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Carl Schmitt—Political Theologian?

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Abstract

“Political theology” is now a fixture within political theory's lexicon. Although Carl Schmitt's Political Theology (1922) is identified as the contemporary locus classicus for the concept, that work's primary task is only to elaborate a “sociology of juristic concepts.” Beginning in the 1990s, however, Schmitt's entire corpus has increasingly been interpreted as one motivated by “political theology” in a stronger sense—as political action based upon faith in (Christian) revelation. I challenge this thesis by (1) examining its history, (2) drawing attention to the many aspects of Schmitt's (mostly Weimar-era) work that are deeply at odds with this thesis, and (3) reexamining his (mostly postwar) remarks ordinarily cited to bolster the thesis. Ultimately, the core of Schmitt's thought lies elsewhere; returning to the purported father of political theology brings clarity to the bourgeoning discussion of this topic within the discipline.

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1 E.g., Connolly William, Why I Am not a Secularist (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1999); Taylor Charles, A Secular Age (Cambridge: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2007); Lilla Mark, Stillborn God (New York: Knopf, 2007); Gillespie Michael, Theological Origins of Modernity (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2008); Habermas Jürgen, Between Naturalism and Religion (Cambridge: Polity, 2008). Earlier treatments include Löwith Karl, Meaning in History (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1949); Voegelin Eric, Collected Works, vol. 5 (Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 2000).

2 Agamben Giorgio, Kingdom and the Glory (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2011);Agamben , The Time That Remains (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2005); Badiou Alain, Saint Paul (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2003); Žižek Slavoj, Ticklish Subject (London: Verso, 1999), 127–70; Žižek, Puppet and the Dwarf (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2003); Derrida Jacques, “Force of Law,” Cardozo Law Review 11 (1990): 9191045; Derrida , Rogues (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2005); Derrida , Beast and the Sovereign (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2009). The nonliberal Left's preoccupation with politico-theological themes is foreshadowed by Benjamin Walter, Gesammelte Schriften (Frankfurt: Suhrkamp, 1991–); Bloch Ernst, Spirit of Utopia (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2000); Taubes Jacob, Political Theology of Paul (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2004); Taubes, Occidental Eschatology (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2009).

3 E.g., de Vries Hent and Sullivan Lawrence E., eds. Political Theologies (New York: Fordham University Press, 2006); Gontier Thierry, “From ‘Political Theology’ to ‘Political Religion,’Review of Politics 75, no. 1 (2013): 2543; McCormick William, “Jacques Maritain on Political Theology,European Journal of Political Theory 12, no. 2 (2013): 175–94; Bernstein Richard J., ed., “Political Theology?,” special issue, Social Research 80, no. 1 (2013).

4 Schindler Alfred and Scholz Frithard, “Die Theologie Carl Schmitts,” in Religionstheorie und politische Theologie, ed. Taubes J. (Munich: Fink, 1983), 1:165.

5 Lilla Mark, Reckless Mind (New York: New York Review Books, 2001), 67.

6 McCormick John, “Political Theory and Political Theology,Political Theory 26, no. 6 (1998): 831.

7 E.-W. Böckenförde, “Auf dem Weg zum Klassiker,” Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, July 11, 1997, 35.

8 Lauermann Manfred, “Carl Schmitt—Jenseits biographischer Mode,” in Die eigentlich katholische Verschärfung, ed. Wacker B. (Munich: Fink, 1994), 299.

9 For good literature surveys, see Müller Jan-Werner, A Dangerous Mind (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2003), 156–68, 202–6; Lilla, Reckless, esp. 50–55, 67–68; Assmann Jan, Herrschaft und Heil (Munich: Hanser, 2000), 1528. For representative English-language studies in this tradition, see, e.g., Palaver Wolfgang, “Carl Schmitt on Nomos and Space,Telos, no. 106 (1996): 105–27; Hooker William, Carl Schmitt's International Thought (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009). As a guide to the relevant literature in Spanish and Italian, see Vatter Miguel, “Political Theology of Carl Schmitt,” in Oxford Handbook of Carl Schmitt, ed. Meierhenrich Jens and Simons Oliver (New York: Oxford University Press, 2014); Herrero Montserrat, “The Aperture to Transcendence as Political-Theological Event in Carl Schmitt's Thought,Revista de Ciencias Sociales (2012): 411–35.

10 E.g., Agamben, Kingdom and the Glory, 7, 15, 193; Assmann, Herrschaft, 11, 15–28.

11 E.g., Žižek Slavoj, et al. , The Neighbor (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2005); Milbank John, Theology and Social Theory (Oxford: Blackwell, 2006); Robbins Jeffrey, Radical Democracy and Political Theology (New York: Columbia University Press, 2011); Kahn Paul, Political Theology (New York: Columbia University Press, 2011); Hammill Graham et al. , eds., Political Theology and Early Modernity (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2012).

12 For critics, see, e.g., Bendersky Joseph, “New Evidence, Old Contradictions,Telos no. 132 (2005): 67ff.; McCormick John, Carl Schmitt's Critique of Liberalism (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999), 114, 263–64; Cristi Renato, Carl Schmitt and Authoritarian Liberalism (Cardiff: University of Wales Press, 1998), 171–73; Balakrishnan Gopal, The Enemy (London: Verso, 2000), 224–25, 275, 281, 293; Scheuerman William, Carl Schmitt (Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield, 1999), 3, 226–33, 249, 337; Müller, Dangerous Mind, 202–06; Bernd Rüthers, “Retter vor dem Antichrist?” Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, November 28, 1997, 14. Cf., Kennedy Ellen, Constitutional Failure (Durham: Duke University Press, 2004), 8, 182–83, 235–36.

13 Mannheim Karl, Ideology and Utopia (London: Routledge, 1979), 53; Manemann Jürgen, Carl Schmitt und die Politische Theologie (Münster: Aschendorff, 2002), 157, 160, 166; Richard Faber, “Carl Schmitt, der Römer,” in Katholische Verschärfung, 263, 268; Groh Ruth, Arbeit an der Heillosigkeit der Welt (Frankfurt: Suhrkamp, 1998), 1923; Blumenberg Hans, Legitimacy of the Modern Age (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1985), 101; Gross Raphael, Carl Schmitt and the Jews (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 2007), esp. 89, 97, 112, 131, 227, 234; Derrida, Beast, 1:17, 54, 110, 154; “Force of Law,” 991–93; Lefort Claude, Democracy and Political Theory (Cambridge: Polity, 1988), 215–16, 224, 254–55.

14 Weber Max, From Max Weber (New York: Oxford University Press, 1958), 152; Sartre Jean-Paul, Existentialism Is a Humanism (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2007), 2229; Berlin Isaiah, Four Essays on Liberty (London: Oxford University Press, 1969), 167–72; Honig Bonnie, Political Theory (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1993), 104–8. See also Kierkegaard Søren, Concluding Unscientific Postscript (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009), 1316, 84–89, 96.

15 Plato, Republic 2.379a5–6; Aristotle, Metaphysics 6.1 1026a18–23; 11.7 1065b1–3.

16 E.g., Schmitt Carl, Die geistesgeschichtliche Lage des heutigen Parlamentarismus (Berlin: Duncker & Humblot, 1991), 82 (hereafter GLP); Römischer Katholizismus und politische Form (Stuttgart: Klett-Cotta, 1984), 22, 48 (hereafter RK); Politische Theologie (Berlin: Duncker & Humblot, 1979), 79, 84 (hereafter PT); Der Begriff des Politischen (Berlin: Duncker & Humblot, 1991), 84, 9294 (hereafter BdP); Politische Romantik (Munich: Duncker & Humblot, 1925), 87 (hereafter PR) (analogical); PT, 49, 51–52, 59, 63; see also 76; BdP, 71; Politische Theologie II (Berlin: Duncker & Humblot, 1990), 41, 54, 56, 109 (hereafter PT2); Leviathan in der Staatslehre des Thomas Hobbes (Cologne: Hohenheim, 1982), 169 (hereafter L) (metaphysics-theology).

17 Schmitt Carl, Glossarium (Berlin: Duncker & Humblot, 1991), 19, 189, 310 (hereafter G); BdP, 73, 80–84, 88–92.

18 Heidegger Martin, Identity and Difference (New York: Harper, 1969), 54ff.

19 G, 80; see also 232, 260.

20 For accounts of some of the sources, see Feil Ernst, “Von der ‘politischen Theologie’ zur ‘Theologie der Revolution?,’” in Diskussion zur ‘Theologie der Revolution,’ ed. Feil E. et al. (Munich: Kaiser, 1969), 113–26; Assmann, Herrschaft, 15–28.

21 PT, 49ff., 56, 63, 64.

22 Schmitt Carl, Wert des Staates und die Bedeutung des Einzelnen (Tübingen: Mohr, 1914), 55; see also 67; PR, 8889; Deutsche Literaturzeitung, no. 47 (1925): 2308; Die Diktatur (Munich: Duncker & Humblot, 1928), 138–39 (hereafter D); GLP, 20, 41, 89; BdP, 89; Positionen und Begriffe (Berlin: Duncker & Humblot, 1994), 153, 161 (hereafter PuB); Verfassungslehre (Berlin: Duncker & Humblot, 1954), 80 (hereafter VL); Über die drei Arten des rechtswissenschaftlichen Denkens (Berlin: Duncker & Humblot, 1993), 22; L, 22.

23 Schmitt Carl, Donoso Cortés in gesamteuropäischer Interpretation (Cologne: Greven, 1950), 10 (hereafter DC); Peterson Erik, Theological Tractates, ed. and trans. Hollerich Michael J. (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2011), 104–5, 233n168.

24 Metz Johann Baptist, Zum Begriff der neuen politischen Theologie (Mainz: Matthias-Grünewald, 1997), 163–64, 181; Theology of the World (New York: Herder, 1969), 107; Faith in History and Society (New York: Crossroad, 2007), xi.

25 Gutiérrez Gustavo, Essential Writings (Minneapolis: Fortress, 1996), 2328; Theology of Liberation (Maryknoll: Orbis, 1988), esp. 126–30.

26 L, 139, 142, 155, 176.

27 PT2, 87. Although I have freely borrowed from existing English translations when they are sufficiently literal, responsibility for translation is ultimately my own.

28 PT2, 69, 80, 83–85.

29 Hugo Ball, “Carl Schmitts Politische Theologie,” in Religionstheorie; Taubes Jacob, To Carl Schmitt (New York: Columbia University Press, 2013); Taubes, Political Theology of Paul; Maritain Jacques, Collected Works (Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 1995–), 11:214–15.

30 Meier Heinrich, The Lesson of Carl Schmitt (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2011), 27, 68, 78, 97, 134–35; Meier, Carl Schmitt and Leo Strauss (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1995), 30; Meier, Leo Strauss and the Theologico-Political Problem (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006), 85. Meuter Günter, Der Katechon (Berlin: Duncker & Humblot, 1994), 77, 80, 188–89, 19ff., 374, 464 follows Meier in central claims.

31 Habermas Jürgen, New Conservatism (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1989), 136; Between Naturalism and Religion, 146; Power of Religion (New York: Columbia University Press, 2011), 23, 30.

32 E.g., Beiner Ronald, Civil Religion (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2010), esp. 359–60, 364, 368.

33 Meier Heinrich, “Philosopher as Enemy,Graduate Faculty Philosophy Journal 17, nos. 1–2 (1994): 329; Leo Strauss, 81n15. See also Meuter, Katechon, 287.

34 Schmitt Carl, Ex Captivitate Salus (Munich: Duncker & Humblot, 2002), 12, 53; see also 31 (hereafter ECS); G, 101; see also 212, 238; Schmitt Carl and Mohler Armin, Briefwechsel mit einem seiner Schüler (Berlin: Akademie, 1995), 95. See also Schmitt Carl, “Drei Stufen historischer Sinngebung,Universitas 5, no. 8 (1950): 927–28.

35 Schmitt Carl, Land und Meer (Stuttgart: Klett-Cotta, 1993), 19, 80; Staat, Großraum, Nomos (Berlin: Duncker & Humblot, 1995), 436 (hereafter SGN); Der Nomos der Erde (Cologne: Greven, 1950), 28ff., 211 et passim (hereafter NdE); ECS, 31; G, 63, 70, 80, 153, 165, 272, 273; “Drei Stufen”; Die andere Hegel-Linie,Christ und Welt 10, no. 30 (1957): 2; Verfassungsrechtliche Aufsätze (Berlin: Duncker & Humbolt, 1958), 428–29 (herafter VA); PT2, 81; Schmitt Carl and Taubes Jacob, Briefwechsel mit Materialien (Munich: Fink, 2011), 38; 2 Thess. 2:6–7. See Grossheutschi Felix, Carl Schmitt und die Lehre vom Katechon (Berlin: Duncker & Humblot, 1996).

36 Cf. G, 23 with G, 71. See also G, 17; PT2, 63, 101n1; VA, 422; ECS, 89.

37 RK 49.

38 G, v, 131, 165.

39 G, 283; “Drei Stufen,” 930. Linn's letters are reprinted in Tommissen Piet, ed., “Amicus Schmitt, sed magis amica veritas,” in De precisie van het lezen, ed. Stuy J., Van Bellingen J., and Van den Bossche M. (Brussels: VUBPress, 2003), 223–41.

40 Schmitt and Mohler, Briefwechsel, 121–22, 124.

41 Schmitt and Taubes, Briefwechsel, 37. See also PT2, 40.

42 Taubes, To Carl Schmitt, 44; Böckenförde E.-W. in Complexio Oppositorum, ed. Quaritsch H. (Berlin: Duncker & Humblot, 1988), 153. Unmentioned, however, in Böckenförde E.-W., Wissenschaft, Politik, Verfassungsgericht (Berlin: Suhrkamp, 2011), 373–77.

43 Blei Franz, Briefe an Carl Schmitt (Heidelberg: Manutius, 1995), 32.

44 Nichtweiss Per Barbara, Erik Peterson (Freiburg: Herder, 1992), 728–29.

45 Per Nichtweiss, Erik Peterson, 735. That Peterson's earlier critique of political theology was directed not at Schmitt but rather at the so-called Reichstheologen is revealed by a letter from Peterson's estate. See ibid., 766.

46 Voegelin Eric, Collected Works, vol. 30 (Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 2007), 184.

47 Armin Mohler, “Carl Schmitt und die ‘Konservative Revolution,’” in Complexio Oppositorum, 146.

48 E.g., Meier, Lesson, 178–79.

49 Bendersky Joseph W., “Love, Law, and War,Telos, no. 147 (2009): 175, 189#x2013;90; “Schmitt's Diaries,” in Oxford Handbook of Carl Schmitt.

50 Mehring Reinhard, Carl Schmitt: Aufstieg und Fall (Munich: Beck, 2009), 184–85, 196, 268.

51 Pace Karl-Egon Lönne, “Carl Schmitt und der Katholizismus der Weimarer Republik,” in Katholische Verschärfung, 34–35; Maschke Günter, “La Rappresentazione Cattolica,Der Staat 28 (1989): 564; Meuter, Katechon, 319 et passim. Dahlheimer Manfred, Carl Schmitt und der deutsche Katholizismus (Paderborn: Schöningh, 1998), 212, 286, by acknowledging that Schmitt “went his own way,” was “in principle indifferent to what [was] held up as the final absolute” in politics, and “knew that he was not bound to the parameters of the Catholic theory of the state,” implicitly undermines his conclusion that Schmitt wrote as a genuinely “Catholic author” (572).

52 Koenen Pace Andreas, Der Fall Carl Schmitt (Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 1995). See Bendersky Joseph, Journal of Modern History 69, no. 4 (1997): 892; Böckenförde E.-W., Kirche und christlicher Glaube (Munich: LIT, 2004), 129ff.

53 Cf. Thoma Richard, “On the Ideology of Parliamentarism,” in Crisis of Parliamentary Democracy, ed. Kennedy E. (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1988), 82 with GLP, 5.

54 PT2, 27–30.

55 Vatter, “Political Theology”; Maschke, “Rappresentazione Cattolica,” 560ff.

56 Schmitt Carl, Gespräch über die Macht und den Zugang zum Machthaber (Pfullingen: Neske, 1954), 21; VL, 77; Rom. 13:1 (NRSV).

57 Schmitt Carl, “Die Sichtbarkeit der Kirche,Summa 2 (1917): 74; see also 73, 75, 79.

58 RK, 14, 31–32.

59 VL, 205–11, emphasis added; see also xiii, 161, 386.

60 D, 139n2.

61 L, 51. See also D, 32, 130.

62 Gal. 3:28 (NRSV). See also Acts 10:34–43; Matt. 28:19.

63 RK, 32; see also 12–13, 51; GLP, 89; D, 46.

64 PuB, 162; BdP, 55.

65 Schmitt, “Sichtbarkeit,” 78; see also 71.

66 BdP, 59, 61.

67 BdP, 64, 58; Meier, Lesson, 13; Gross, Carl Schmitt, 184–85, 232.

68 Strauss Leo, “Notes on Carl Schmitt, The Concept of the Political,” in The Concept of the Political, expanded ed., trans. Schwab George (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2007), 111.

69 BdP, 121.

70 Nolte Ernst, Deutschland und der Kalte Krieg (Stuttgart: Klett-Cotta, 1985), esp. 146–48.

71 Gross, Carl Schmitt, 182, 196–99, 214–18, 232; Müller, Dangerous Mind, 46–47, 58, 139; von Medem in G, v–vi.

72 Bendersky Joseph, Carl Schmitt (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1983), 224–27, 237–40; Mehring, Carl Schmitt, 378–80.

73 Schmitt Carl, Antworten in Nürnberg (Berlin: Duncker & Humblot, 2000), 55, 65, 71–72, 76, 86; Bendersky Joseph, “Carl Schmitt's Path to Nuremberg,Telos, no. 139 (2007): 24, 2627; Mehring Reinhard, “Ein ‘Katholischer Laie Deutscher Volks- und Staatsangehörigkeit?,’Revista de Ciencias Sociales (2012): 396; Mehring, Carl Schmitt, 449; Müller, Dangerous Mind, 19.

74 Bernd Wacker, Katholische Verschärfung, 7, emphasis added; see also 285.

75 Meier, Lesson, xvi; see also 199–202.

76 E.g., E.-W. Böckenförde, “Politische Theorie und Politische Theologie,” in Religionstheorie, esp. 1:19–22.

77 E.g., Taubes, To Carl Schmitt, 4. Chapters 1–3 and 4 of PT reprint Schmitt Carl, “Soziologie des Souveränitätsbegriffes und politische Theologie,” in Hauptprobleme der Soziologie, ed. Palyi M. (Munich: Duncker & Humblot, 1922–23), 335 and Die Staatsphilosophie der Gegenrevolution,Archiv für Rechts- und Wirtschaftsphilosophie 16 (1922): 121–31, respectively.

78 PT, 7.

79 PR, 23–24.

80 BdP, 80–82, 88–89.

81 NdE, 92, 96. Also PT2, 107, 111; ECS, 70, 75; G, 106; L, 147–48; BdP, 15, 117.

82 Löwith Karl, Martin Heidegger and European Nihilism (New York: Columbia University Press, 1995), 137–38, 144; Schmitt, “Drei Stufen,” 927–28; DC, 99.

83 VL, 77–78.

84 BdP, 42–43.

85 PT, 49–50, 55, 58–59.

86 PT2, 22, 30; also 56, 98, 101n1. See also Schmitt Carl and Schickel Joachim, Gespräche mit Carl Schmitt (Berlin: Merve, 1993), 57. Religious institutions (e.g., the Roman Catholic Church) can possess a “formal, juristic character,” but they do so by means of their analogy with “secular jurisprudence,” which functions as “an intermediary for law that is already valid” (RK, 49–50).

87 PT, 49–50, 55, emphasis added; see also 60. In basic agreement are, e.g., Staff Ilse, “Zum Begriff der politischen Theologie bei Carl Schmitt,” in Christentum und modernes Recht, ed. Dilcher G. and Staff I. (Frankfurt: Suhrkamp, 1984), 182–84, 193, 203–5; Hermann Lübbe, “Politische Theologie als Theologie repolitisierter Religion,” in Religionstheorie, 1:47; Lukács Georg, Destruction of Reason (Atlantic Highlands: Humanities, 1981), 652; Kantorowicz Ernst, The King's Two Bodies (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1997), 1819, 42–43, 114–15, 185, 505–6.

88 VL, 80, emphasis added.

89 Kelsen Hans, Das Problem der Souveränität (Tübingen: Mohr, 1920), 21; see also 320; Der soziologische und der juristische Staatsbegriff (Tübingen: Mohr, 1922), 222, 245–47, 253. Also Essays in Legal and Moral Philosophy (Dordrecht: Reidel, 1973), esp. 6882.

90 BdP, 38 et passim.

91 BdP, 36, 64, emphasis added. Preserved almost verbatim in Schmitt Carl, Der Begriff des Politischen, 3rd ed. (Hamburg: Hanseatische Verlagsanstalt, 1933), 1819, 46.

92 PT, 7.

93 VL, 223, 238, 282–86. See also PT, 63.

94 E.g., Meier, Lesson, 101; Taubes, Political Theology of Paul, 67–68.

95 PT, 69–83; RK, 25–26; GLP, 81–83.

96 PT, 83, emphasis added.

97 PT, 73ff.

98 PT, 75; DC, 71.

99 PT, 73–74; RK, 13. Meier, Lesson, xii–xiii, 146 argues that Schmitt writes “more ‘like a Protestant,’” but this does not gel with Schmitt's biography.

100 DC, 69–70, 73, 75–77, 79; see also 12–13, 19, 52, 105, 108–9.

101 E.g., Meier, Lesson, xviii, 102; Lilla, Reckless Mind, 71–72.

102 Hollerich Michael, “Carl Schmitt,” in Blackwell Companion to Political Theology, ed. Scott P. and Cavanaugh W. T. (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2004), 119.

103 E.g., SGN, 139–51.

104 PT, 44–45; L, 113.

105 PT2, 121–22.

106 D, 35, 118–19; see also 21ff.

107 L, 20–22, 88, 126; Hobbes Thomas, Leviathan (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996), chap. 42 (p. 345), chap. 43 (p. 407 et passim).

108 L, 81–84, 125–26; Hobbes, Leviathan, chap. 40 (p. 323 et passim).

109 BdP, 123.

110 Meier, Lesson, 123, 203; see also 21–30, 51, 76, 108–12, 202–4 ; Carl Schmitt, 66–69, 77.

111 E.g., Meuter, Katechon, 14ff., 189n275, 195, 482 et passim; Barbara Nichtweiss, “Apokalyptische Verfassungslehren,” and Wacker, “Carl Schmitts Katholizismus,” in Katholische Verschärfung, 63–64 and 292–93; Manemann, Carl Schmitt, 7ff.; Mehring Reinhard, Pathetisches Denken (Berlin: Duncker & Humblot, 1989), 22, 221; Groh, Arbeit, 19–24.

112 Agamben, Kingdom and the Glory, 7; Assmann, Herrschaft, 20, 22, 24.

113 BdP, 80–83, 87, 94.

114 Comte Auguste, Système de politique positive (Paris: Mathias, 1851–54), 1:360–62; DC, 108.

115 PT2, 114; see also 110; Blumenberg, Legitimacy, 138 et passim.

116 Heidegger Martin, Basic Writings (New York: Harper, 2008), 246ff.; Foucault Michel, Order of Things (New York: Vintage Books, 1994), 387 et passim.

117 Böckenförde E.-W., State, Society, and Liberty (New York: Berg, 1991), 45.

For comments, I thank Sam Bagg, Ronald Beiner, Renato Cristi, Tom Dabrowski, Alex de la Paz, Michael Gillespie, Raphael Gross, Nora Hanagan, Michael Hoelzl, Michael Hollerich, Matt Kos, Brickey Lequire, John McCormick, Ali Mian, Svetozar Minkov, Jakob Norberg, Andrew Norris, Katherine Pettus, Matthias Riedl, David Schkade, Jonathan Schwartz, Will Stahl, Jenna Storey, Miguel Vatter, and Sam Zeitlin.

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