This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.
2Alzheimer's Association. Alzheimer's disease facts and figures. Alzheimers Dementia 2012; 8: 131–68.
3CR Jack Jr, MS Albert , DS Knopman , GM McKhann , RA Sperling , MC Carrillo , B Thies , CH Phelps . Introduction to the recommendations from the National Institute on Aging-Alzheimer's Association workgroups on diagnostic guidelines for Alzheimer's disease. Alzheimers Dementia 2011; 7: 257–62.
4RA Sperling , PS Aisen , LA Beckett , DA Bennett , S Craft , AM Fagan , T Iwatsubo , CR Jack Jr, J Kaye , TJ Montine , DC Park , EM Reiman , CC Rowe , E Siemers , Y Stern , K Yaffe , MC Carrillo , B Thies , M Morrison-Bogorad , MV Wagster , CH Phelps . Toward defining the preclinical stages of Alzheimer's disease: recommendations from the National Institute on Aging- Alzheimer's Association workgroups on diagnostic guidelines for Alzheimer's disease. Alzheimers Dementia 2011; 7: 280–92.
5JL Molinuevo , R Sánchez-Valle , A Lladó , J Fortea , D Bartrés-Faz , L Rami . Identifying earlier Alzheimer's disease: insights from the preclinical and prodromal phases. Neurodegener Dis 2012; 10: 158–60.
6AS Khachaturian , CD Corcoran , LS Mayer , PP Zandi , J Breitner .; Cache County Study Investigators. Apolipoprotein E epsilon4 count affects age at onset of Alzheimer disease, but not lifetime susceptibility: The Cache County Study. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2004; 61: 518–24.
7F Jessen , B Wiese , G Cvetanovska , A Fuchs , H Kaduszkiewicz , H Kolsch , T Luck , E Mosch , M Pentzek , SG Riedel-Heller , J Werle , S Weyerer , T Zimmermann , W Maier , H Bickel . Patterns of subjective memory impairment in the elderly: association with memory performance. Psych Med 2007; 37: 1753–62.
8DE Barnes , SJ Lee . Predicting Alzheimer's risk: why and how? Alzheimers Res Ther 2011; 3: 33.
9RJ Bateman , C Xiong , TL Benzinger , AM Fagan , A Goate , NC Fox , DS Marcus , NJ Cairns , X Xie , TM Blazey , DM Holtzman , A Santacruz , V Buckles , A Oliver , K Moulder , PS Aisen , B Ghetti , WE Klunk , E McDade , RN Martins , CL Masters , R Mayeux , JM Ringman , MN Rossor , PR Schofield , RA Sperling , S Salloway , JC Morris ; Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer Network. Clinical and biomarker changes in dominantly inherited Alzheimer's disease. N Engl J Med 2012; 367: 795–804.
11Editorial. A grand plan for Alzheimer's disease and related dementias. Lancet Neurology 2012; 11: 201.
12S Gauthier , B Reisberg , M Zaudig , RC Petersen , K Ritchie , K Broich , S Belleville , H Brodaty , D Bennett , H Chertkow , JL Cummings , M de Leon , H Feldman , M Ganguli , H Hampel , P Scheltens , MC Tierney , P Whitehouse , B Winblad . International Psychogeriatric Association Expert Conference on mild cognitive impairment. Lancet 2006; 367:1262–70.
13RC Petersen , GE Smith , SC Waring , RJ Ivnik , EG Tangalos , E Kokmen . Mild cognitive impairment: clinical characterization and outcome. Arch Neurol 1999; 56: 303–8.
15M Malek-Ahmadi , K Davis , CM Belden , S Jacobson , MN Sabbagh . Informant-reported cognitive symptoms that predict amnestic mild cognitive impairment. BMC Geriatrics 2012b; 12: 3.
16C Abbate , PD Trimarchi , P Nicolini , L Bergamaschini , C Vergani , D Mari . Comparison of informant reports and neuropsychological assessment in mild cognitive impairment. Am J Alzheimers Dis Other Demen 2011; 26: 528–34.
17C Jonker , LJ Launer , C Hooijer , J Lindeboom . Memory complaints and memory impairment in older individuals. J Am Geriatr Soc 1996; 44: 44–49.
21US Preventive Services Task Force.Screening for dementia: recommendation and rationale summary for patients. Ann Intern Med 2003; 138: 925–26.
22C Weyer Jamora , A Young , R Ruff . Comparison of subjective cognitive complaints with neuropsychological tests in individuals with mild versus more severe traumatic brain injuries. Brain Inj 2012; 26: 36–47.
23MB Paradise , NS Glozier , SL Naismith , TA Davenport , IB Hickie . Subjective memory complaints, vascular risk factors and psychological distress in the middle-aged: a cross-sectional study. BMC Psychiat 2011: 11: 108.
24RO Roberts , YE Geda , DS Knopman , RH Cha , VS Pankratz , BF Boeve , RJ Ivnik , EG Tangalos , RC Petersen , WA Rocca . The Mayo Clinic Study of Aging: design and sampling, participation, baseline measures and sample characteristics. Neuroepid 2008; 30: 58–69.
25R Heun , H Kölsch , F Jessen . Risk factors and early signs of Alzheimer's disease in a family study sample. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 2006; 256: 28–36.
26BA Appels , E Scherder . The diagnostic accuracy of dementia-screening instruments with an administration time of 10 to 45 minutes for use in secondary care: a systematic review. Am J Alzheimers Dis Other Demen 2010; 25: 301–16.
27A Bradford , M Kunik , P Schulz , S Williams , H Singh . Missed and delayed diagnosis of dementia in primary care: prevalence and contributing factors. Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord 2009; 23: 306–14.
29C Jonker , MI Geerlings , B Schmand . Are memory complaints predictive for dementia? A review of clinical and population-based studies. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 2000; 15: 983–91.
30I Rouch , CT Anterion , V Dauphinot , J Kerleroux , F Roche , JC Barthelemy , B Laurent . Cognitive complaints, neuropsychological performance and affective disorders in elderly community residents. Disability Rehabil 2008; 30: 1794–802.
31K Abdulrab , R Heun . Subjective memory impairment. A review of its definitions indicates the need for a comprehensive set of standardised and validated criteria. Eur Psychiatry 2008; 23: 321–30.
32SG Riedel-Heller , H Matschinger , MC Angermeyer . Do memory complaints indicate the presence of cognitive impairment? Results of a field study. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 1999; 249: 197–204.
35SS Bassett , MF Folstein . Memory complaint, memory performance, and psychiatric diagnosis: a community study. J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol 1993; 6, 105–11.
36AJ Mitchell . The clinical significance of subjective memory complaints in the diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment and dementia: a meta-analysis. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 2008; 23: 1191–202.
37DE Broadbent , PF Cooper , P FitzGerald , KR Parkes . The Cognitive Failures Questionnaire (CFQ) and its correlates. Br J Clin Psychol 1982; 21: 1–16.
38MJ Gilewski , EM Zelinski , KW Schaie . The Memory Functioning Questionnaire for assessment of memory complaints in adulthood and old age. Psychol Aging 1990; 5: 482–90.
39TH Crook 3rd, GJA Larrabee . A self-rating scale for evaluating memory in everyday life. Psychol Aging 1990; 5: 48–57.
41A Sunderland , JE Harris , AD Baddeley . Do laboratory tests predict everyday memory? A neuropsychological study. J Verbal Learning Verbal Behavior 1983; 22: 727–38.
43M Malek-Ahmadi , K Davis , C Belden , B Laizure , S Jacobson , R Yaari , U Singh , MN Sabbagh . Validation and diagnostic accuracy of the Alzheimer's questionnaire. Age Ageing 2012; 41: 396–99.
45L Clare . Awareness in people with severe dementia: review and integration. Aging Mental Health 2010; 14: 20–32.
47S Jungwirth , P Fischer , S Weissgram , W Kirchmeyr , P Bauer , K-H Tragl . Subjective memory complaints and objective memory impairment in the Vienna-transdanube aging community. J Am Geriatr Soc 2004; 52: 263–68.
49SF Simmons , B Johansson , SH Zarit , B Ljungquist , R Plomin , GE McClearn . Selection bias in samples of older twins? A comparison between octogenarian twins and singletons in Sweden. J Aging Health 1997; 9: 553–67.
50N Coley , PJ Ousset , S Andrieu , H Matheix Fortunet , B Vellas . Memory complaints to the general practitioner: data from the GuidAge study. J Nutr Health Aging 2008; 12: 66–72S.
51P Mattos , V Lino , L Rizo , A Alfano , C Araújo , R Raggio . Memory complaints and test performance in healthy elderly persons. Arq Neuropsiquiatr 2003; 61: 920–24.
52M Gagnon , JF Dartigues , JM Mazaux , L Dequae , L Letenneur , JM Giroire , P Barberger-Gateau . Self-reported memory complaints and memory performance in elderly French community residents: results of the PAQUID research program. Neuroepid 1994; 13: 145–54.
55T. Zandi Relationship between subjective memory complaints, objective memory performance, and depression among older adults. Am J Alzheimers Dis Other Demen 2004; 19: 353–60.
56TSC Minett , RV Da Silva , KZ Ortiz , PHF Bertolucci . Subjective memory complaints in an elderly sample: a cross-sectional study. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 2008; 23: 49–54.
57TJ Hohman , LL Beason-Held , SM Resnick . Cognitive complaints, depressive symptoms, and cognitive impairment: are they related? J Am Geriatr Soc 2011; 59: 1908–12.
58RC Sims , KE Whitfield , BJ Ayotte , AA Gamaldo , CL Edwards , JC Allaire . Subjective memory in older African Americans. Exp Aging Res 2011; 37: 220–40.
60S Vestberg , U Passant , J Risberg , C Elfgren . Personality characteristics and affective status telated to cognitive test performance and gender in patients with memory complaints. J Int Neuropsychol Soc 2007; 13: 911–19.
62F Jessen , B Wiese , H Bickel , S Eiffländer-Gorfer , A Fuchs , H Kaduszkiewicz , M Köhler , T Luck , E Mösch , M Pentzek , SG Riedel-Heller , M Wagner , S Weyerer , W Maier , H van den Bussche . AgeCoDe Study Group. Prediction of dementia in primary care patients. PLoS One 2011; 6: e16852.
63P Montejo , M Montenegro , MA Fernández , F Maestú . Memory complaints in the elderly: Quality of life and daily living activities. A population based study. Arch Gerontol Geriatr 2012; 54: 298–304.
64CL Turvey , S Schultz , S Arndt , RB Wallace , R Herzog . Memory complaint in a community sample aged 70 and older. J Am Geriatr Soc 2000; 48: 1435–41.
65CHY Wong , LCW Lam , VWC Lui , HFK Chiu , SSM Chan , CWC Tam . Subjective complaints and self-evaluation of memory test performance in questionable dementia. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 2006; 21: 937–44.
67L Farrin , L Hull , C Unwin , T Wykes , A David . Effects of depressed mood on objective and subjective measures of attention. J Neuro-psychiatry Clin Neurosci 2003; 15: 98–104.
68LM Binder , D Storzbach , WK Anger , KA Campbell , DS Rohlman , of the Portland Environmental OM, Center HR; Portland Environmental Hazards Research Center. Subjective cognitive complaints, affective distress, and objective cognitive performance in Persian Gulf War veterans. Arch Clin Neuropsychol 1999; 14: 531–36.
69JA Yesavage , TL Brink , TL Rose , O Lum , V Huang , M Adey , VO Leirer . Development and validation of a geriatric depression screening scale: a preliminary report. J Psychiatr Res 1983; 17: 37–49.
70OT Wolf , I Dziobek , P McHugh , V Sweat , MJ de Leon , E Javier , A Convit . Subjective memory complaints in aging are associated with elevated cortisol levels. Neurobiol Aging 2005; 26: 1357–63.
72F Panza , V Frisardi , C Capurso , A D'Introno , AM Colacicco , BP Imbimbo , A Santamato , G Vendemiale , D Seripa , A Pilotto , A Capurso , V Solfrizzi . Late-life depression, mild cognitive impairment, and dementia: possible continuum? Am J Geriatr Psychiatry 2010; 18: 98–116.
73TS Minett , JL Dean , M Firbank , P English , JT O'Brien . Subjective memory complaints, white-matter lesions, depressive symptoms, and cognition in elderly patients. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry 2005; 13: 665–71.
74A von Gunten , MA Ron . Hippocampal volume and subjective memory impairment in depressed patients. Eur Psychiatry 2004; 19: 438–40.
75WM van der Flier , YA Pijnenburg , SN Schoonenboom , MG Dik , MA Blankenstein , P Scheltens . Distribution of APOE genotypes in a memory clinic cohort. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 2008; 25: 433–38.
76LL Barnes , JA Schneider , PA Boyle , JL Bienias , DA Bennett . Memory complaints are related to Alzheimer disease pathology in older persons. Neurology 2006; 67: 1581–85.
77A Perrotin , EC Mormino , CM Madison , AO Hayenga , WJ Jagust . Subjective cognition and amyloid deposition imaging: a Pittsburgh Compound B positron emission tomography study in normal elderly individuals. Arch Neurol 2012; 69: 223–29.
78L Mosconi , A Pupi , MJ De Leon . Brain glucose hypometabolism and oxidative stress in preclinical Alzheimer's disease. Ann NY Acad Sci 2008; 1147: 180–95.
79LA Schoo , E van den Berg , MJ van Zandvoort , A Postma . Do you know what I mean? Laypeople and experts’ concepts of cognition. Arch Clin Neuropsychol 2012; 27: 182–89.
80K Holmen , K Ericsson , B Winblad . Quality of life among the elderly: state of mood and loneliness in two selected groups. Scand J Car Sci 1999; 13: 91–95.
81A Di Carlo , M Baldereschi , L Amaducci , S Maggi , F Grigoletto , G Scarlato , D Inzitari . Cognitive impairment without dementia in older people: prevalence, vascular risk factors, impact on disability: the Italian Longitudinal Study on Aging. J Am Geriatr Soc 2000; 48: 775–82.
82BS Black , PV Rabins , PS German . Predictors of nursing home placement among elderly public housing residents. Gerontologist 1999; 39: 559–68.
83RL West , D Dennehy-Basile , MP Norris . Memory self-evaluation: The effects of age and experience. Aging Neuropsychol Cogn 1996; 3:67–83
84SL Carter , SB Rourke , S Murji , D Shore , BP Rourke . Cognitive complaints, depression, medical symptoms, and their association with neuropsychological functioning in HIV infection: a structural equation model analysis. Neuropsychology 2003; 17: 410–19.
85LM Reid , AM Maclullich . Subjective memory complaints and cognitive impairment in older people. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 2006; 22: 471–85.
86B Metternich , K Schmidtke , M Hull . How are memory complaints in functional memory disorder related to measures of affect, metamemory and cognition? J Psychosom Res 2009; 66: 435–44.
87JE Rodda , TM Dannhauser , DJ Cutinha , SS Shergill , Z Walker . Subjective cognitive impairment: increased prefrontal cortex activation compared to controls during an encoding task. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 2009; 24: 865–74.
88K Palmer , L Bäckman , B Winblad , L Fratiglioni . Detection of 2 Alzheimer's disease and dementia in the preclinical phase: population based cohort study. BMJ 2003; 326: 245.
90JA Witt , C Glöckner , C Helmstaedter . Extended retention intervals can help to bridge the gap between subjective and objective memory impairment. Seizure 2012; 21: 134–40.
91P Armistead-Jehle , RO Gervais , P Green . Memory complaints inventory results as a function of symptom validity test performance. Arch Clin Neuropsychol 2012; 27: 101–13.
92EM Zelinski , KP Burnight , CJ Lane . The relationship between subjective and objective memory in the oldest-old: Comparisons of findings from a representative and a convenience sample. J Aging Health 2001; 13: 248–66.
94RL Bruckner . Memory and executive function in aging and AD: multiple factors that cause decline and reserve factors that compensate. Neuron 2004; 44: 195–206.
95IP Martins , I Mares , PA Stilwell . How subjective are subjective language complaints. Eur J Neurol 2012; 19: 666–71.
97RE Amariglio , MK Townsend , F Grodstein , RA Sperling , DM Rentz . Specific subjective memory complaints in older persons may indicate poor cognitive function. J Am Geriatr Soc 2011; 59: 1612–17.
99J McGlone , S Gupta , D Humphrey , S Oppenheimer , T Mirsen , DR Evans . Screening for early dementia using memory complaints from patients and relatives. Arch Neurol 1990; 47: 1189–93.
100RL Kahn , SH Zarit , NM Hilbert , G Niederehe . Memory complaint and impairment in the aged: the effect of depression and altered brain function. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1975; 32: 1569–73.
101JM Williams , MM Little , S Scates , N Blockman . Memory complaints and abilities among depressed older adults. J Consult Clin Psychol 1987; 55: 595–98.
102KI Bolla , KN Lindgren , C Bonaccorsy , ML Bleecker . Memory complaints in older adults: fact or fiction? Arch Neurol 1991; 48: 61–64.
103M van Oijen , FJ de Jong , A Hofman , PJ Koudstaal , MM Breteler . Subjective memory complaints, education, and risk of Alzheimer's disease. Alzheimers Dementia 2007; 3: 92–97.
104M Kivipelto , T Ngandu , T Laatikainen , B Winblad , H Soininen , J Tuomilehto . Risk score for the prediction of dementia risk in 20 years among middle aged people: a longitudinal, population-based study. Lancet Neurology 2006; 5: 735–41.
105DE Barnes , KE Covinsky , RA Whitmer , LH Kuller , OL Lopez , K Yaffe . Predicting risk of dementia in older adults: The late-life dementia risk index. Neurology 2009; 73: 173–79.
106A Begum , C Morgan , CC Chiu , A Tylee , R Stewart . Subjective memory impairment in older adults: aetiology, salience and help seeking. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 2012; 27: 612–20.
107SL French , M Floyd , S Wilkins , S Osato . The Fear of Alzheimer's Disease Scale: a new measure designed to assess anticipatory dementia in older adults. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 2012; 27: 521–28.
108M Mol , R Ruiter , F Verhey , J Dijkstra , L Jolles . A study into the psychosocial determinants of perceived forgetfulness: implications for future interventions. Aging Mental Health 2008; 12: 167–76.
109FB Waldorff , V Siersma , A Vogel , G Waldemar . Subjective memory complaints in general practice predicts future dementia: a 4-year follow-up study. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 2012; 27: 1180–88.
110B Metternich , D Kosch , L Kriston , M Härter , M Hüll . The effects of non-pharmacological interventions on subjective memory complaints: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Psychother Psychosom 2010; 79: 6–19.
111JTE Richardson , RCB Chan . The constituent structure of subjective memory questionnaires: Evidence from multiple sclerosis. Memory 1995; 3: 187–200.
112ML Onor , M Trevisiol , C Negro , E Aguglia . Different perception of cognitive impairment, behavioral disturbances, and functional disabilities between persons with mild cognitive impairment and mild Alzheimer's disease and their caregivers. Am J Alzheimers Dis Other Demen 2006; 21: 333–38.
113DB Carr , S Gray , J Baty , JC Morris . The value of informant versus individual's complaints of memory impairment in early dementia. Neurology 2000; 55: 1724–26.
114G Rayner , JM Wrench , SJ Wilson . Differential contributions of objective memory and mood to subjective memory complaints in refractory focal epilepsy. Epilepsy Behavior 2010; 19: 359–64.
116S Artero , K Ritchie . The detection of mild cognitive impairment in the general practice setting. Aging Mental Health 2003; 7: 251–58.
117F Jessen , B Wiese , C Bachmann , S Eifflaender-Gorfer , F Haller , H Kolsch , T Luck , E Mosch , H van den Bussche , M Wagner , A Wollny , T Zimmermann , M Pentzek , SG Riedel-Heller , HP Romberg , S Weyerer , H Kaduszkiewicz , W Maier , H Bickel . Prediction of dementia by subjective memory impairment: Effects of severity and temporal association with cognitive impairment. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2010; 67: 414–22.
118B Reisberg , MB Shulman , C Torossian , L Leng , W Zhu . Outcome over seven years of healthy adults with and without subjective cognitive impairment. Alzheimers Dementia 2010; 6: 11–24.