner 1993; 22: 8794.

108CDP Wright , RE Mansell , J-C Gazet , JE Compston . Effect of long term tamoxifen treatment on bone turnover in women with breast cancer. Br Med J 1993; 306: 429–30.

109CDP Wright , NJ Garrahan , M Stanton , J-C Gazet , RE Mansell , JE Compston . Effect of long-term tamoxifen therapy on cancellous bone remodelling and structure in women with breast cancer. J Bone Miner Res 1994; 9: 153–59.

110JS Johansen , BJ Riis , C Hassager , M Moen , J Jacobson , C Christiansen . The effect of a gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist (naferelin) on bone metabolism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1988; 67: 701706.

111MY Dawood , V Lewis , J Ramos . Cortical and trabecular bone mineral content in women with endometriosis: effect of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist and danazol. Fertil Steril 1989; 52: 2126.

112JB Jacobson . Effects of naferelin on bone density. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1990; 162: 589–92.

113RW Whitehouse , JE Adams , K Bancroft , CA Vaughan-Williams , M Elstein . The effects of naferelin and danazol on vertebral trabecular bone mass in patients with endometriosis. Clin Endocrinol 1990; 33: 365–73.

114H Rico , F Arnanz , M Revilla Total and regional bone mineral content in women treated with GnRH agonists. Calcif Tissue Int 1993; 52: 354–57.

116BJ Riis , C Christiansen , JS Johansen , J Jacobson . Is it possible to prevent bone loss in young women treated with luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonists. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1990; 70: 920–24.

117JM Eldred , PJ Haynes , EJ Thomas . A randomised double-blind controlled trial of the effects on bone metabolism of the combination of naferelin acetate and norethisterone. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 1992; 37: 354–59.

118ES Surrey , HL Judd . Reduction of vasomotor symptoms and bone mineral density loss with combined norethindrone and long-acting gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist therapy of symptomatic endometriosis: a prospective randomised trial. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1992; 75: 558–63.

119R Lindsay , DM Hart , A Kraszewski . Prospective double-blind trial of synthetic steroid (Org OD 14) for preventing postmenopausal osteoporosis. Br Med J 1980; 280: 1207–209.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Reproductive Medicine Review
  • ISSN: 0962-2799
  • EISSN: 1469-9028
  • URL: /core/journals/reproductive-medicine-review
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×