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Sources of Conflict Between Church and State in Poland

  • Frank Dinka
Extract

THE relations between the Church and State have been for many years the subject of interest to the political theorist, the student of contemporary totalitarian movements, and of particular concern to the student of comparative political institutions and systems. To the student of political theory it invokes the old conflict between the spiritual and the temporal authorities, between the papal authority and the claim of the emerging national states. For the student of modern totalitarianism it raises, without answering, the crucial question of the extent to which a totalitarian system can tolerate competing ideologies within the same national community. Finally, for the student of comparative institutions, in certain circumstances (for example, in Poland), it presents certain features of uniqueness that call for explanation.

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1 Beer, Samuel H., Ulam, Adam B. et al. , Patterns of Government: The Major Political Systems of Europe (New York, 1958), Chapter 3.

2 The area which was taken from Germany and given to Poland by a decision made by the United States, the Soviet Union, and Great Britain at the Yalta, Teheran, and Potsdam conferences is referred to by the Poles as “Recovered Territories” because to the Poles these are ancient Polish lands which have been “recovered” after World War II.

3 Trybuna Ludu, February 6, 1960.

4 Polish Perspectives, III (11, 1960), 42.

5 Dziennik Urzedowy Ministerstwa Oswiaty (Official Journal of the Ministry of Education), No. 4, Reg. No. 189.

6 The text of the agreement appears in Trybuna Ludu, April 16, 1950.

7 Bilas, S. B. S., Organizacja Szkolnictwa w Polsce (Cracow, 1950), pp. 111112.

8 Valkenier, Elizabeth, “The Catholic Church in Communist Poland, 1945–1955,” The Review of Politics, XVIII (07, 1956), 318.

9 Szuldrzynski, J., The Pattern of Life in Poland: The Situation of the Catholic Church (Paris, 1953), p. 47.

10 Valkenier, , op. cit., p. 318.

11 Gsovski, Vladimir, ed., Church and State Behind the Iron Curtain (New York, 1955), p. 188.

12 Zycie Warszawy, October 9, 1951.

13 Ibid.

14 Inter-Catholic Press Agency, III (May 3 and 05 26, 1948).

15 “Poland's Primate Rallies Priests,” The New York Times, October 12, 1949.

16 From a statement issued by the Polish hierarchy at a special conference held on April 22, 1952. See also Catholic Mind, XLVIII (07 1950), 440442.

17 Trybuna Ludu, December 8, 1956.

18 Kozakiewicz, Mikolaj, “School and Religion,” Zycie Warszawy, 08 24, 1960.

19 Trybuna Ludu, January 21, 1961.

20 The New York Times, January 22, 1961.

21 America, CV (07 29, 1961), 558.

22 Hotchkiss, Christine, “Ask Americans to Pray for Us,” The Saturday Evening Post, CGXXXVI (02 2, 1963), 60.

23 Trybuna Ludu, September 10, 1961.

24 Ibid., September 8, 1961.

25 The New York Times, September 18, 1961.

26 Olsen, Arthur, “The Polish Churches Resist New Curbs,” The New York Times, 11 19, 1961.

27 East Europe, XIII (05, 1964), 50.

28 Ibid., XIII (November, 1964), 46.

30 Pawelczynski, A., “Students and Religion,” Argumenty, 09 18, 1960.

31 Olsen, Arthur, “The Polish Faithful in Spite of Marx,” The New York Times, 06 18, 1961.

32 Dziennik Ustaw Polskiej Rzeczypospolitej Ludowej (Journal of Laws of the Polish People's Republic), No. 45, Item 334.

33 Szuldrzynski, , op. cit., p. 28.

34 Dziennik Ustaw Polskiej Rzeczypospolitej Ludowej, 1953, No. 10, Item 32.

35 Szuldrzynski, , op. cit., p. 39.

36 National Committee For a Free Europe, Poland in the Year 1951, p. 73.

37 Rzeczpospolita, September 12, 1949.

38 National Committee For a Free Europe, Poland in the Year 1951, p. 74.

39 News From Behind The Iron Curtain, XII (08, 1953), 47.

40 Markert, Werner, Osteuropa-Handbuch: Polen (Koeln, 1959), p. 361.

41 National Committee For a Free Europe, Poland in the Year 1951, p. 74.

42 “Inter-Catholic Press Agency, II (05, 1956), 3.

43 National Committee For a Free Europe, Poland in the Year 1951, p. 73.

44 Olsen, Arthur, “Polish Cardinal Curbing Priests,” The New York Times, 03 5, 1961.

46 Myslek, Wieslaw, “Church and State,” Polish Perspectives, 0809, 1959, p. 70.

447 Hotchkiss, , The Saturday Evening Post, 02 2, 1963, p. 60.

48 Trybuna Ludu, January 31, 1961.

49 Gsovski, Vladimir and Grzybowski, Kazimierz, ed., Government, Law and Courts in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe (New York, 1959), I, 355356.

50 Markert, , op. cit., p. 105.

51 Valkenier, , op. cit., p. 318.

52 Gsovski, and Grzybowski, , op. cit., p. 357.

53 East Europe, VI (07, 1957), 40.

55 Markert, , op. cit., p. 365.

57 Mestrovic, Mathew M., “Poland Under the Cross,” The Commonweal, LXXIII (01 13, 1961), 404.

58 Myslek, , Polish Perspectives, 0809, 1959, p. 69.

59 Inter-Catholic Press Agency, July 17, 1961, p. 2.

60 In France, at the time, there was one priest for about 900 inhabitants, while in the United States the average was one priest for 764 Wilkanowicz, Catholics. S., “A Glance From the Sideline,” Tygodnik Powszechny, 05 31, 1959.

61 Edwardson, Roland M., “The Two Polands,” America, CVI (12 9, 1961), 361.

62 Olsen, , The New York Times, 06 18, 1961, p. 20.

63 Brzezinski, Zbigniew K., Ideology and Power in Soviet Politics (New York, 1962), p. 15.

64 Friedrich, Carl J., ed., Totalitarianism (Cambridge, 1954);Arendt, Hannah, The Origins of Totalitarianism (New York, 1951);Friedrich, Carl J. and Brzezinski, Zbigniew K., Totalitarian Dictatorship and Autocracy (New York, 1962).

65 Inkeles, Alex, “The Totalitarian Mystique: Some Impressions of the Dynamics of Totalitarian Society,” in Friedrich, Carl J., ed., Totalitarianism (Cambridge, 1954), p. 100.

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The Review of Politics
  • ISSN: 0034-6705
  • EISSN: 1748-6858
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