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Regionalism and diffusion revisited: From final design towards stages of decision-making

  • Francesco Duina (a1) and Tobias Lenz (a2)
Abstract

An emerging research programme on diffusion across regional international organisations (RIOs) proposes that decisions taken in one RIO affect decision-making in other RIOs. This work has provided a welcome corrective to endogenously-focused accounts of RIOs. Nevertheless, by focusing on the final design of policies and institutional arrangements, it has been conceptually overly narrow. This has led to a truncated understanding of diffusion’s impact and to an unjustified view of convergence as its primary outcome. Drawing on public policy and sociological research, we offer a conceptual framework that seeks to remedy these weaknesses by disaggregating the decision-making process on the ‘receiving’ side. We suggest that policies and institutional arrangements in RIOs result from three decision-making stages: problematisation (identification of something as a political problem), framing (categorisation of the problem and possible solutions), and scripting (design of final solutions). Diffusion can affect any combination of these stages. Consequently, its effects are more varied and potentially extensive than is currently recognised, and convergence and persistent variation in scripting are both possible outcomes. We illustrate our framework by re-evaluating research on dispute settlement institutions in the EEC, NAFTA, and SADC. We conclude by discussing its theoretical implications and the conditions that likely promote diffusion.

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*Correspondence to: Tobias Lenz, Max Weber Fellow at the European University Institute, and Assistant Professor at Göttingen University and the GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies. Author’s email: tobias.lenz@eui.eu.
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The order of authors’ names reflects alphabetical convention; both authors have contributed equally to all work.

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1 Jetschke, Anja and Lenz, Tobias, ‘Does regionalism diffuse? A new research agenda for the study of regional organizations’, Journal of European Public Policy, 20:4 (2013), pp. 626637 .

2 See Beckert, Jens, ‘Institutional isomorphism revisited: Convergence and divergence in institutional change’, Sociological Theory, 28:2 (2010), pp. 150166 .

3 See, for example, Anderson, James, Public Policymaking (New York: Praeger, 1975).

4 Acharya, Amitav, ‘How ideas spread: Whose norms matter? Norm localization and institutional change in Asian regionalism’, International Organization, 58:2 (2004), pp. 239275 ; Klingler-Vidra, Robyn and Schleifer, Philip, ‘Convergence more or less: Why do practices vary as they diffuse?’, International Studies Review, 16:2 (2014), pp. 264274 ; Lenz, Tobias, ‘EU normative power and regionalism: Ideational diffusion and its limits’, Cooperation and Conflict, 48:2 (2013), pp. 211228 .

5 Solingen, Etel, ‘Of dominoes and firewalls: the domestic, regional, and global politics of international diffusion’, International Studies Quarterly, 56:4 (2012), p. 632 .

6 Alter, Karen J., ‘The global spread of European style international courts’, West European Politics, 35:1 (2012), pp. 135154 ; Alter, Karen J., The New Terrain of International Law: Courts, Politics, Rights (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2014); Lenz, Tobias, ‘Spurred emulation: the EU and regional integration in Mercosur and SADC’, West European Politics, 35:1 (2012), pp. 155174 ; Osiemo, Onsando, ‘Lost in translation: the role of African regional courts in regional integration in Africa’, Legal Issues of Economic Integration, 41:1 (2014), pp. 87122 .

7 Elkins, Zachary and Simmons, Beth, ‘On waves, clusters, and diffusion: a conceptual framework’, Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 598 (2005), p. 35 ; see also Gilardi, Fabrizio, ‘Transnational diffusion: Norms, ideas and policies’, in Walter Carlsnaes, Thomas Risse, and Beth A. Simmons (eds), Handbook of International Relations (London: Sage, 2012), pp. 453477 . There is some disagreement in the literature over whether centralised coordination and coercion should form part of the definition of diffusion. We opt for a narrower definition of diffusion as a decentralised process to avoid using it as catch-all concept for almost any form of outside influence. This also allows us to disaggregate it more easily into separate stages that can be investigated with some precision.

8 See Jahn, Detlef, ‘Globalization as “Galton’s Problem”: the missing link in the analysis of diffusion patterns in welfare state development’, International Organization, 60:2 (2006), pp. 401431 .

9 Baccini, Leonardo and Dür, Andreas, ‘The new regionalism and policy interdependence’, British Journal of Political Science, 42:1 (2012), pp. 5779 ; Jupille, Joseph, Joliff, Brandy, and Wojcik, Stefan, ‘Regionalism in the World Polity’, Social Science Research Network (28 March 2013), available at: {http://ssrn.com/abstract=2242500}; Mansfield, Edward and Milner, Helen, Votes, Vetoes, and the Political Economy of International Trade Agreements (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2012); Mattli, Walter, The Logic of Regional Integration: Europe and Beyond (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999).

10 Allee, Todd and Elsig, Manfred, ‘Are the contents of international treaties copied-and-pasted? evidence from preferential trade agreements’, paper presented at the 8th Annual Conference on the Political Economy of International Organizations, Berlin, Germany, 12–14 February 2015, p. 3 , emphasis added.

11 Alter, Karen J., Helfer, Laurence R., and Saldías, Osvaldo, ‘Transplanting the European Court of Justice: the experience of the Andean Tribunal of Justice’, American Journal of Comparative Law, 60:3 (2012), pp. 629664 ; Börzel, Tanja and Risse, Thomas, ‘From Europeanization to diffusion: Introduction’, West European Politics, 35:1 (2012), pp. 119 ; Börzel, Tanja and van Hüllen, Vera (eds), Governance Transfer by Regional Organizations: Patching Together a Global Script (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2015); Jetschke, Anja, ‘Institutionalizing ASEAN: Celebrating Europe through network governance’, Cambridge Review of International Affairs, 22:3 (2009), pp. 407426 ; Dri, Clarissa F., ‘Limits of the institutional mimesis of the European Union: the case of the Mercosur parliament’, Latin American Policy, 1:1 (2010), pp. 5274 ; Rüland, Jürgen and Bechle, Karsten, ‘Defending state-centric regionalism through mimicry and localization: Regional parliamentary bodies in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) and Mercosur’, Journal of International Relations and Development, 17:1 (2014), pp. 6188 .

12 Acharya, ‘How ideas spread’; Grugel, Jean, ‘Democratization and ideational diffusion: Europe, Mercosur and social citizenship’, Journal of Common Market Studies, 45:1 (2007), pp. 4368 ; Katsumata, Hiro, ‘Mimetic adoption and norm diffusion: “Western” security cooperation in Southeast Asia?’, Review of International Studies, 37:2 (2011), pp. 557576 ; Rüland, Jürgen, ‘The limits of democratizing interest representation: ASEAN’s regional corporatism and normative challenges’, European Journal of International Relations, 20:1 (2014), pp. 237261 .

13 Baccini, Leonardo, Dür, Andreas, and Haftel, Yoram, ‘Imitation and innovation in international governance: the diffusion of trade agreement design’, in Andreas Dür and Manfred Elsig (eds), Trade Cooperation: The Purpose, Design and Effects of Preferential Trade Agreements (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014), pp. 167194 ; Duina, Francesco, ‘Frames, scripts, and the making of regional trade agreements’, in Rawi Abdelal, Mark Blyth, and Craig Parsons (eds), Constructing the International Economy (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2010), pp. 93113 ; Vleuten, Anna van der, van Eerdewijk, Anouka, and Roggeband, Conny (eds), Gender Equality Norms in Regional Governance (London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2014). For an excellent overview of this literature, see Risse, Thomas, ‘The diffusion of regionalism, regional institutions, and regional governance’, in Tanja Börzel and Thomas Risse (eds), Oxford Handbook of Comparative Regionalism (Oxford: Oxford University Press, forthcoming).

14 Börzel, Tanja and Risse, Thomas, ‘When Europeanisation meets diffusion: Exploring new territory’, West European Politics, 35:1 (2012), p. 194 .

15 Baccini and Dür, ‘New regionalism and policy interdependence’; Mattli, ‘Logic of regional integration’; Jetschke, Anja and Murray, Philomena, ‘Diffusing regional integration: the EU and Southeast Asia’, West European Politics, 35:1 (2012), pp. 174191 .

16 Alter, ‘The global spread of European style international courts’.

17 Ibid., p. 145.

18 See Alter, The New Terrain of International Law.

19 Ibid., p. 90.

20 See, for example, Smith, James McCall, ‘The politics of dispute settlement design: Legalism in regional trade pacts’, International Organization, 54:1 (2000), pp. 137180 .

21 Acharya, , ‘How ideas spread’, p. 241 ; Klingler-Vidra, and Schleifer, , ‘Convergence more or less’, p. 264 .

22 Elkins, and Simmons, , ‘On waves, clusters and diffusion’, pp. 3536 ; Gilardi, ‘Transnational diffusion’.

23 Solingen, ‘Of dominoes and firewalls’; Solingen, Etel and Börzel, Tanja, ‘Introduction to presidential issue: the politics of international diffusion – a symposium’, International Studies Review, 16:2 (2014), pp. 173187 .

24 This three-fold division is akin to the distinction between institutional change, institutional choice, and institutional design in recent works on institutions that use rational choice theory. See Jupille, Joseph, Mattli, Walter, and Snidal, Duncan (eds), Instititional Choice and Global Commerce (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2013); Koremenos, Barbara, Lipson, Charles, and Snidal, Duncan, ‘The rational design of international institutions’, International Organization, 54:4 (2001), pp. 761799 .

25 Kingdon, John, Agendas, Alternatives and Public Policy (Boston: Little, Brown and Co., 1984), p. 3 ; See also Simon, Herbert, ‘Political research: the decision-making framework’, in David Easton (ed.), Varieties of Political Theory (Englewood Cliff: Prentice-Hall, 1966), pp. 1524 .

26 See, for example, Pierson, Paul, Politics in Time: History, Institutions, and Social Analysis (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2004), ch. 1.

27 Cohen, Michael D., March, James G., and Olsen, Johan P., ‘A garbage can model of organizational choice’, Administrative Science Quarterly, 17:1 (1972), p. 125 ; Powell, Walter and DiMaggio, Paul (eds), The New Institutionalism in Organizational Analysis (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1991); Spector, Malcolm and Kitsuse, John I., Constructing Social Problems (New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers, 2001).

28 Kingdon, Agendas, p. 95.

29 See Gray, Julia and Slapin, Jonathan, ‘How effective are preferential trade agreements? Ask the experts’, Review of International Organizations, 7:3 (2012), pp. 309333 .

30 Blumer, Herbert, ‘Social problems as collective behavior’, Social Problems, 18:3 (1971), p. 302 , emphasis?added.

31 Weinberg, Darin, ‘On the social construction of social problems and social problems theory: a contribution to the legacy of John Kitsuse’, American Sociologist, 40:1/2 (2009), pp. 6178 ; Barnett, Michael and Finnemore, Martha, Rules for the World: International Organizations in Global Politics (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2004).

32 Ocasio, William, ‘The enactment of economic adversity: a reconciliation of theories of failure-induced change and threat-rigidity’, Research in Organizational Behavior, 17 (1995), pp. 287331 ; Ocasio, William, ‘Toward an attention-based view of the firm’, Strategic Management Journal, 18:S1 (1997), pp. 187206 .

33 Arnold, Christian and Rittberger, Berthold, ‘The legalization of dispute resolution in Mercosur’, Journal of Politics in Latin America, 5:3 (2013), p. 115 .

34 Katzenstein, Suzanne, ‘In the shadow of crisis: the creation of international courts in the twentieth century’, Harvard Journal of International Law, 55:1 (2014), pp. 188 , 165.

35 Paterson, William E. and Sloan, James, ‘Learning from the West: Policy transfer and political parties’, Journal of Communist Studies & Transition Politics, 21:1 (2005), pp. 3347 ; Hall, Peter A., ‘Policy paradigms, social learning, and the state: the case of economic policymaking in Britain’, Comparative Politics, 25:3 (1993), pp. 275296 .

36 DiMaggio, Paul and Powell, Walter, ‘The iron cage revisited: Institutional isomorphism and collective rationality in organizational fields’, American Sociological Review, 48:2 (1983), p. 148 ; Meyer, John and Rowan, Brian, ‘Institutionalized organizations: Formal structure as myth and ceremony’, American Journal of Sociology, 83:2 (1977), pp. 340363 .

37 Alter, Helfer, and Saldías, ‘Transplanting the European Court of Justice’, pp. 629632 .

38 Pelkmans, Jacques, ‘Asean’s institutional requirements with special reference to Afta’, in Pearl Imada and Seiji Naya (eds), Afta: The Way Ahead (Singepore: Institute for Southeast Asian Studies, 1992), pp. 126129 ; Langhammer, Rolf, ‘What can Asean learn from the experience of European integration? An EU perspective’, in Siow Yue Chia and Joseph Tan (eds), Asean & EU: Forging New Linkages and Strategic Alliances (Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 1997), pp. 234256 .

39 Benford, Robert D. and Snow, David A., ‘Framing processes and social movements: an overview and assessment’, Annual Review of Sociology, 26 (2000), pp. 611639 .

40 Reese, Ellen and Newcombe, Garnett, ‘Income rights, mothers’ rights, or workers’ rights? Collective action frames, organizational ideologies, and the American Welfare Rights Movement’, Social Problems, 50:2 (2003), pp. 294318 ; Snow, David and Benford, Robert, ‘Master frames and cycles of protest’, in Aldon D. Morris and Carol McClurg Mueller (eds), Frontiers in Social Movement Theory (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1992), pp. 133155 .

41 Duina, ‘Frames, scripts, and the making of regional trade agreements’, p. 100.

42 Barnett, and Finnemore, , Rules for the World, pp. 3132 .

43 Smith, Jackie, ‘Bridging global divides?’, International Sociology, 17:4 (2002), pp. 505528 .

44 Boli, John and Thomas, George M., ‘Introduction’, in John Boli and George M. Thomas (eds), Constructing World Culture: International Nongovernmental Organizations since 1875 (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1999), p. 4 ; Tarrow, Sidney, ‘Mentalities, political cultures, and collective action frames: Constructing meanings through action’, in Aldon D. Morris and Carol McClurg Mueller (eds), Frontiers in Social Movement Theory (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1992), pp. 174202 .

45 Zald, Mayer, ‘Culture, ideology, and strategic framing’, in Dough McAdam, John MacCarthy, and Mayer Zald (eds), Comparative Perspectives on Social Movements (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996), pp. 261274 .

46 Francesco Duina, ‘Making sense of the legal and judicial architectures of regional trade agreements worldwide’, Regulation and Governance, doi: 10.1111/rego.12081.

47 Alter, , Helfer, , and Saldias, , ‘Transplanting the European Court of Justice’, p. 643 .

48 Ibid.

49 Duina, ‘Frames, scripts, and the making of regional trade agreements’, p. 100.

50 Börzel and van Hüllen (eds), Governance Transfer by Regional Organizations.

51 Lenz, , ‘Spurred emulation’, p. 168 ; Arnold, and Rittberger, , ‘The legalization of dispute resolution in Mercosur’, p. 122 .

52 Frank, David John, Hironaka, Ann, and Schofer, Evan, ‘The nation-state and the natural environment over the twentieth century’, American Sociological Review, 65:1 (2000), pp. 96116 .

53 Boli, and Thomas, , ‘Introduction’, pp. 110 .

54 Duina, Francesco and Nedergaard, Peter, ‘Learning in international governmental organizations: the case of social protection’, Global Social Policy, 10:2 (2010), pp. 193217 .

55 Finnemore, Martha, ‘International organizations as teachers of norms: the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization and science policy’, International Organization, 47:4 (1993), pp. 565597 .

56 This is not to deny that some scholars, especially those interested in localisation processes, tend to frame their inquiries into diffusion in terms of translation and adaptation rather than convergence. This rhetorical move notwithstanding, these scholars are hard-pressed to deny that if diffusion takes place, even when transferred models are extensively adjusted to fit local conditions, this increases similarity between the respective units in final designs when compared to the status quo antes, and therefore can be labelled a form of convergence.

57 Some of these bodies changed subsequently. SADC, for example, later created a second dispute settlement mechanism in the context of the SADC Trade Protocol, and it disbanded the SADC Tribunal in 2012 following a controversial ruling against the Zimbabwian government. For an extended discussion of the latter, see Karen Alter, James Thuo Gathii, and Laurence Helfer, ‘Backlash against international courts in West, East and South Africa: Causes and consequences’, iCourts Working Paper Series, No. 21 (2015).

58 Solingen, , ‘Of dominoes and firewalls’, p. 633 .

59 Koremenos, Barbara and Betz, Timm, ‘The design of dispute settlement procedures in international agreements’, in Jeffrey A. Dunnoff and Mark A. Pollack (eds), International Law and International Relations: Synthesizing Insights from Interdisciplinary Scholarship (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2013), 371393 .

60 Alter, ‘The global spread of European style international courts’; Alter, The New Terrain of International Law; Tobias Lenz, ‘Spurred emulation’; Osiemo, ‘Lost in translation’.

61 Rasmussen, Hjalte, On Law and Policy in the European Court of Justice (Dordecht: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 1986), p. 207 .

62 Smet, Anne Boerger-De, ‘Negotiating the foundations of European law, 1950–57: the legal history of the treaties of Paris and Rome’, Contemporary European History, 21:3 (2012), pp. 342343 .

63 Rasmussen, , On Law and Policy in the European Court of Justice, p. 208 .

64 Boerger-De Smet, ‘Negotiating the foundations of European law’, p. 346.

65 Rasmussen, Hjalte, ‘The origins of a legal revolution: the early history of the European Court of Justice’, Journal of European Integration History, 14:2 (2008), p. 86 .

66 Ibid., p. 80.

67 Ibid.

68 Ibid.

69 Boerger-De Smet, ‘Negotiating the foundations of European law’, p. 349.

70 Rasmussen, , ‘The origins of a legal revolution’, p. 82 .

71 Ibid., p. 87.

72 Boerger-De Smet, ‘Negotiating the foundations of European law’, p. 349.

73 Ibid.

74 Tamm, Ditlev, ‘The history of the Court of Justice of the European Union since its origin’, in Allan Rosas, Egils Levits, and Yves Bot (eds), The Court of Justice and the Construction of Europe: Analyses and Perspectives on Sixty Years of Case-Law (The Hague: TMC Asser Press, 2013), p. 16 .

75 Sweet, Alec Stone, ‘The European Court of Justice’, in Paul Craig and Grainne De Burca (eds), The Evolution of EU Law (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011), p. 122 .

76 Boerger-De Smet, ‘Negotiating the foundations of European law’, p. 351.

77 Ibid.

78 Article 177; Shapiro, Martin, ‘The European Court of Justice’, in Alberta M. Sbragia (ed.), Euro-Politics: Politics and Policymaking in the ‘New’ European Community (Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution, 1992), p. 126 .

79 Tamm, , ‘The history of the Court of Justice, pp. 1920 .

80 The Commission, Assembly (later Parliament), and Council.

82 Dumberry, Patrick, ‘The NAFTA investment dispute settlement mechanism: a review of the latest case-law’, The Journal of World Investment, 2:1 (2001), p. 151 ; Oelstrom, Kristin L., ‘A treaty for the future: the dispute settlement mechanisms of the NAFTA’, Law and Policy in International Business, 25 (1993), p. 799 .

83 Rugman, Alan M. and Gestrin, Michael, ‘NAFTA’s treatment of foreign investment’, in Alan M. Rugman (ed.), Foreign Investment and NAFTA (Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina Press, 1994), pp. 4850 .

84 Jones, Ray, ‘NAFTA Chapter 11 investor-to-state dispute resolution: a shield to be embraced or a sword to be feared?’, Brigham Young University Law Review, 22:2 (2002), pp. 527559 .

85 Legum, Barton, ‘The innovation of investor-state arbitration under NAFTA’, Harvard International Law Journal, 43:2 (2002), pp. 531539 .

86 Clement, Norris C. et al., North American Economic Integration: Theory and Practice (Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing, 1999).

87 Cameron, Maxwell A. and Tomlin, Brian W., The Making of NAFTA: How the Deal Was Done (Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press, 2000), p. 1 .

88 Ibid.

89 , Oelstrom, ‘A treaty for the future’, pp. 799802 .

90 Heindl, Jennifer A., ‘Toward a history of NAFTA’s Chapter Eleven’, Berkeley Journal of International Law, 24:2 (2006), p. 680 .

91 Ibid.

92 , Heindl, ‘Toward a history of NAFTA’s Chapter Eleven’, pp. 682683 .

93 Chapter 19; see Taylor, Cherie O’Neil, ‘Dispute resolution as a catalyst for economic integration and an agent for deepening integration: NAFTA and MERCOSUR?’, Northwestern Journal of International Law & Business, 17:1 (1997), p. 854 .

94 Heindl, , ‘Toward a history of NAFTA’s Chapter Eleven’, pp. 680681 .

95 Oelstrom, , ‘A treaty for the future’, p. 800 .

96 Legum, ‘The innovation of investor-state arbitration under NAFTA’; Oelstrom, ‘A treaty for the future’.

97 Jones, ‘NAFTA Chapter 11 investor-to-state dispute resolution’, p. 530.

98 Hufbauer, Gary Clyde and Schott, Jeffrey J., NAFTA Revisited: Achievements and Challenges (Washington, DC: Institute for International Economics, 2005), p. 202 .

99 Hufbauer, and Schott, , NAFTA Revisited, p. 214 .

100 Mandaza, Ibbo and Tostensen, Arne, Southern Africa: In Search of a Common Future. From the Conference to a Community (Gaborone: SADC Secretariat, 1994), pp. 3839 .

101 South African Development Coordination Conference (SADCC) Council of Ministers, Record of the Council of Ministers Held in Arusha, Tanzania on the 22nd and 23rd of August (1991), p. 379.

102 Ibid.

103 Sidaway, James, ‘The (geo)politics of regional integration: the example of the Southern African Development Community’, Environment and Planning D, 16:5 (1998), p. 564 .

104 SADCC, ‘Towards economic integration’, The Proceedings of the 1992 Annual Consultative Conference Held in Maputo, Mozambique, 29–31 January (1992), pp. 4142 .

105 SADCC Council, Record of the Council of Ministers Held in Arusha, p. 35, emphasis added.

106 Elsig, Manfred, and Eckardt, Jappe, ‘The creation of the multilateral trade court: Design and experiential learning’, World Trade Review, 14:S1 (2015), p. S25 .

107 SADCC Council, Record of the Council of Ministers Held in Arusha, p. 379.

108 SADCC Council, Record of the Council of Ministers, 28 August (1991), p. 361.

109 SADCC, ‘Towards economic integration’, p. 35.

110 Lenz, ‘Spurred emulation’, pp. 165–6.

111 Alter, , ‘The global spread of European Style International Courts’, p. 145 ; see also Alter, The New Terrain of International Law.

112 See Lenz, , ‘Spurred emulation’, pp. 166167 .

113 For a crique of this view in sociology, see Beckert, , ‘Institutional isomorphism revisited’; Elkins and Simmons, ‘On waves, clusters, and diffusion’, p. 36 .

114 Thelen, Kathleen, ‘Historical institutionalism in comparative politics’, Annual Review of Political Science, 2 (1999), pp. 369404 ; Pierson, Politics in Time.

115 Barnett, and Finnemore, , Rules for the World, p. 2 .

116 Solingen and Börzel, ‘Introduction’, p. 9.

117 For example Risse, , ‘The diffusion of regionalism’, pp. 56 .

118 Schneiberg, Marc and Clemens, Elisabeth, ‘The typical tools for the job: Research strategies in institutional analysis’, Sociological Theory, 24:3 (2006), p. 200 .

119 See fns 3 and 11.

120 Jo, Hyeran and Namgung, Hyun, ‘Dispute settlement mechanisms in preferential trade agreements: Democracy, boilerplates, and the multilateral trade regime’, Journal of Conflict Resolution, 56:6 (2012), pp. 10411068 .

121 Lenz, ‘EU normative power and regionalism’.

122 Strang, David, ‘Adding social structure to diffusion models’, Sociological Methods and Research, 19:3 (1991), p. 325 .

123 This is an important element of Finnemore and Sikkink’s norm cycle. See Finnemore, Martha and Sikkink, Kathryn, ‘International norm dynamics and political change’, International Organization 52:4 (1998), pp. 887917 .

124 DiMaggio, and Powell, , ‘The iron cage revisited’, p. 156 .

125 Alter, Karen and Hooghe, Liesbet, ‘Regional dispute settlement’, in Tanja Börzel and Thomas Risse (eds), Oxford Handbook of Comparative Regionalism (Oxford: Oxford University Press, forthcoming); Smith, ‘The politics of dispute settlement design’.

The order of authors’ names reflects alphabetical convention; both authors have contributed equally to all work.

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