Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa

Skeletal muscle aging

  • Graeme L Close (a1), Philippa Haggan (a1) and Anne McArdle (a1)
Abstract

Average world life expectancy has seen a dramatic rise over the last two centuries although active life expectancy remains relatively unchanged. One reason for this is that aging results in skeletal muscle becoming smaller, weaker and more susceptible to contraction-induced injury. By the age of 70, muscle strength is reduced by around 30–40% and this can have catastrophic effects on quality of life. Despite a vast amount of research into age-related changes in skeletal muscle, the exact mechanisms responsible for this is still unclear and thus treatments to preserve muscle function with aging remain elusive.

Copyright
Corresponding author
Address for correspondence: A McArdle, Division of Metabolic and Cellular Medicine, School of Clinical Science University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3GA, UK.
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

1 GL Close , A Kayani , A Vasilaki , A McArdle . Skeletal muscle damage with exercise and aging. Sports Med 2005; 35:413–27.

2 A McArdle , A Vasilaki , M Jackson . Exercise and skeletal muscle ageing: cellular and molecular mechanisms. Ageing Res Rev 2002; 1:7993.

3 MM Porter , AA Vandervoort , J Lexell . Aging of human muscle: structure, function and adaptability. Scand J Med Sci Sports 1995; 5:129–42.

6 GL Close , T Ashton , T Cable , D Doran , DP MacLaren . Eccentric exercise, isokinetic muscle torque and delayed-onset muscle soreness: the role of reactive oxygen species. Eur J Appl Physiol 2004; 91:615–21.

8 A McArdle , JH Van Der Meulen , M Catapano , MC Symons , JA Faulkner , MJ Jackson . Free radical activity following contraction-induced injury to the extensor digitorum longus muscles of rats. Free Radic Biol Med 1999; 26:1085–91.

9 J Lexell , D Downham , M Sjostrom . Distribution of different fibre types in human skeletal muscles. Fibre type arrangement in m.vastus lateralis from three groups of healthy men between 15 and 83 years. J Neurol Sci 1986; 72:211–22.

10 J Lexell , CC Taylor , M Sjostrom . What is the cause of the ageing atrophy? Total number, size and proportion of different fiber types studied in whole vastus lateralis muscle from 15- to 83-year-old men. J Neurol Sci 1988; 84:275–94.

11 HK Kamel . Sarcopenia and aging. Nutr Rev 2003; 61:157–67.

12 Y Nakagawa , M Hattori , K Harada , R Shirase , M Bando , G Okano . Age-related changes in intramyocellular lipid in humans by in vivo H-MR spectroscopy. Gerontology 2007; 53:218–23.

13 KE Conley , CE Amara , SA Jubrias , DJ Marcinek . Mitochondrial function, fibre types and ageing: new insights from human muscle in vivo. Exp Physiol 2007; 92:333–39.

14 RA Miller . ‘Accelerated aging’: a primrose path to insight? Aging Cell 2004; 3:4751.

16 CI Morse , JM Thom , ND Reeves , KM Birch , MV Narici . In vivo physiological cross-sectional area and specific force are reduced in the gastrocnemius of elderly men. J Appl Physiol 2005; 99:1050–55.

18 D Harman . Aging: a theory based on free radical and radiation chemistry. J Gerontol 1956; 11:298300.

19 M Valko , CJ Rhodes , J Moncol , M Izakovic , M Mazur . Free radicals, metals and antioxidants in oxidative stress-induced cancer. Chem Biol Interact 2006; 160:140.

20 J St-Pierre , JA Buckingham , SJ Roebuck , MD Brand . Topology of superoxide production from different sites in the mitochondrial electron transport chain. J Biol Chem 2002; 277:44784–90.

21 BN Ames , MK Shigenaga , TM Hagen . Oxidants, antioxidants, and the degenerative diseases of aging. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1993; 90:7915–22.

23 B Halliwell . Free radicals and antioxidants: a personal view. Nutr Rev 1994; 52 (8 Pt 1):253–65.

25 HK Biesalski . Free radical theory of aging. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2002; 5:510.

26 TC Squier . Oxidative stress and protein aggregation during biological aging. Exp Gerontol 2001; 36:1539–50.

28 LL Ji . Exercise-induced modulation of antioxidant defense. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2002; 959:8292.

30 D Harman . The biologic clock: the mitochondria? J Am Geriatr Soc 1972; 20:145–7.

31 MB Reid , WJ Durham . Generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in contracting skeletal muscle: potential impact on aging. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2002; 959:108–16.

32 RG Faragher , D Kipling . How might replicative senescence contribute to human ageing? Bioessays 1998; 20:985–91.

33 J Campisi . The biology of replicative senescence. Eur J Cancer 1997; 33:703–09.

34 L Hayflick . The limited in vitro lifetime of human diploid cell strains. Exp Cell Res 1965; 37:614–36.

35 GP Dimri , X Lee , G Basile A biomarker that identifies senescent human cells in culture and in aging skin in vivo. Proc Natl Acad Sci 1995; 92: 9363–67.

36 IM Conboy , MJ Conboy , GM Smythe , TA Rando . Notch-mediated restoration of regenerative potential to aged muscle. Science 2003; 302 (5650):1575–77.

37 S Lee , HS Shin , PK Shireman , A Vasilaki , H Van Remmen , ME Csete . Glutathione-peroxidase-1 null muscle progenitor cells are globally defective. Free Radic Biol Med 2006; 41:1174–84.

38 J Ehrhardt , J Morgan . Regenerative capacity of skeletal muscle. Curr Opin Neurol 2005; 18:548–53.

39 IM Conboy , TA Rando . Aging, stem cells and tissue regeneration: lessons from muscle. Cell Cycle 2005; 4:407–10.

41 IM Conboy , MJ Conboy , AJ Wagers , ER Girma , IL Weissman , TA Rando . Rejuvenation of aged progenitor cells by exposure to a young systemic environment. Nature 2005; 433 (7027):760–64.

42 GC Kujoth , A Hiona , TD Pugh Mitochondrial DNA mutations, oxidative stress, and apoptosis in mammalian aging. Science 2005; 309 (5733):481–84.

43 HT Jacobs . The mitochondrial theory of aging: dead or alive? Aging Cell 2003; 2:1117.

44 P Mecocci , G Fano , S Fulle Age-dependent increases in oxidative damage to DNA, lipids, and proteins in human skeletal muscle. Free Radic Biol Med 1999; 26:303–08.

45 A Sanz , R Pamplona , G Barja . Is the mitochondrial free radical theory of aging intact? Antioxid Redox Signal 2006; 8:582–99.

46 RS Sohal , A Dubey . Mitochondrial oxidative damage, hydrogen peroxide release, and aging. Free Radic Biol Med 1994; 16:621–26.

47 A Lass , BH Sohal , R Weindruch , MJ Forster , RS Sohal . Caloric restriction prevents age-associated accrual of oxidative damage to mouse skeletal muscle mitochondria. Free Radic Biol Med 1998; 25:1089–97.

48 A Mansouri , FL Muller , Y Liu Alterations in mitochondrial function, hydrogen peroxide release and oxidative damage in mouse hind-limb skeletal muscle during aging. Mech Ageing Dev 2006; 127:298306.

49 A Vasilaki , A Mansouri , H Remmen Free radical generation by skeletal muscle of adult and old mice: effect of contractile activity. Aging Cell 2006; 5:109–17.

50 EJ Anderson , PD Neufer . Type II skeletal myofibers possess unique properties that potentiate mitochondrial H(2)O(2) generation. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2006; 290:C84451.

51 GL Close , AC Kayani , T Ashton , A McArdle , MJ Jackson . Release of superoxide from skeletal muscle of adult and old mice: an experimental test of the reductive hotspot hypothesis. Aging Cell 2007; 6:189–95.

52 O Pansarasa , L Bertorelli , J Vecchiet , G Felzani , F Marzatico . Age-dependent changes of antioxidant activities and markers of free radical damage in human skeletal muscle. Free Radic Biol Med 1999; 27:617–22.

53 K Sundaram , KS Panneerselvam . Oxidative stress and DNA. Single-strand breaks in skeletal muscle of aged rats: role of carnitine and lipoicacid. Biogerentology 2006; 7:111–18.

54 CS Broome , AC Kayani , J Palomero Effect of lifelong over-expression of HSP70 in skeletal muscle on age-related oxidative stress and adaptation after non-damaging contractile activity. FASEB J 2006; 20:1549–51.

55 A Vasilaki , D Simpson , F McArdle Formation of 3-nitrotyrosines in carbonic anhydrase III is a sensitive marker of oxidative stress in skeletal muscle. Proteomics–Clin Appl 2007; 1:362–72.

56 ER Stadtman . Protein oxidation and aging. Science 1992; 257 (5074):1220–24.

57 C-K Lee , RG Klopp , R Weindruch , TA Prolla . Gene expression profile of aging and its retardation by caloric restriction. Science 1999; 285 (5432):1390–93.

58 P Mecocci , U MacGarvey , AE Kaufman Oxidative damage to mitochondrial DNA shows marked age-dependent increases in human brain. Ann Neurol 1993; 34:609–16.

59 S De Flora , A Izzotti , K Randerath DNA adducts and chronic degenerative disease. Pathogenetic relevance and implications in preventive medicine. Mutat Res 1996; 366:197238.

60 AM Lezza , D Boffoli , S Scacco , P Cantatore , MN Gadaleta . Correlation between mitochondrial DNA 4977-bp deletion and respiratory chain enzyme activities in aging human skeletal muscles. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1994; 205:772–79.

61 TBL Kirkwood . Understanding the odd science of aging. Cell 2005; 120: 437–47.

64 A Vasilaki , F McArdle , LM Iwanejko , A McArdle . Adaptive responses of mouse skeletal muscle to contractile activity: the effect of age. Mech Ageing Dev 2006; 127:830–39.

65 TA McBride , FA Gorin , RC Carlsen . Prolonged recovery and reduced adaptation in aged rat muscle following eccentric exercise. Mech Ageing Dev 1995; 83:185200.

68 S Melov , J Ravenscroft , S Malik . Extension of lifespan with superoxide ismutase/catalase mimetics. Science 2000; 289 (5484):1567–69.

69 M Keaney , F Matthijssens , M Sharpe , J Vanfleteren , D Gems . Superoxide dismutase mimetics elevate superoxide dismutase activity in vivo but do not retard aging in the nematode. Free Radic Biol Med 2004; 37:239–50.

70 TT Huang , EJ Carlson , I Raineri , AM Gillespie , H Kozy , CJ Epstein . The use of transgenic and mutant mice to study oxygen free radical metabolism. Ann NY Acad Sci 1999; 893:95112.

71 FL Muller , W Song , Y Liu Absence of CuZn superoxide dismutase leads to elevated oxidative stress and acceleration of age-dependent skeletal muscle atrophy. Free Radic Biol Med 2006; 40:19932004.

72 N Sumien , MJ Forster , RS Sohal . Supplementation with vitamin E fails to attenuate oxidative damage in aged mice. Exp Gerontol 2003; 38:699704.

74 M Ikemoto , Y Okamura , M Kano A relative high dose of vitamin E does not attenuate unweighting-induced oxidative stress and ubiquitination in rat skeletal muscle. J Physiol Anthropol Appl Human Sci 2002; 21:257–63.

75 M Meydani , RD Lipman , SN Han The effect of long-term dietary supplementation with antioxidants. Ann NY Acad Sci 1998; 854:352–60.

76 T Finkel , NJ Holbrook . Oxidants, oxidative stress and the biology of ageing. Nature 2000; 408:239–47.

77 RS Sohal , RJ Mockett , WC Orr . Mechanisms of aging: an appraisal of the oxidative stress hypothesis. Free Radic Biol Med 2002; 33:575–86.

78 R Rafique , AH Schapira , JM Coper . Mitochondrial respiratory chain dysfunction in ageing; influence of vitamin E deficiency. Free Radic Res 2004; 38:157–65.

79 L Ji . Exercise at old age: does it increase or alleviate oxidative stress? Ann NY Acad Sci 2001; 928:236–47.

80 RS Paffenbarger , RT Hyde , AL Wing , IM Lee , DL Jung , JB Kampert . The association of changes in physical-activity level and other lifestyle characteristics with mortality among men. N Engl J Med 1993; 328:538–45.

81 JP Morton , DP MacLaren , NT Cable Time-course and differential responses of the major heat-shock protein families in human skeletal muscle following acute non-damaging treadmill exercise. J Appl Physiol 2006; 101:176–82.

82 GL Close , T Ashton , A McArdle , MJ Jackson . Microdialysis studies of extracellular reactive oxygen species in skeletal muscle: factors influencing the reduction of cytochrome c and hydroxylation of salicylate. Free Radic Biol Med 2005; 39:1460–67.

83 A Vasilaki , M Csete , D Pye Genetic modification of the manganese superoxide dismutase/glutathione peroxidase 1 pathway influences intracellular ROS generation in quiescent, but not contracting, skeletal muscle cells. Free Radic Biol Med 2006; 41:1719– 25.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Reviews in Clinical Gerontology
  • ISSN: 0959-2598
  • EISSN: 1469-9036
  • URL: /core/journals/reviews-in-clinical-gerontology
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 1
Total number of PDF views: 18 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 154 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 21st September 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.