This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.
3LZ Rubenstein , AS Robbins , KR Josephson , BL Schulman , D Osterweil . The value of assessing falls in an elderly population. A randomized clinical trial. Ann Intern Med 1990; 113: 308–16.
4FE Shaw . Falls in cognitive impairment and dementia. Clin Geriatr Med 2002; 18: 159–73.
5D Oliver , JB Connelly , CR Victor Strategies to prevent falls and fractures in hospitals and care homes and effect of cognitive impairment: systematic review and meta-analyses. BMJ 2007; 334 (7584): 82.
8AJ Blake , K Morgan , MJ Bendall Falls by elderly people at home: prevalence and associated factors. Age Ageing 1988; 17: 365–72.
9AJ Campbell , MJ Borrie , GF Spears , SL Jackson , JS Brown , JL Fitzgerald . Circumstances and consequences of falls experienced by a community population 70 years and over during a prospective study. Age Ageing 1990; 19: 136–41.
10JH Downton , K Andrews . Prevalence, characteristics and factors associated with falls among the elderly living at home. Aging Clin Exp Res 1991; 3: 219–28.
11D Prudham , JG Evans . Factors associated with falls in the elderly: a community study. Age Ageing 1981; 10: 141–46.
12ME Tinetti , M Speechley , SF Ginter . Risk factors for falls among elderly persons living in the community. N Engl J Med 1988; 319: 1701–07.
13WP Berg , HM Alessio , EM Mills , C Tong . Circumstances and consequences of falls in independent community-dwelling older adults. Age Ageing 1997; 26: 261–68.
14CI Gryfe , A Amies , MJ Ashley . A longitudinal study of falls in an elderly population: I. Incidence and morbidity. Age Ageing 1977; 6: 201–10.
15P Kannus , J Parkkari , S Koskinen Fall-induced injuries and deaths among older adults. JAMA 1999; 281: 1895–99.
16JA Grisso , JL Kelsey , BL Strom Risk factors for falls as a cause of hip fracture in women. N Engl J Med 1991; 324: 1326–31.
17L Nyberg , Y Gustafson , D Berggren , B Brannstrom , G Bucht . Falls leading to femoral neck fractures in lucid older people. J Am Geriatr Soc 1996; 44: 156–60.
18G Salkeld , ID Cameron , RG Cumming Quality of life related to fear of falling and hip fracture in older women: a time trade-off study. BMJ 2000; 320 (7231): 341–46.
19JA Stevens , PS Corso , EA Finkelstein , TR Miller . The costs of fatal and non-fatal falls among older adults. Injury Prev 2006; 12: 290–95.
22IP Donald , CJ Bulpitt . The prognosis of falls in elderly people living at home. Age Ageing 1999; 28: 121–25.
23B Vellas , F Cayla , H Bocquet , F de Pemille , JL Albarede . Prospective study of restriction of activity in old people after falls. Age Ageing 1987; 16: 189–93.
24J Cwikel , AV Fried . The social epidemiology of falls among community-dwelling elderly: guidelines for prevention. Disabil Rehabil 1992; 14: 113–21.
25K Delbaere , G Crombez , G Vanderstraeten Fear-related avoidance of activities, falls and physical frailty. A prospective community-based cohort study. Age Ageing 2004; 33: 368–73.
26ME Tinetti , WL Liu , EB Claus . Predictors and prognosis of inability to get up after falls among elderly persons. JAMA 1993; 269: 65–70.
27ME Tinetti , CS Williams . Falls, injuries due to falls, and the risk of admission to a nursing home. N Engl J Med 1997; 337: 1279–84.
28J Murphy , B Isaacs . The post-fall syndrome. A study of 36 elderly patients. Gerontology 1982; 28: 265–70.
29ME Tinetti , dLC Mendes , JT Doucette , DI Baker . Fear of falling and fall-related efficacy in relationship to functioning among community-living elders. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 1994; 49: M140–M147
30RG Cumming , G Salkeld , M Thomas , G Szonyi . Prospective study of the impact of fear of falling on activities of daily living, SF-36 scores, and nursing home admission. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2000; 55: M299–M305
31K Hauer , SE Lamb , EC Jorstad Systematic review of definitions and methods of measuring falls in randomised controlled fall prevention trials. Age Ageing 2006; 35: 5–10.
32SR Cummings , MC Nevitt , S Kidd . Forgetting falls. The limited accuracy of recall of falls in the elderly. J Am Geriatr Soc 1988; 36: 613–16.
33L Mackenzie , J Byles , C D'Este . Validation of self-reported fall events in intervention studies. Clin Rehabil 2006; 20: 331–39.
34RA Kenny , G Traynor . Carotid sinus syndrome–clinical characteristics in elderly patients. Age Ageing 1991; 20: 449–54.
35SJ McIntosh , J Lawson , RA Kenny . Clinical characteristics of vasodepressor, cardioinhibitory, and mixed carotid sinus syndrome in the elderly. Am J Med 1993; 95: 203–08.
38JH Sheldon . On the natural history of falls in old age. BMJ 1960; 2: 1685–90.
39PW Overstall , AN Exton-Smith , FJ Imms , AL Johnson . Falls in the elderly related to postural imbalance. BMJ 1977; 1 (6056): 261–64.
41L Wolfson , R Whipple , CA Derby A dynamic posturography study of balance in healthy elderly. Neurology 1992; 42: 2069–76.
42JD Moreland , JA Richardson , CH Goldsmith , CM Clase . Muscle weakness and falls in older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Am Geriatr Soc 2004; 52: 1121–29.
43MC Nevitt , SR Cummings , S Kidd , D Black . Risk factors for recurrent nonsyncopal falls. A prospective study. JAMA 1989; 261: 663–68.
44SR Lord , JA Ward , P Williams , KJ Anstey . Physiological factors associated with falls in older community-dwelling women. J Am Geriatr Soc 1994; 42: 1110–17.
45RH Harwood . Visual problems and falls. Age Ageing 2001; 30 (suppl): 13–18.
47AJ Campbell , MJ Borrie , GF Spears . Risk factors for falls in a community-based prospective study of people 70 years and older. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 1989; 44: 112–17.
48AS Robbins , LZ Rubenstein , KR Josephson , BL Schulman , D Osterweil , G Fine . Predictors of falls among elderly people. Results of two population-based studies. Arch Intern Med 1989; 149: 1628–33.
49SR Lord , RD Clark , IW Webster . Visual acuity and contrast sensitivity in relation to falls in an elderly population. Age Ageing 1991; 20: 175–81.
50RM Leipzig , RG Cumming , ME Tinetti . Drugs and falls in older people: a systematic review and meta-analysis: II. Cardiac and analgesic drugs. J Am Geriatr Soc 1999; 47: 40–50.
51S Hartikainen , E Lonnroos , K Louhivuori . Medication as a risk factor for falls: critical systematic review. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2007; 62: 1172–81.
52lT Hien , RG Cumming , ID Cameron Atypical antipsychotic medications and risk of falls in residents of aged care facilities. J Am Geriatr Soc 2005; 53: 1290–95.
53JS Lee , T Kwok , PC Leung , J Woo . Medical illnesses are more important than medications as risk factors of falls in older community dwellers? A cross-sectional study. Age Ageing 2006; 35: 246–51.
54JA Waller . Falls among the elderly–human and environmental factors. Acid Anal Prev 1978; 10: 21–23.
55RW Sattin , JG Rodriguez , CA DeVito , PA Wingo . Home environmental hazards and the risk of fall injury events among community-dwelling older persons. Study to Assess Falls Among the Elderly (SAFE) Group. J Am Geriatr Soc 1998; 46: 669–76.
56T van Bemmel , JP Vandenbroucke , RG Westendorp , J Gussekloo . In an observational study elderly patients had an increased risk of falling due to home hazards. J Clin Epidemiol 2005; 58: 63–67.
57ME Northridge , MC Nevitt , JL Kelsey , B Link . Home hazards and falls in the elderly: the role of health and functional status. Am J Public Health 1995; 85: 509–15.
58DK Kiely , DP Kiel , AB Burrows , LA Lipsitz . Identifying nursing home residents at risk for falling. J Am Geriatr Soc 1998; 46: 551–55.
59ME Tinetti , TF Williams , R Mayewski . Fall-risk index for elderly patients based on number of chronic disabilities. Am J Med 1986; 80: 429–34
60AF Tencer , TD Koepsell , ME Wolf Biomechanical properties of shoes and risk of falls in older adults. J Am Geriatr Soc 2004; 52: 1840–46.
61C Sherrington , HB Menz . An evaluation of footwear worn at the time of fall-related hip fracture. Age Ageing 2003; 32: 310–14.
62FE Shaw , RA Kenny . Can falls in patients with dementia be prevented? Age Ageing 1998; 27: 7–9.
63LZ Rubenstein , KR Josephson . The epidemiology of falls and syncope. Clin Geriatr Med 2002; 18: 141–58.
64AJ Davies , RA Kenny . Falls presenting to the accident and emergency department: types of presentation and risk-factor profile. Age Ageing 1996; 25: 362–66.
65FE Shaw , RA Kenny . The overlap between syncope and falls in the elderly. Postgrad Med J 1997; 73: 635–39.
66S McIntosh , D da Costa , RA Kenny . Outcome of an integrated approach to the investigation of dizziness, falls and syncope in elderly patients referred to a ‘syncope’ clinic. Age Ageing 1993; 22: 53–58.
67SW Parry , IN Steen , M Baptist , RA Kenny . Amnesia for loss of consciousness in carotid sinus syndrome: implications for presentation with falls. J Am Coll Cardiol 2005; 45: 1840–43.
68RA Kenny , R Kalaria , C Ballard . Neurocardiovascular instability in cognitive impairment and dementia. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2002; 977: 183–95.
69ME Tinetti , DI Baker , G McAvay A multifactorial intervention to reduce the risk of falling among elderly people living in the community. N Engl J Med 1994; 331: 821–27.
73CA Morley , R Sutton . Carotid sinus syncope. Int J Cardiol 1984; 6: 287–93.
74SR Kerr , MS Pearce , C Brayne , RJ Davis , RA Kenny . Carotid sinus hypersensitivity in asymptomatic older persons: implications for diagnosis of syncope and falls. Arch Intern Med 2006; 166: 515–20.
76RA Kenny , DA Richardson , N Steen , RS Bexton , FE Shaw , J Bond . Carotid sinus syndrome: a modifiable risk factor for non-accidental falls in older adults (SAFE PACE). J Am Coll Cardiol 2001; 38: 1491–96.
77SW Parry , RA Kenny . The management of vasovagal syncope. QJ Med 1999; 92: 697–705.
78J Davison , J Bond , P Dawson , IN Steen , RA Kenny . Patients with recurrent falls attending Accident & Emergency benefit from multifactorial intervention–a randomized controlled trial. Age Ageing 2005; 34: 162–68.
79V Scott , K Votova , A Scanlan , J Close . Multifactorial and functional mobility assessment tools for fall risk among older adults in community, home-support, long-term and acute-care settings. Age Ageing 2007; 36: 130–39.
81ME Tinetti . Performance-oriented assessment of mobility problems in elderly patients. J Am Geriatr Soc 1986; 34: 119–26.
82SR Lord , RD Clark , IW Webster . Physiological factors associated with falls in an elderly population. J Am Geriatr Soc 1991; 39: 1194–200.
83RJ Glynn , JE Buring . Ways of measuring rates of recurrent events. BMJ 1996; 312 (7027): 364–67.
84RG Cumming , JL Kelsey , MC Nevitt . Methodologic issues in the study of frequent and recurrent health problems. Falls in the elderly. Ann Epidemiol 1990; 1: 49–56.
85AJ Campbell , MC Robertson , MM Gardner , RN Norton , MW Tilyard , DM Buchner . Randomised controlled trial of a general practice programme of home-based exercise to prevent falls in elderly women. BMJ 1997; 315 (7115): 1065–69.
86MC Robertson , N Devlin , MM Gardner , AJ Campbell . Effectiveness and economic evaluation of a nurse-delivered home exercise programme to prevent falls. 1: Randomised controlled trial. BMJ 2001; 322 (7288): 697–79.
87AJ Campbell , MC Robertson , La SJ Grow Randomised controlled trial of prevention of falls in people aged > or =75 with severe visual impairment: the VIP trial. BMJ 2005; 331 (7520): 817.
88JT Chang , SC Morton , LZ Rubenstein Interventions for the prevention of falls in older adults: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised clinical trials. BMJ 2004; 328 (7441): 680.
89S Reinsch , P MacRae , PA Lachenbruch , JS Tobis . Attempts to prevent falls and injury: a prospective community study. Gerontologist 1992; 32: 450–56.
90SR Lord , JA Ward , P Williams , M Strudwick . The effect of a 12-month exercise trial on balance, strength, and falls in older women: a randomized controlled trial. J Am Geriatr Soc 1995; 43: 1198–206.
91ME McMurdo , R Johnstone . A randomized controlled trial of a home exercise programme for elderly people with poor mobility. Age Ageing 1995; 24: 425–28.
92E Cornillon , MA Blanchon , P Ramboatsisetraina Effectiveness of falls-prevention strategies for elderly subjects who live in the community with performance assessment of physical activities (before-after). Ann Readapt Med Phys 2002; 45: 493–504.
94D Skelton , S Dinan , M Campbell , O Rutherford . Tailored group exercise (Falls Management Exercise – ME) reduces falls in community-dwelling older frequent fallers (an RCT). Age Ageing 2005; 34: 636–39.
95SL Wolf , HX Barnhart , NG Kutner , E McNeely , C Coogler , T Xu . Reducing frailty and falls in older persons: an investigation of Tai Chi and computerized balance training. Atlanta FICSIT Group. Frailty and Injuries: Cooperative Studies of Intervention Techniques. J Am Geriatr Soc 1996; 44: 489–97.
96F Li , P Harmer , KJ Fisher Tai Chi and fall reductions in older adults: a randomized controlled trial. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2005; 60: 187–94.
97A Voukelatos , RG Cumming , SR Lord , C Rissel . A randomized, controlled trial of tai chi for the prevention of falls: the Central Sydney tai chi trial. J Am Geriatr Soc 2007; 55: 1185–91.
98J Woo , A Hong , E Lau , H Lynn . A randomised controlled trial of Tai Chi and resistance exercise on bone health, muscle strength and balance in community-living elderly people. Age Ageing 2007; 36: 262–68.
99SL Wolf , RW Sattin , M Kutner , M O'Grady , AI Greenspan , RJ Gregor . Intense tai chi exercise training and fall occurrences in older, transitionally frail adults: a randomized, controlled trial. J Am Geriatr Soc 2003; 51: 1693–701.
102RH Harwood , AJ Foss , F Osborn , RM Gregson , A Zaman , T Masud . Falls and health status in elderly women following first eye cataract surgery: a randomised controlled trial. Br J Ophthalmol 2005; 89: 53–59.
103GJ McGwin , HD Gewant , K Modjarrad , TA Hall , C Owsley . Effect of cataract surgery on falls and mobility in independently living older adults. J Am Geriatr Soc 2006; 54: 1089–94.
104L Day , B Fildes , I Gordon , M Fitzharris , H Flamer , S Lord . Randomised factorial trial of falls prevention among older people living in their own homes. BMJ 2002; 325 (7356): 128.
105RG Cumming , M Thomas , G Szonyi Home visits by an occupational therapist for assessment and modification of environmental hazards: a randomized trial of falls prevention. J Am Geriatr Soc 1999; 47: 1397–402.
106M Stevens , CD Holman , N Bennett , N de Klerk . Preventing falls in older people: outcome evaluation of a randomized controlled trial. J Am Geriatr Soc 2001; 49: 1448–55.
107J Close , M Ellis , R Hooper , E Glucksman , S Jackson , C Swift . Prevention of falls in the elderly trial (PROFET): a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 1999; 353 (9147): 93–97.
108RG Cumming , M Thomas , G Szonyi , G Frampton , G Salkeld , L Clemson . Adherence to occupational therapist recommendations for home modifications for falls prevention. Am J Occup Ther 2001; 55: 641–48.
109AJ Campbell , MC Robertson , MM Gardner , RN Norton , DM Buchner . Psychotropic medication withdrawal and a home-based exercise program to prevent falls: a randomized, controlled trial. J Am Geriatr Soc 1999; 47: 850–53.
110N van der Velde , BHC Stricker , HAP Pols , TJM van der Cammen . Risk of falls after withdrawal of fall-risk-increasing drugs: a prospective cohort study. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2007; 63: 232–37.
111MS Stein , JD Wark , SC Scherer Falls relate to vitamin D and parathyroid hormone in an Australian nursing home and hostel. J Am Geriatr Soc 1999; 47: 1195–201.
112HA Bischoff , HB Stahelin , W Dick Effects of vitamin D and calcium supplementation on falls: a randomized controlled trial. J Bone Miner Res 2003; 18: 343–51.
113JK Dhesi , SH Jackson , LM Bearne Vitamin D supplementation improves neuromuscular function in older people who fall. Age Ageing 2004; 33: 589–95.
114NK Latham , CS Anderson , IR Reid . Effects of vitamin D supplementation on strength, physical performance, and falls in older persons: a systematic review. J Am Geriatr Soc 2003; 51: 1219–26.
115MC Chapuy , ME Arlot , F Duboeuf Vitamin D3 and calcium to prevent hip fractures in the elderly women. N Engl J Med 1992; 327: 1637–42.
116RA Lyons , A Johansen , S Brophy Preventing fractures among older people living in institutional care: a pragmatic randomised double- blind placebo controlled trial of vitamin D supple-mentation. Osteoporos Int 2007; 18: 811–18.
117M Law , H Withers , J Morris , F Anderson . Vitamin D supplementation and the prevention of fractures and falls: results of a randomised trial in elderly people in residential accommodation. Age Ageing 2006; 35: 482–86.
118MJ Parker , WJ Gillespie , LD Gillespie . Effectiveness of hip protectors for preventing hip fractures in elderly people: systematic review. BMJ 2006; 332 (7541): 571–74.
119E Lightbody , C Watkins , M Leathley , A Sharma , M Lye . Evaluation of a nurse-led falls prevention programme versus usual care: a randomized controlled trial. Age Ageing 2002; 31: 203–10.
121JE Mahoney , TA Shea , R Przybelski Kenosha County falls prevention study: a randomized, controlled trial of an intermediate-intensity, community-based multifactorial falls intervention. J Am Geriatr Soc 2007; 55: 489–98.
122JCM van Haastregt , JPM Diederiks , E van Rossum , LP de Witte , PM Voorhoeve , HFJM Crebolder . Effects of a programme of multifactorial home visits on falls and mobility impairments in elderly people at risk: randomised controlled trial. BMJ 2000; 321 (7267): 994–98.
123S Gates , JD Fisher , MW Cooke , YH Carter , SE Lamb . Multifactorial assessment and targeted intervention for preventing falls and injuries among older people in community and emergency-care settings: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ 2008; 336 (7636):130–33.
124AS Robbins , LZ Rubenstein . Postural hypotension in the elderly. J Am Geriatr Soc 1984; 32: 769–74.
125SE Caine , K Alsop , M MacMahon . Overlooking orthostatic hypotension with routine blood-pressure equipment. Lancet 1998; 352 (9126): 458