1Bonono RA. Multiple antibiotic-resistant bacteria in long-term care facilities: an emerging problem in the practice of infectious diseases. Clin Infect Dis 2000; 31: 1414–22.
2Garibaldi RA. Residential care and the elderly: the burden of infection. J Hosp Infect 1999; 43 suppl: S9–18.
3Alvarez S, Shell CG, Wooley TW, Berk SL, Smith JK. Nosocomial infections in long-term care facilities. J Gerontol 1988; 43: M9–17.
4Norman DC, Castle SC, Cantrell M. Infections in the nursing home. J Am Geriatr Soc 1987; 35: 796–805.
5Fluit AC, Wielders CL, Verhoef J, Schmitz FJ. Epidemiology and susceptibility of 3051 Staphylococcus isolates from 25 university hospitals participating in the European SENTRY study. J Clin Microbiol 2001; 39: 3727–32.
6National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance (NNIS) System report: data summary from January 1992 through June 2002, issued August 2001. Am J Infect Control 2003; 31: 481–98.
7Strausbaugh LJ, Jacobson C, Sewell DL, Potter S, Ward TT. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in extended care facilities: experiences in a Veteran's Affairs nursing home and a review of the literature. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1992; 13: 711–8.
8Baba T, Takeuchi F, Kuroda M et al. Genome and virulence determinants of high-virulence community-acquired MRSA. Lancet 2002; 359: 1819–27.
9Okuma K, Iwakawa K, Turnidge JD et al. Dissemination of new methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus clones in the community. J Clin Microbiol 2002; 40: 4289–94.
10Vandenesch F, Naimi T, Enright MC et al. Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus carrying Panton-Valentine leukocidin genes: worldwide emergence. Emerg Infect Dis 2003; 9: 978–84.
11Miller G, Perdreau-Remington F, Rieg G et al. Necrotizing fasciitis caused by community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Los Angeles. N Eng J Med 2005; 352: 1445–53.
12Muto CA, Jernigan JA, Ostrowsky BE et al. SHEA guideline for preventing nosocomial transmission of multidrug-resistant strains of Staphylocccus aureus and enterococcus. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2003; 24: 362–86.
14Infection control strategies for preventing the transmission of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in nursing homes for older people. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2008; 23: CD006354.
15Bradley SF. Issues in the management of resistant bacteria in long-term care facilities. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1999; 20: 362–6.
16Bradley SF, Terpenning MS, Ramsey MA, Zarins LT, Jorgensen KA, Sottile WS et al. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: colonisation and infection in a long-term care facility. Ann Intern Med 1991; 115: 417–22.
17Baldwin NS, Gilpin DF, Hughes CM, Kearney MP, Cardwell C, Tunney MM. Prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonization in residents and staff in nursing homes in Northern Ireland. J Am Geriatr Soc 2009; 57: 620–6.
18Eveillard M, Martin Y, Hidri N, Boussougant Y, Joly-Guillou ML. Carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus among hospital employees: prevalence, duration and transmission to households. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2004; 25: 114–20.
19Eveillard M, Charru P, Rufat P et al. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus carriage in a long-term care facility: hypothesis about selection and transmission. Age Ageing 2008; 37: 294–9.
20Brugnaro P, Fedeli U, Pellizzer G et al. Clustering and risk factors of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus carriage in two Italian long-term care facilities. Infection 2009; 37: 216–21.
21Cretnik TZ, Vovko P, Retelj M, Jutersek B, Harlander T, Kolman J, Gubina M. Prevalence and nosocomial spread of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a long-term-care facility in Slovenia. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2005; 26: 184–90.
22Manzur A, Gavalda L, Ruiz de Gopegui E et al. Group of the Spanish Network for Research in Infectious Diseases. Prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and factors associated with colonization among residents in community long-term care facilities in Spain. Clin Microbiol Infect 2008; 14: 867–72.
23Barr B, Wilcox MH, Brady A, Parnell P, Darby B, Tompkins D. Prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonization among older residents of care homes in the United Kingdom. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2007; 28: 853–9.
24Stone ND, Lewis DR, Lowery HK et al. Importance of bacterial burden among methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus carriers in a long-term care facility. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2008; 29: 143–8.
25Pop-Vicas A, Mitchell SL, Kandel R, Schreiber R, D'agata EM. Multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria in a long-term care facility: prevalence and risk factors. J Am Geriatr Soc 2008; 56: 1276–80.
26von Baum H, Svoboda D, Bock-Hensley O, Wendt C. Risk factors for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus carriage in residents of German nursing homes. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2002; 23: 511–5.
27Mendelson G, Yearmack Y, Granot E, Ben-Israel J, Colodner R, Raz R. Staphylococcus aureus carrier state among elderly residents of a long-term care facility. J Am Med Dir Assoc 2003; 4: 125–7.
28Sie I, Thorstad M, Andersen BM. Infection control and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in nursing homes in Oslo. J Hosp Infect 2008; 70: 235–40.
29Kotilainen P, Routamaa M, Peltonen R et al. Eradication of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from health center ward and associated nursing home. Arch Intern Med 2001; 161: 859–63.
30Wagenlehner FME, Naber KG, Bambl E et al. Management of a large healthcare-associated outbreak of Panton-Valentine leucocidin-positive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Germany. J Hosp Infect 2007; 67: 114–20.
31Maltezou HC, Vourli S, Katerelos P et al. Panton-Valentine leucocidin-positive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus outbreak among healthcare workers in a long-term care facility. Int J Infect Dis 2009 (in press).
32Smith CS, Parnell P, Hodgson G et al. Are methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus that produce Panton-Valentine leucocidin (PVL) found among residents of care homes? J Antimicrob Chemother 2008; 62: 968–72.
33Vovko P, Retelj M, Cretnik TZ et al. Risk factors for colonisation with MRSA in a LTCF in Slovenia. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2005; 26: 191–5.
34Mody L, Maheshwari S, Galecki A, Kauffman CA, Bradley SF. Indwelling device use and antibiotic resistance in nursing homes: identifying a high-risk group. J Am Geriatr Soc 2007; 55: 1921–6.
35O'Sullivan NP, Keane CT. Risk factors for colonization with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus among nursing home residents. J Hosp Infect 2000; 45: 206–10.
36Suetens C, Niclaes L, Jans B et al. Determinants of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus carriage in nursing homes. Age Ageing 2007; 36: 327–30.
37Pickering TD, Gurwitz JH, Zaleznik D et al. The appropriateness of fluoroquinolone prescribing in the long-term setting. J Am Geriatr Soc 1994; 42: 28–32.
38Muller A, Mauny F, Talon D et al. Effect of individual- and group-level antibiotic exposure on MRSA isolation: a multivariate analysis. J Antimicrob Chemother 2006; 58: 878–81.
39Le Blanc L, Pepin J, Toulouse K et al. Fluoroquinolones and risk of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Canada. Emerg Infect Dis 2006; 12: 1398–1405.
40Cook PP, Catrou P, Gooch M et al. Effect of reduction in ciprofloxacin use on prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus rates within individual units of a tertiary-care hospital. J Hosp Infect 2006; 64: 348–51.
41Bello TO, Taiwo SS, Oparinde DP et al. Risk of nosocomial bacteria transmission: evaluation of cleaning methods of probes used for routine ultrasonography. West Afr J Med 2005; 24: 167–70.
42Eveillard M, Mortier E, Lancien E et al. Consideration of age at admission for selective screening to identify methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus carriers to control dissemination in a medical ward. Am J Infect Control 2006; 34: 108–13.
43Buke C, Armand-Lefevre L, Lolom I et al. Epidemiology of multidrug-resistant bacteria in patients with long hospital stays. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2007; 28: 1255–60.
44Eveillard M, Ernst C, Cuviller S et al. Prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus carriage at the time of admission in two acute geriatric wards. J Hosp Infect 2002; 50: 122–6.
45Lucet JC, Grenet K, Armand-Lefevre L et al. High prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus at hospital admission in elderly patients: implications for infection control strategies. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2005; 26: 121–6.
46Merrer J, Pisica-Donose G, Neneveu M, Pauthier F. Prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage among patients with femoral neck fractures: implications for antibiotic prophylaxis. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2004; 25: 515–7.
47Manzur A, Vidal M, Pujol M et al. Predictive factors of methicillin resistance among patients with Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infections at hospital admission. J Hosp Infect 2007; 66: 135–41.
48Eveillard M, Leroy C, Teissiere F et al. Impact of selective screening in the emergency department on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus control programmes. J Hosp Infect 2006; 63: 380–4.
49Muder RR, Brennen C, Wagener MM et al. Methicillin-resistant staphylococcal colonization and infection in a long-term care facility. Ann Intern Med 1991; 114: 107–12.
50Lee YL, Cesario T, Gupta G et al. Surveillance of colonization and infection with Staphylococcus aureus susceptible or resistant to methicillin in a community skilled-nursing facility. Am J Infect Control 1997; 25: 312–21.
51Mulhausen PL, Harrel LJ, Weinberger M, Kochersberger GG, Feussner JR. Contrasting methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonisation in Veterans Affairs and community nursing homes. Am J Med 1996; 100: 24–31.
52Safdar N, Bradley EA. The risk of infection after nasal colonization with Staphylococcus aureus. Am J Med 2008; 121: 310–5.
53Roghmann MC. Predicting methicillin resistance and the effect of inadequate empiric therapy on survival in patients with Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia. Arch Intern Med 2000; 160: 1001–4.
54Rezende NA, Blumberg HM, Metzger BS, Larsen NM, Ray SM, McGowan JE Jr. Risk factors for methicillin resistance among patients with Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia at the time of hospital admission. Am J Med Sci 2002; 323: 117–23.
55Lodise TP Jr, McKinnon PS, Rybak M. Prediction model to identify patients with Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia at risk for methicillin resistance. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2003; 24: 655–61.
56Johnson LB, Bhan A, Pawlak J, Manzor O, Saravolatz LD. Changing epidemiology of community-onset methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2003; 24: 431–5.
57Lesse AJ, Mylotte JM. Clinical and molecular epidemiology of nursing home-associated Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia. Am J Infect Control 2006; 34: 642–50.
58Hiramatsu K, Aritaka N, Hanaki H et al. Dissemination in Japanese hospitals of strains of Staphylococcus aureus heterogeneously resistant to vancomycin. Lancet 1997; 350: 1670–3.
59Appelbaum PC. MRSA – the tip of the iceberg. Clin Microbiol Infect 2006; 12 (suppl 2): 3–10.
60Tiwari HK, Sen MR. Emergence of vancomycin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VRSA) from a tertiary care hospital from northern part of India. BMC Infect Dis 2006; 6: 156.
61Appelbaum PC. Reduced glycopeptide susceptibility in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Int J Antimicrob Agents 2007; 30: 398–408.
62Niclaes L, Buntinx F, Bunaro F, Lesaffre E, Heyrman J. Consequences of MRSA carriage in nursing homes residents. Epidemiol Infect 1999; 122: 235–9.
63Lesens O, Methlin C, Hansmann Y et al. Role of comorbidity in mortality related to Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia: a prospective study using the Charlson weighted index of comorbidity. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2003; 24: 890–6.
64Mylotte JM, Tayara A. Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia: predictors of 30-day mortality in a large cohort. Clin Infect Dis 2003; 31: 1170–4.
65McClelland RS, Fowler VG Jr, Sanders LL et al. Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia among elderly vs. younger adults patients: comparison of clinical features and mortality. Arch Intern Med 1999; 159: 1244–7.
66Jensen AG, Wachmann CH, Espersen F, Scheibel J, Skinhoj P, Frimodt-Moller N. Treatment and outcome of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia: a prospective study of 278 cases. Arch Intern Med 2002; 162: 25–32.
67Cosgrove SE, Sakoulas G, Perencevich EN, Schwaber MJ, Karchmer AW, Carmeli Y. Comparison of mortality associated with methicillin-resistant and methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia: a meta-analysis. Clin Infect Dis 2003; 36: 53–9.
68Sanford MD, Widmer AF, Bale MJ, Jones RN, Wenzel RP. Efficient detection and long-term persistence of the carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Clin Infect Dis 1994; 19: 1123–8.
69Fraise AP, Mitchell K, O'Brien SJ, Oldfield K, Wise R. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in nursing homes in a major UK city: an anonymized point prevalence survey. Epidemiol Infect 1997; 118: 1–5.
70Hsu CCS. Serial survey of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage among residents in a nursing home. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1991; 12: 416–21.
71Pittet D, Allegranzi B, Sax H et al. Evidence-based model for hand transmission during patient care and the role of improved practices. Lancet Infect Dis 2006; 6: 641–52.
72Dancer SJ. Importance of the environment in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus acquisition: the case for hospital cleaning. Lancet Infect Dis 2008; 8: 101–13.
73Dancer SJ, White L, Robertson C. Monitoring environmental cleanliness on two surgical wards. Int J Environ Health Res 2008; 18: 357–64.
74Dancer SJ, White LF, Lamb J, Girvan EK, Robertson C. Measuring the effect of enhanced cleaning in a UK hospital: a prospective cross-over study. BMC Med 2009; 7: 28.
75Trick WE, Weinstein RA, DeMarais PL et al. Colonization of skilled-care facility residents with antimicrobial-resistant pathogens. J Am Geriatr Soc 2001; 49: 270–6.
76O'Fallon E, Gautam S, D'Agata EM. Colonisation with multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria: prolonged duration and frequent colonisation. Clin Infect Dis 2009; 48: 1375–81.
77O'Fallon E, Pop-Vicas A, D'agata E. The emerging threat of multidrug-resistant gram-negative organisms in long-term care facilities. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2009; 64: 138–41.
78Minary-Dohen P, Bailly P, Bertrand X, Talon D. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in rehabilitation and chronic-care facilities: what is the best strategy? BMC Geriatr 2003; 3: 5.
79Kreman T, Hu J, Pottinger J, Herwaldt LA. Survey of long-term-care facilities in Iowa for policies and practices regarding residents with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus or vancomycin-resistant enterococci. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2005; 26: 811–5.
80Larssen KW, Jacobsen T, Bergh K, Tvete P, Kvello E, Scheel O. Outbreak of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in two nursing homes in Central Norway. J Hosp Infect 2005; 60: 312–6.
81Lucet JC, Chevret S, Durand-Zaleski I, Chastang C, Régnier B. Prevalence and risk factors for carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus at admission to the intensive care unit. Arch Intern Med 2003; 163: 181–8.
82Manian FA, Senkel D, Zack J, Meyer L. Routine screening for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus among patients newly admitted to an acute rehabilitation unit. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2002; 23: 516–9.
83Coello R, Jiménez J, Garcia M et al. Prospective study of infection, colonization and carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in an outbreak affecting 990 patients. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 1994; 13: 74–81.
84Eveillard M, de Lassence A, Lancien E, Barnaud G, Ricard JD, Joly-Guillou ML. Evaluation of a strategy of screening multiple anatomical sites for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus at admission to a teaching hospital. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2002; 27: 181–4.
85Batra R, Eziefula AC, Wyncoll D, Edgeworth J. Throat and rectal swabs may have an important role in MRSA screening for critically ill patients. Intensive Care Med 2008; 34: 1703–6.
86Pan A, Domenighini F, Signorini L et al. Adherence to hand hygiene in an Italian long-term care facility. Am J Infect Control 2008; 36: 495–7.
87Huang TT, Wu SC. Evaluation of a training programme on knowledge and compliance of nurse assistants’ hand hygiene in nursing homes. J Hosp Infect 2008; 68: 164–70.
88Eveillard M, Hitoto H, Raymond F et al. Measurement and interpretation of hand hygiene compliance rates: importance of monitoring entire care episodes. J Hosp Infect 2009; 72: 211–7.
89Haas JP, Larson EL. Measurement of compliance with hand hygiene. J Hosp Infect 2007; 66: 6–14.
90Mody L, McNeil SA, Sun R, Bradley SE, Kauffman CA. Introduction of a waterless alcohol-based hand rub in a long-term care facility. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2003; 24: 165–71.