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Emotional (security) communities: the significance of emotion norms in inter-allied conflict management

  • SIMON KOSCHUT
Abstract

What do Al-Qaeda, Human Rights Watch, and NATO have in common? They can all be understood as emotional communities. Emotional communities are ‘groups in which people adhere to the same norms of emotional expression and value – or devalue – the same or related emotions’. This article develops a conceptual framework for a particular type of emotional community in world politics: a security community. It is argued that emotion norms – the expression of appropriate emotions in a given situation – stabilise a security community during inter-allied conflict. The argument is illustrated by an empirical case study of NATO's military intervention in Libya in 2011. The article shows how the conceptualisation of security communities as emotional communities has significant implications for the study of regional peace and security.

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1 It should be pointed out that the appraisal of a particular emotion as ‘positive’ or ‘negative’ is solely determined by the members of the emotional community and may thus vary from community to community. For example, transnational criminal networks like the Mafia may perhaps not automatically label ‘greed’ as a strictly negative emotion.

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63 Ibid., pp. 6, 97.

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70 Ibid., p. 553.

71 Ibid.

72 Ibid.

73 Ibid.

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75 Eznack, ‘Crises’.

76 Eznack, ‘Crises’, p. 244.

77 Eznack, ‘Crises’, pp. 240, 248; also Eznack, Lucile, Crises in the Atlantic Alliance (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012), pp. 32–6.

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90 Eznack, ‘Crises’, p. 242.

91 Elias, Process, p. 400.

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93 Angela Merkel, Press Statement by Chancellor Angela Merkel on Current Developments in Libya (18 March 2011).

94 Guido Westerwelle, Statement by the German Foreign Minister in the German Bundestag on UN Security Council Resolution 1973 (18 March 2011).

95 Westerwelle, Statement.

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108 Passive anger is a ‘deliberate and masked way of expressing covert feelings of anger’ by, for example, giving someone the cold shoulder, deprive or exclude someone from something they value, or simply avoiding someone. Long, Jody E., Long, Nicholas James, and Whitson, Signe, The Angry Smile: The Psychology of Passive Aggressive Behavior (Austin, TX: Pro-Ed, 2008), p. 12.

109 Peter Müller, ‘Kriegsrat ohne Kanzlerin’, SpiegelOnline (27 March 2011), available at: {http://www.spiegel.de/politik/ausland/g-8-gipfel-in-deauville-kriegsrat-ohne-kanzlerin-a-765366.html} accessed 4 November 2012.

110 Severin Weiland and Roland Nelles, ‘Berlin lässt seine Verbündeten alleine kämpfen’, Spiegel Online (18 March 2011), available at: {http://www.spiegel.de/politik/deutschland/libyen-einsatz-berlin-laesst-seine-verbuendeten-alleine-kaempfen-a-751673.html} accessed 4 November 2012.

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113 Joschka Fischer, ‘Deutsche Außenpolitik – eine Farce’, Süddeutsche Zeitung (24 March 2011).

114 ‘Koalition der Kämpfer’, SpiegelOnline (22 March 2011), available at: {http://www.spiegel.de/politik/deutschland/militaereinsatz-in-libyen-koalition-der-kaempfer-a-752488.html} accessed 14 March 2013.

115 ‘Westerwelle vollzieht Kehrtwende bei Nato-Militäreinsatz’, Süddeutsche Zeitung (28 August 2011), available at: {http://www.sueddeutsche.de/politik/die-deutschen-und-der-krieg-in-libyen-westerwelle-vollzieht-kehrtwende-bei-nato-militaereinsatz-1.1135764} accessed 14 March 2013.

116 Elias, Process, pp. 414–15.

117 Hutchison and Bleiker, Reconciliation; Scheff, Revenge.

118 Ulrike Guérot, Germany in Europe: Angela's Walk of Shame, The European Council on Foreign Relations (24 March 2011), available at: {http://ecfr.eu/blog/entry/germany_in_europe_angelas_walk_of_shame} accessed 4 November 2012.

119 The Presidential Medal of Freedom is awarded to individuals that have made ‘an especially meritorious contribution to the security or national interests of the United States, world peace, cultural or other significant public or private endeavors’ (EO 9586). Recipients include Mother Teresa, Lech Walesa, and Stephen Hawking.

120 Flam, ‘Emotional’, p. 49.

121 Merkel, Angela and Obama, Barack H., Remarks by President Obama and Chancellor Merkel in a Joint Press Conference, Washington, DC (7 June 2011).

122 Merkel and Obama, Remarks.

123 Barack H. Obama, ‘Interview with President Obama’, Der Tagesspiegel (5 June 2011).

124 Quoted in Dan Bilefsky and Mark Landler, ‘As U.N. Backs Military Action in Libya, U.S. Role Is Unclear’, New York Times (17 March 2011).

125 David Cameron and Nicholas Sarkozy, Joint Statement by the French President and the British Prime Minister (28 March 2011).

126 Merkel and Obama, Remarks; Guido Westerwelle, ‘Westerwelle lobt Nato-Einsatz jetzt doch’, Die Zeit Online (27 August 2011), available at: {http://www.zeit.de/politik/Deutschland/2011-08/westerwelle-nato-einsatz/komplettansicht} accessed 4 November 2012.

127 Guido Westerwelle, Speech at the UN Human Rights Council, Geneva (28 February 2011).

128 ‘Später Respekt für Nato-Einsatz’, FocusOnline (27 August 2011), available at: {http://www.focus.de/politik/ausland/krise-in-der-arabischen-welt/libyen/militaerisches-eingreifen-in-libyen-spaeter-respekt-fuer-nato-einsatz_aid_659482.html} accessed 14 March 2013.

129 ‘Merkel fordert Gaddafi zum Rücktritt auf’, FocusOnline (27 February 2011), available at: {http://www.focus.de/politik/ausland/krise-in-der-arabischen-welt/libyen-merkel-fordert-gaddafi-zum-ruecktritt-auf_aid_603850.html} accessed 14 March 2013; Angela Merkel, Press Statement, Berlin (20 October 2011).

130 ‘Wulff nennt Gaddafi einen Psychopathen’, FocusOnline (24 February 2011), available at: {http://www.focus.de/politik/ausland/krise-in-der-arabischen-welt/krise-in-libyen-wulff-nennt-gaddafi-einen-psychopathen_aid_603237.html} accessed 14 March 2013.

131 Anders Fogh Rasmussen, Opening Remarks by NATO Secretary General at the Working Lunch of NATO Ministers of Foreign Affairs with Libya Partners at Berlin (14 April 2011).

132 NATO, Statement on Libya Following the Working Lunch of NATO Ministers of Foreign Affairs with non-NATO contributors in Berlin to Operation Unified Protector (14 April 2011).

133 Barack H. Obama, Presidential Statement on Libya (22 August 2011).

134 David Cameron, Libya Statement in Full (18 March 2011).

135 Wolfers, Arnold, Discord and Collaboration: Essays on International Politics (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1962), p 34.

136 Flam, ‘Emotional’, p. 49.

137 Adler and Barnett, Communities.

138 On norms being ‘unlearnt’ see, for example, Panke, Diana and Petersohn, Ulrich, ‘Why International Norms Disappear Sometimes’, European Journal of International Relations, 18:4 (2012), pp. 719–42.

* Earlier versions of this article were presented at the Workshop ‘Emotions and Conflict’ in Helsinki and at the Institute for Peace Research and Security Policy in Hamburg. I thank the organisers as well as the participants, especially Todd Hall, Regina Heller, Emma Hutchison, Karin Fierke, Tuomas Forsberg, Andrew Ross, and Reinhard Wolf and the three anonymous reviewers for their excellent suggestions and critique.

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