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China in the conception of international society: the English School's engagements with China

  • XIAOMING ZHANG
Abstract

Since Martin Wight's famous LSE lectures in the late 1950s, the English School scholars have brought China into the conception of international society. As the English School scholars have been ‘inventing’ an international society, China's status in the conception, or conceptions of international society has also been invented and reinvented. The Chinese case vividly demonstrates how a non-European (or non-Western) country, as one of ‘the others’, has been dealt with and brought into the conceptualisation of international society by the English School. China's status in the conception of international society, to a great extent, has been invented by some of the English School scholars with Eurocentric bias.

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1 Jones, Roy, ‘The English School of International Relations: A Case for Closure’, Review of International Studies, 7:1 (1981), pp. 113 ; Dunne, Tim, Inventing International Society: A History of the English School (Basingstoke: Macmillan Press Ltd., 1998) ; Vigezzi, Brunello, The British Committee on the Theory of International Politics (1954–1985): The Rediscovery of History (Milan: Edizioni Unicopli, 2005) ; Linklater, Andrew and Suganami, Hidemi, The English School of International Relations: A Contemporary Reassessment (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006) .

2 Bull, Hedley, The Anarchical Society: A Study of Order in World Politics (London: Macmillan, 1977) .

3 Adam Roberts, ‘The Evolution of International Relations’, Notes for lecture at Royal College of Defence Studies, (21 January 2008), p. 15.

4 Bull, Hedley and Watson, Adam (eds), Expansion of International Society (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1984), pp. 19, pp. 1332, pp. 117126 ; Watson, Adam, The Evolution of International Society: A Comparative Historical Analysis (London: Routledge, 1992), pp. 135309 .

5 Manning, Charles, The Nature of International Society, reissue with a new preface (London and Basingstoke: The Macmillan Press Ltd., 1975) ; Wight, Martin, International Theory: The Three Traditions (London: Leicester University Press, 1991), pp. 78, pp. 3031, pp. 139144 ; Wight, Martin, ‘Why Is There No International Theory?’, in Wight, Martin and Butterfield, Herbert (eds), Diplomatic Investigations: Essays in the Theory of International Politics (London: George Allen & Unwin, 1966), p. 18 ; Bull, Hedley, Anarchical Society: A Study of Order in World Politics (London: Macmillan, 1977) ; James, Alan, Sovereign Statehood: The Basis of International Society (London: Allen & Unwin, 1986) .

6 Armstrong, David, Revolution and World Order: The Revolutionary State in International Society (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993), p. 14 .

7 Stern, Geoffrey, The Structure of International Society: An Introduction to the Study of International Relations, 2nd edition (London: Continuum, 2000), p. 58 .

8 Wight, Martin, International Theory: The Three Traditions (London: Leicester University Press, 1991), p. 21, pp. 6669, pp. 9596, pp. 146147, pp. 148, 175, 186, 193 .

9 Wight, Martin, International Theory: The Three Traditions, pp. 6669 .

10 Butterfield, Herbert and Wight, Martin (eds), Diplomatic Investigations: Essays in the Theory of International Politics (London: George Allen & Unwin Ltd., 1966) .

11 H. Butterfield, ‘Notes for a Discussion on the Theory of International Politics’, British Committee on the Theory of International Politics, Meeting of 10–13 January 1964, Martin Wight Papers, File 253, LSE Archives.

12 British Committee on the Theory of International Politics, Meeting of 2–5 October 1964 at Peterhouse, Martin Wight Papers, File 253, LSE Archives.

13 Wight, Martin, ‘Balance of Power’, in Wight, Martin and Butterfield, Herbert (eds), Diplomatic Investigations: Essays in the Theory of International Politics), p. 167 .

14 Wight, Martin, Systems of States (London and Leicester: Leicester University Press in association with London School of Economics and Political Science, 1977), pp. 2145 .

15 Martin Wight, Systems of States, p. 33.

16 Watson, Adam, The Evolution of International Society: A Comparative Historical Analysis (London: Routledge, 1992), p. 6 .

17 Hudson, G. F., ‘Collective Security and Military Alliances’, in Wight, Martin and Butterfield, Herbert (eds), Diplomatic Investigations: Essays in the Theory of International Politics, pp. 176180 ; G. F. Hudson, ‘The Threats of Force in International Relations’, ibid., pp. 201–5.

18 G. F. Hudson, ‘The Traditional Chinese Conception of International Relations’ (2–5 October 1964), Martin Wight Papers, File 253, LSE Archives.

19 Martin Wight, Systems of States, p. 23.

20 Geoffrey Hudson, ‘The Extension of Western International System to Asia and Africa’ (9–12 July 1965), Martin Wight Papers, File 253, LSE Archives; Geoffrey Hudson, ‘The Period of the Warring States: A State System of Ancient China’, Hedley Bull Papers, Box 8, Bodleian Library, Oxford University.

21 Adam Watson, The Evolution of International Society: A Comparative Historical Analysis, p. 2.

22 Ibid., pp. 85–93.

23 Ibid., p. 121.

24 Martin Wight, Systems of States, p. 23.

25 Ibid., p. 119.

26 Bull, Hedley, The Anarchical Society: A Study of Order in World Politics, 2nd edition (Basingstoke: Macmillan Press, Ltd., 1995), pp. 1011 .

27 Watson, Adam, The Evolution of International Society: A Comparative Historical Analysis, p. 3.

28 Gong, Gerrit, The Standard of ‘Civilization’ in International Society (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1984), p. 132 .

29 Zhang, Yongjin, ‘System, Empire and State in Chinese International Relations’, Review of International Studies, 27 (2001), pp. 4363 .

30 Buzan, Barry and Little, Richard, International Systems in World History: Remaking the Study of International Relations (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000), pp. 2021 ; Little, Richard, ‘The English School's Contribution to the Study of International Relations’, European Journal of International Relations, 6:3 (2000), pp. 414415 ; Zhang, Yongjin, ‘System, Empire and State in Chinese International Relations’, Review of International Studies, 27 (2001), p. 44 .

31 Bull, Hedley, ‘The European International Order’, (1980), in Alderson, Kai and Hurrell, Andrew (eds), Hedley Bull on International Society (Basingstoke: Macmillan Press, Ltd., 2000), pp. 179180 .

32 Bull, Hedley, ‘A Proposal for a Study’, October 1978, reprinted in Brunello Vigezzi, The British Committee on the Theory of International Politics (1954–1985): The Rediscovery of History, pp. 425428 .

33 In his email message to this author on 25 February 2008, Gerrit Gong acknowledged his debt to Hedley Bull: ‘As you would imagine, my work on the Standard of “Civilisation” in International Society owes a tremendous debt of gratitude to Professor Hedley Bull for his intellectual framing of the field.’ This author much appreciates Prof. Gong's kind response to his queries.

34 Lass Francis Lawrence Oppenhaim's International Law (1905) discussed the emergence of the standard of civilisation, and Georg Schwarzenberger published an article on the standard of civilisation in international law in 1955. And Hedley Bull touched on that theme and used the term ‘standard of “civilization”’ in his proposal for the British Committee in 1978. Bull, Hedley, ‘A Proposal for a Study’ (October 1978), reprinted in Brunello Vigezzi, The British Committee on the Theory of International Politics (1954–1985): The Rediscovery of History, pp. 425428 .

35 ‘Summary of discussion of Mr G. W. Gong's paper on “China's Entry into International Society”’, British Committee on Theory of International Politics, All Souls Meeting (18–20 April 1980), Hedley Bull Papers, Box 8, File III, Bodleian Library, Oxford University.

36 Gong, Gerrit W., ‘China's Entry into International Society’, Bull, Hedley and Watson, Adam (eds), The Expansion of International Society (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1984), pp. 171183 .

37 Gong, Gerrit, The Standard of ‘Civilization’ in International Society (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1984) .

38 Bull, Hedley, ‘A Proposal for a Study’ (October 1978), reprinted in Brunello Vigezzi, The British Committee on the Theory of International Politics (1954–1985): The Rediscovery of History, pp. 425428 ; Watson, Adam, ‘Some Comments on Our Theme’ (January 1979), reprinted in Brunello Vigezzi, The British Committee on the Theory of International Politics (1954–1985): The Rediscovery of History, pp. 428431 ; Bull, Hedley, ‘The Emergence of A Universal International Society’, in Bull, Hedley and Watson, Adam (eds), The Expansion of International Society, pp. 117126 .

39 Gong, Gerrit, The Standard of ‘Civilization’ in International Society, ‘Foreword’ by Bull, Hedley, pp. viix, 24 .

40 Gong, Gerrit, The Standard of ‘Civilization’ in International Society, pp. 2435 .

41 Ibid., p. 98.

42 Watson, Adam, The Evolution of International Society: A Comparative Historical Analysis, p. 85 .

43 Gong, Gerrit, The Standard of ‘Civilization’ in International Society, pp. 130136 .

44 Watson, Adam, ‘European International Society and Its Expansion’, in Bull, Hedley and Watson, Adam (eds), Expansion of International Society (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1984), pp. 3031 .

45 Gong, Gerrit, The Standard of ‘Civilization’ in International Society, p. 57 .

46 Zhang, Yongjin, China in International Society since 1949: Alienation and Beyond (Basingstoke: Macmilian Press, Ltd., in association with St. Anthony's College, Oxford, 1998), p. 10 .

47 Gong, Gerrit, The Standard of ‘Civilization’ in International Society, p. 146 .

48 But Yongjin Zhang argued that China entered into the universal international society in 1918–1920. Zhang, Yongjin, China in the International System, 1918–1920: The Middle Kingdom at the Periphery (Basingstoke: Macmillan in association with St. Anthony's College, Oxford, 1991) .

49 Callahan, William A., ‘Nationalizing International Theory: Race, Class and the English School’, Global Society, 18:4 (October 2004), p. 321 .

50 Bull, Hedley and Watson, Adam (eds), The Expansion of International Society, p. 183 .

51 Armstrong, David, Revolution and World Order: The Revolutionary State in International Society (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993) .

52 Alderson, Kai and Hurrell, Andrew (eds), Hedley Bull on International Society, p. 170, ‘Introductory note’ .

53 Bull, Hedley, ‘The Revolt against the West’, in Bull, Hedley and Watson, Adam (eds), The Expansion of International Society, pp. 217228 .

54 Bull, Hedley and Watson, Adam (eds), The Expansion of International Society, p. 227, 229, 257, 277 .

55 Bull, Hedley, Justice in International Relations, the Hager Lectures, reprinted in Alderson, Kai and Hurrell, Andrew (eds), Hedley Bull on International Society, p. 239 .

56 Bull, Hedley, The Twenty Years' Crisis Thirty Years On’, International Journal, Xxiv:4 (Autumn 1969), pp. 625638 , reprinted in Alderson, Kai and Hurrell, Andrew (eds), Hedley Bull on International Society, p. 133, pp. 135–6 .

57 Bell, Coral, ‘China and the International Order’, in Bull, Hedley and Watson, Adam (eds), The Expansion of International Society, p. 255 .

58 Wight, Martin, Systems of States, pp. 174200 ; Hudson, G. F., ‘The Defection of Lin Piao’ (March 1972), Martin Wight Papers, File 253, LSE Archives; Coral Bell, ‘The Contest for Asia: A New Diplomacy’, New Society (17 February 1972), Martin Wight Papers, File 253, LSE Archives .

59 When I interviewed Mary Bull in Oxford on 13 March 2008, Mrs Bull kindly showed me the photos Hedley Bull took during his trip in China.

60 Hedley Bull, ‘Report by Professor Bull’ (28 October 1973), Hedley Bull Papers, Box 4, File II, Bodleian Library, Oxford University.

61 Hedley Bull to Stephen Fitzgerald (Australian Ambassador to China) (28 June 1974), and Stephen Fitzgerald to Hedley Bull (8 August 1974), Hedley Bull Papers, Box 4, File V, Bodleian Library, Oxford University.

62 Bull, Hedley, ‘Introduction: Towards a New international Order in Asia and the Western Pacific?’, in Bull, Hedley (ed.), Asia and the Western Pacific: Towards a New International Order (Canberra: The Australian Institute of International Affairs, 1975), pp. xixii .

63 Bull, Hedley, Anarchical Society, 2nd edition, pp. 98, 108–10, 197–9 .

64 Bell, Coral, ‘China and the International Order’, in Bull, Hedley and Watson, Adam (eds), The Expansion of International Society, pp. 255267 ; Hedley Bull, ‘Report by Professor Bull’ (28 October 1973), Hedley Bull Papers, Box 4, File II, Bodleian Library, Oxford University.

65 Goodwin, Geoffrey, ‘International Institutions and International Order’, in James, Alan (ed.), The Bases of International Order: Essays in Honor of C. A. W. Manning (London: Oxford University Press, 1973), p. 184 .

66 Bull, Hedley, Anarchical Society, 2nd edition, p. 286 .

67 Wight, Martin, ‘The Balance of Power and International Order,’ in James, Alan, ed., The Bases of International Order: Essays in Honor of C. A. W. Manning, p. 114 .

68 Bell, Coral, ‘China and the International Order’, in Bull, Hedley and Watson, Adam (eds), The Expansion of International Society, p. 265 .

69 Vincent, R. J., Human Rights and International Relations (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986), pp. 4142 .

70 Roberts, Adam, ‘A New Era of International Relations’, in Ming, Yuan (ed.), Kuashiji de tiaozhan: Zhongguo guoji guanxi xueke de fazhan (The Trans-Centurial Challenge: The Development of International Relations as an Academic Discipline in China) (Chongqing: Chongqing People's Press, 1992), pp. 2256 ; Zhang, Yongjin, ‘English School in China: A Travelogue of Ideas and Its Diffusion’, European Journal of International Relations, 9:1 (2003), pp. 87114 . I happened to be at the 1991 conference as a junior faculty member of Institute of International Relations, Peking University, and heard the name ‘English School’ for the first time although I first came cross an English School book (The Expansion of International Society) in 1987.

71 Armstrong, David, Revolution and World Order: The Revolutionary state in international society, pp. 183184 .

72 Yongjin Zhang, China in the International System, 1918–20: The Middle Kingdom at the Periphery; Yongjin Zhang, China in International Society since 1949: Alienation and Beyond.

73 Ibid., pp. 99–251.

74 Segal, Gerald, ‘Does China Matter?’, Foreign Affairs, 78:5 (1999), pp. 2436 .

75 Kim, Samuel S., ‘China in World Politics’, in Buzan, Barry and Foot, Rosemary (eds), Does China Matters? A Reassessment: Essays in Memory of Gerald Segal (London: Routeledge, 2004), p. 40 .

76 Ikenberry, John, ‘The Rise of China and the Future of the West: Can the Liberalism Survive?’, Foreign Affairs, 87:1 (January/February 2008), pp. 2337 .

77 Glaser, Bonnie S. and Medeiros, Evan S., ‘The Changing Ecology of Foreign Policy Making in China: Then Ascension and Demise of the Theory of “Peaceful Rise”’, China Quarterly, 190 (June 2007), pp. 291310 .

78 Cabestan, Jean-Perre, ‘China Is Reaching Out to the New World’, Asian Perspective, 30:4 (2007), p. 5 .

79 Kim, Samuel S., ‘China in World Politics’, in Buzan, Barry and Foot, Rosemary (eds), Does China Matter? A Reassessment: Essays in Memory of Gerald Segal, p. 40 .

80 Those related works directly devoted to China include the following: Zhang, Yongjin, ‘System, Empire and State in Chinese International Relations’, Review of International Studies, 27 (2001), pp. 4363 ; Buzan, Barry and Foot, Rosemary (eds), Does China Matter? A Reassessment: Essays in Memory of Gerald Segal (London: Routeledge, 2004) ; Callahan, William A., ‘How to Understand China: the dangers and opportunities of being a rising power’, Review of International Studies, 31 (2005), pp. 701774 ; Foot, Rosemary, ‘Chinese Strategies in a US-hegemonic Global Order: Accommodating and Hedging’, International Affairs, 82:1 (2006), pp. 7794 .

81 Robert Jackson and Adam Roberts could probably be put into this category. Jackson, Robert, The Global Covenant: Human Conduct in a World of State (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000) ; Roberts, Adam, ‘International Relations after the Cold War’, International Affairs, 84:2 (2008), pp. 116 .

82 Nicholas Wheeler and Tim Dunne could probably be put into this category. Wheeler, Nicholas, Saving Strangers: Humanitarian Intervention in International Society (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000) ; Dunne, Tim and Wheeler, Nicholas J. (eds), Human Rights in Global Politics (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999) ; Wheeler, Nicholas and Dunne, Tim, ‘East Timor and the New Humanitarian Interventionism’, International Affairs, 77:4 (2001), pp. 805827 ; Wheeler, Nicholas and Dunne, Tim, Moral Britannia?: Evaluating the Ethical Dimension in Labour's Foreign Policy (London: The Foreign Policy Centre, 2005) .

83 James Mayall, Andrew Hurrell and Barry Buzan could probably be put into this category. Mayall, James (ed.), The New Interventionism 1991–1994: UN Experience in Cambodia, Former Yugoslavia and Somalia (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996) ; Mayall, James, World Politics: Progress and Its Limits (Cambridge: Polity Press, 2000) ; Hurrell, Andrew, On Global Order: Power, Values, and the Constitution of International Society (Oxford: Oxford University, 2007) ; Buzan, Barry, From International to World Society? English School Theory and the Social Structure of Globalization (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004) .

84 Gong, Gerrit, The Standard of ‘Civilization’ in International Society, p. 66 .

85 Bull, Hedley, ‘Foreword’, Gerrit Gong, The Standard of ‘Civilization’ in International Society, pp. viiviii .

86 Gong, Gerrit, The Standard of ‘Civilization’ in International Society, pp. 9093 .

87 Interviews with Barry Buzan (4 March 2008), LSE; Donnely, Jack, ‘Human Rights: A new standard of civilization?’, International Affairs, 74:1 (1998), pp. 124 .

88 Vincent, John, Human Rights and International Relations, p. 129 .

89 Zhang, Yongjin, ‘System, Empire and State in Chinese International Relations’, Review of International Studies, 27 (2001), p. 63 .

90 Zhang, Yongjin, ‘China's Entry into International Society: Beyond the Standard of “Civilization”’, Review of International Studies, 17:1 (1991), pp. 316 .

91 Vincent, John, Human Rights and International Relations (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986), p. 130, 132 .

92 Wheeler, Nicholas, Saving Strangers: Humanitarian Intervention in International Society (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000), p. 1 .

93 Ibid., p. 1.

94 Dunne, Tim, ‘Fundamental Human Rights Crisis after 9/11’, International Politics, 44 (2007), p. 283 .

95 Ibid., pp. 69–286.

96 Hurrell, Andrew, ‘Power, Principles and Prudence: Protecting Human Rights in a Deeply Divided World’, in Dunne, Tim and Wheeler, Nicholas J. (eds), Human Rights in Global Politics, pp. 277302 .

97 Hurrell, Andrew, ‘Hegemony, Liberalism and Global Order: What space for would-be great powers?’, International Affairs, 82:1 (2006), pp. 14 .

98 Ibid., p. 4.

99 Ibid., p. 10.

100 Jackson, Robert, The Global Covenant: Human Conduct in a World of States (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000), p. 364 .

101 Roberts, Adam, ‘International Relations after the Cold War’, International Affairs, 84:2 (2008), p. 3 .

102 Ibid., p. 11.

103 Adam Roberts, ‘The Evolution of International Relations’, Notes for lecture at Royal College of Defence Studies (21 January 2008), pp. 19–21.

104 Scott, David, China Stands Up: The PRC and the International System (London: Routledge, 2007), pp. 1519, 8385 .

105 Foot, Rosemary, Rights beyond Borders: The Global Community and the Struggle over Human Rights in China (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000) ; Foot, Rosemary, ‘Chinese Strategies in a US-hegemonic Global Order: Accommodating and Hedging’, International Affairs, 82:1 (2006), pp. 777794 ; Adam Roberts, ‘The Evolution of International Relations’, Notes for lecture at Royal College of Defence Studies (21 January 2008), p. 21.

106 Adam Roberts, ‘The Evolution of International Relations’, Notes for lecture at Royal College of Defence Studies (21 January 2008), p. 21.

107 Ibid.

108 Andrew Hurrell, ‘Hegemony, Liberalism and Global Order: What space for would-be great powers?’; Rosemary Foot, ‘Chinese Strategies in a US-hegemonic Global Order: Accommodating and hedging’.

109 Wheeler, Nicholas J., ‘Introduction: The Political and Moral Limits of Western Military Intervention to Protect Civilians in Danger’, in McInnes, Colin and Wheeler, Nicholas J. (eds), Dimensions of Western Military Intervention (London: Frank Cass Publishers, 2002), p. 4 .

110 Tim Dunne, Inventing International Society: A History of the English School.

111 See Zhang, Yongjin, ‘English School in China: A Travelogue of Ideas and Its Diffusion’, European Journal of International Relations, 9:1 (2003), pp. 87114 ; Barry Buzan, English School Bibliography for China: writings principally on China, or by Chinese authors about the English School (version of May 2007), {http://www.polis.leeds.ac.uk/research/international-relations-security/english-school/}; Hongni, Miao, ‘The English School in China’, in Yizhou, Wang (ed.), Zhongguo Guoji Guanxi Yanjiu, 1995–2005 (IR Studies in China, 1995–2005) (Beijing: Peking University Press, 2006), pp. 196224 ; Zhirui, Chen, Guiyin, Zhou and Bin, Shi (eds), Kaifang De Guoji Shehui: Guoji Guanxi Yanjiu Zhong De Yingguo Xuepai (Open International Society: The English School in IR Studies) (Beijing: Peking University Press, 2006) ; Jia, Xu, Yingguo Xuepai Guoji Guanxi Lilun Yanjiu (A Study of ‘English School’ Theories) (Beijing: Contemporary Affairs Press, 2008) .

112 Zhang, Yongjin, ‘English School in China: A Travelogue of Ideas and Its Diffusion’, European Journal of International Relations, 9:1 (2003), p. 98 .

113 Yizhou, Wang, Xifang Guoji Guanxi Xue: Lilun Yu Lishi (Western International Politics: History and Theory) (Shanghai: Shanghai People's Press, 1998), pp. 378379 ; Zhirui, Chen, Guiyin, Zhou and Bin, Shi (eds), Kaifang De Guoji Shehui: Guoji Guanxi Yanjiu Zhong De Yingguo Xuepai (Open International Society: The English School in IR Studies), p. 21, pp. 6970 ; Cungang, Wang, ‘Learn From and Be Critical of the English School: Some Thoughts on Working on and Learning from the English School’, Europe Studies, 4 (2005), pp. 4852 .

114 Some of the Chinese IR scholars have been taking great efforts in this regards. Tingyang, Zhao, Tianxia Tixi: Shijie Zhidu Zhexue Daolun (The Tianxia System: An Introduction to the Philosophy for the World Institutions) (Nanjing: Jiangsu Education Press, 2005) ; Tingyang, Zhao, ‘Rethinking Empire from a Chinese Concept “All-under Heaven” (Tian-xia)’, Social Identities 12:1 (2006), pp. 2941 ; Yaqing, Qin, ‘Core Problematic of International Relations Theory and the Construction of a Chinese School’, Social Sciences in China, 3 (2005), pp. 165176 ; Callahan, William A., ‘Chinese Visions of World Order: Post-hegemonic or a New Hegemony’, International Studies Review, 10 (2008), pp. 749761 .

* This article grew from my one year's research work at London School of Economics and Political Science, 2007–2008. I would like to thank Barry Buzan, Andrew Hurrell, Adam Roberts, Marry Bull, Peter Wilson, Gerrit Gong, Hidemi Suganami, Brunello Vigezzi, Rosemary Foot, William Callahan, and Christopher Hughes, for kindly meeting me or responding to my queries through email. I would also like to extend my thanks to Arne Westad, Michael Cox, Svetozar Rajak, and Tiha Franulovic for hosting me at the LSE IDEAS, and Ms Liang Guozhen in Hong Kong for the research grant.

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