This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.
2CL Sudlow , CP Warlow . Comparable studies of the incidence of stroke and its pathological types: results from an international collaboration. International Stroke Incidence Collaboration. Stroke 1997; 28: 491–99.
3PM Rothwell , AJ Coull , MF Giles , SC Howard , LE Silver , LM Bull , SA Gutnikov , P Edwards , D Mant , CM Sackley , A Farmer , PA Sandercock , MS Dennis , CP Warlow , JM Bamford , P Anslow ; Oxford Vascular Study. Change in stroke incidence, mortality, case-fatality, severity, and risk factors in Oxfordshire, UK from 1981 to 2004 (Oxford Vascular Study). Lancet 2004; 363: 1925–33.
6J Biller , BB Love . Nihilism and stroke therapy. Stroke 1991; 22: 1105–7.
7H Nakayama , HS Jørgensen , HO Raaschou , TS Olsen . The influence of age on stroke outcome. The Copenhagen Stroke Study. Stroke 1994; 25: 808–13.
8DB Hier , G Edelstein . Deriving clinical prediction rules from stroke outcome research. Stroke 1991; 22; 1431–36.
9L Derex , N Nighoghossian . Thrombolysis, stroke-unit admission and early rehabilitation in elderly patients. Nat Rev Neurol 2009; 5: 506–11.
10AG Rudd , A Hoffman , C Down , M Pearson , D Lowe . Access to stroke care in England, Wales and Northern Ireland: the effect of age, gender and weekend admission. Age Ageing 2007; 36: 247–55.
11JF Fairhead , PM Rothwell . Underinvestigation and undertreatment of carotid disease in elderly patients with transient ischaemic attack and stroke: comparative population based study. BMJ 2006; 333: 525–27.
12PM Rothwell , M Eliasziw , SA Gutnikov , CP Warlow , HJ Barnett ; Carotid Endarterectomy Trialists Collaboration. Endarterectomy for symptomatic carotid stenosis in relation to clinical subgroups and timing of surgery. Lancet 2004; 363: 915–24.
13GJ Gubitz , PA Sandercock . Aspirin and heparin in acute ischaemic stroke in older patients. Drugs Aging 1999; 15: 29–36.
14J Mant , FD Hobbs , K Fletcher , A Roalfe , D Fitzmaurice , GY Lip , E Murray ; BAFTA investigators; Midland Research Practices Network (MidReC). Warfarin versus aspirin for stroke prevention in an elderly community population with atrial fibrillation (the Birmingham Atrial Fibrillation Treatment of the Aged Study, BAFTA): a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2007; 370: 493–503.
15NS Beckett , R Peters , AE Fletcher , JA Staessen , L Liu , D Dumitrascu , V Stoyanovsky , RL Antikainen , Y Nikitin , C Anderson , A Belhani , F Forette , C Rajkumar , L Thijs , W Banya , CJ Bulpitt ; HYVET Study Group. Treatment of hypertension in patients 80 years of age or older. N Engl J Med 2008; 358: 1887–98.
17GA Donnan , JC Baron , H Ma , SM Davis . Penumbral selection of patients for trials of acute stroke therapy. Lancet Neurol 2009; 8: 261–69.
18G Marchal , P Rioux , MC Petit-Taboué , G Sette , JM Travère , C Le Poec , P Courtheoux , JM Derlon , JC Baron . Regional cerebral oxygen consumption, blood flow, and blood volume in healthy human aging. Arch Neurol 1992; 49: 1013–20.
19E Feldmann , N Gordon , JM Brooks , LM Brass , PB Fayad , KL Sawaya , F Nazareno , SR Levine . Factors associated with early presentation of acute stroke. Stroke 1993; 24: 1805–10.
20J Kwan , P Hand , P Sandercock . A systematic review of barriers to delivery of thrombolysis for acute stroke. Age Ageing 2004; 33: 116–21.
21A Davalos , J Castillo , E Martinez-Vila . Delay in neurological attention and stroke outcome. Stroke 1995; 26: 2233–37.
22G Silvestrelli , L Parnetti , M Paciaroni , V Caso , F Corea , R Vitali , G Capocchi , G Agnelli . Early admission to stroke unit influences clinical outcome. Eur J Neurol 2006; 13: 250–55.
23JH Lichtman , E Watanabe , NB Allen , SB Jones , J Dostal , LB Goldstein . Hospital arrival time and intravenous t-PA use in US Academic Medical Centers, 2001–2004. Stroke 2009; 40: 3845–50.
24HP Jr Adams , G del Zoppo , MJ Alberts , DL Bhatt , L Brass , A Furlan , RL Grubb , RT Higashida , EC Jauch , C Kidwell , PD Lyden , LB Morgenstern , AI Qureshi , RH Rosenwasser , PA Scott , EF Wijdicks ; American Heart Association; American Stroke Association Stroke Council; Clinical Cardiology Council; Cardiovascular Radiology and Intervention Council; Atherosclerotic Peripheral Vascular Disease and Quality of Care Outcomes in Research Interdisciplinary Working Groups. Guidelines for the early management of adults with ischemic stroke: a guideline from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association Stroke Council, Clinical Cardiology Council, Cardiovascular Radiology and Intervention Council, and the Atherosclerotic Peripheral Vascular Disease and Quality of Care Outcomes in Research Interdisciplinary Working Groups. Stroke 2007; 38: 1655–711.
25J Harbison , O Hossain , D Jenkinson , J Davis , SJ Louw , GA Ford . Diagnostic accuracy of stroke referrals from primary care, emergency room physicians, and ambulance staff using the face arm speech test. Stroke 2003; 34: 71–76.
26A Chandratheva , DS Lasserson , OC Geraghty , PM Rothwell ; Oxford Vascular Study. Population-based study of behavior immediately after transient ischemic attack and minor stroke in 1000 consecutive patients: lessons for public education. Stroke 2010; 41: 1108–14.
27W Muangpaisan , JL Hinkle , M Westwood , J Kennedy , AM Buchan . Stroke in the very old: clinical presentations and outcomes. Age Ageing 2008; 37: 473–75.
28G Azzimondi , L Bassein , L Fiorani , F Nonino , U Montaguti , D Celin , G Re , R D'Alessandro . Variables associated with hospital arrival time after stroke: effect of delay on the clinical efficiency of early treatment. Stroke 1997; 28: 537–42.
29CR Lacy , DC Suh , M Bueno , JB Kostis . Delay in presentation and evaluation for acute stroke: Stroke Time Registry for Outcomes Knowledge and Epidemiology (S.T.R.O.K.E.). Stroke 2001; 32: 63–69.
30P Wester , J Rådberg , B Lundgren , M Peltonen . Factors associated with delayed admission to hospital and in-hospital delays in acute stroke and TIA: a prospective, multicenter study. Seek- Medical-Attention-in-Time Study Group. Stroke 1999; 30: 40–48.
31AM Nor , GA Ford . Misdiagnosis of stroke. Expert Rev Neurother 2007; 7: 989–1001.
32PJ Hand , J Kwan , RI Lindley , MS Dennis , JM Wardlaw . Distinguishing between stroke and mimic at the bedside: the brain attack study. Stroke 2006; 37: 769–75.
33PC Vroomen , MK Buddingh , GJ Luijckx , De J Keyser . The incidence of stroke mimics among stroke department admissions in relation to age group. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2008; 17: 418–22.
34DT Winkler , F Fluri , P Fuhr , SG Wetzel , PA Lyrer , S Ruegg , ST Engelter . Thrombolysis in stroke mimics: frequency, clinical characteristics, and outcome. Stroke 2009; 40: 1522–25.
35AM Nor , J Davis , B Sen , D Shipsey , SJ Louw , AG Dyker , M Davis , GA Ford . The Recognition of Stroke in the Emergency Room (ROSIER) scale: development and validation of a stroke recognition instrument. Lancet Neurol 2005; 4: 727–34.
36D Vu , MH Lev . Non-contrast CT in acute stroke. Semin Ultrasound CT MR 2005; 26: 380–86.
37SE Vermeer , PJ Koudstaal , M Oudkerk , A Hofman , MM Breteler . Prevalence and risk factors of silent brain infarcts in the population-based Rotterdam Scan Study. Stroke 2002; 33: 21–25.
38S Koton , Y Schwammenthal , O Merzeliak , T Philips , R Tsabari , D Orion , R Dichtiar , D Tanne . Cerebral leukoaraiosis in patients with stroke or TIA: clinical correlates and 1-year outcome. Eur J Neurol 2009; 16: 218–25.
41V Puetz , I Dzialowski , MD Hill , AM Demchuk . The Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score in clinical practice: what have we learned? Int J Stroke 2009; 4: 354–64.
42PW Schaefer , ER Barak , S Kamalian , LR Gharai , L Schwamm , RG Gonzalez , MH Lev . Quantitative assessment of core/penumbra mismatch in acute stroke: CT and MR perfusion imaging are strongly correlated when sufficient brain volume is imaged. Stroke 2008; 39: 2986–92.
43M Köhrmann , E Jüttler , HB Huttner , T Nowe , PD Schellinger . Acute stroke imaging for thrombolytic therapy – an update. Cerebrovasc Dis 2007; 24: 161–69.
44JJ Hopyan , DJ Gladstone , G Mallia , J Schiff , AJ Fox , SP Symons , BH Buck , SE Black , RI Aviv . Renal safety of CT angiography and perfusion imaging in the emergency evaluation of acute stroke. AJNR 2008; 29: 1826–30.
45M Mehdiratta , G Schlaug , S Kumar , LR Caplan , M Selim . Reducing the delay in thrombolysis: is it necessary to await the results of renal function tests before computed tomography perfusion and angiography in patients with code stroke? J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2008; 17: 273–75.
46JM Wardlaw , J Seymour , J Cairns , S Keir , S Lewis , P Sandercock . Immediate computed tomography scanning of acute stroke is cost-effective and improves quality of life. Stroke 2004; 35: 2477–83.
47N Wahlgren , N Ahmed , A Dávalos , GA Ford , M Grond , W Hacke , MG Hennerici , M Kaste , S Kuelkens , V Larrue , KR Lees , RO Roine , L Soinne , D Toni , G Vanhooren ; SITS-MOST investigators. Thrombolysis with alteplase for acute ischaemic stroke in the Safe Implementation of Thrombolysis in Stroke-Monitoring Study (SITS-MOST): an observational study. Lancet 2007; 369: 275–82.
48G Todd , TE Kimber , MC Ridding , JG Semmler . Reduced motor cortex plasticity following inhibitory rTMS in older adults. Clin Neurophysiol 2010; 121: 441–47.
49D Ergeletzis , CG Kevorkian , D Rintala . Rehabilitation of the older stroke patient: functional outcome and comparison with younger patients. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 2002; 81: 881–89.
50JK Luk , RT Cheung , SL Ho , L Li . Does age predict outcome in stroke rehabilitation? A study of 878 Chinese subjects. Cerebrovasc Dis 2006; 21: 229–34.
51NINDS study group. Tissue plasminogen activator for acute ischemic stroke. N Engl J Med 1995; 333: 1581–87.
52T Steiner , E Bluhmki , M Kaste , D Toni , P Trouillas , R von Kummer , W Hacke . The ECASS 3-hour cohort: secondary analysis of ECASS data by time stratification. Cerebrovasc Dis 1998; 8: 198–203.
53W Hacke , M Kaste , C Fieschi , R von Kummer , A Davalos , D Meier , V Larrue , E Bluhmki , S Davis , G Donnan , D Schneider , E Diez-Tejedor , P Trouillas . Randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial of thrombolytic therapy with intravenous alteplase in acute ischaemic stroke (ECASS II). Lancet 1998; 352: 1245–51.
54W Hacke , M Kaste , E Bluhmki , M Brozman , A Dávalos , D Guidetti , V Larrue , KR Lees , Z Medeghri , T Machnig , D Schneider , R von Kummer , N Wahlgren , D Toni ; ECASS Investigators. Thrombolysis with alteplase 3 to 4.5 hours after acute ischemic stroke. N Engl J Med 2008; 359: 1317–29.
55A Meretoja , J Putaala , T Tatlisumak , S Atula , V Artto , S Curtze , O Häppölä , PJ Lindsberg , S Mustanoja , K Piironen , J Pitkäniemi , K Rantanen , T Sairanen , O Salonen , H Silvennoinen , L Soinne , D Strbian , M Tiainen , M Kaste . Off-label thrombolysis is not associated with poor outcome in patients with stroke. Stroke 2010; 41: 1450–58.
56PN Sylaja , R Cote , AM Buchan , MD Hill . Canadian Alteplase for Stroke Effectiveness Study (CASES) Investigators. Thrombolysis in patients older than 80 years with acute ischaemic stroke: Canadian Alteplase for Stroke Effectiveness Study. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2006; 77: 826–29.
58W Whiteley , R Lindley , J Wardlaw , P Sandercock ; IST-3 Collaborative Group. Third international stroke trial. Int J Stroke 2006; 1: 172–76.
59PM Meyers , HC Schumacher , RT Higashida , SL Barnwell , MA Creager , R Gupta , CG McDougall , DK Pandey , D Sacks , LR Wechsler ; American Heart Association. Indications for the performance of intracranial endovascular neurointerventional procedures: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association Council on Cardiovascular Radiology and Intervention, Stroke Council, Council on Cardiovascular Surgery and Anesthesia, Interdisciplinary Council on Peripheral Vascular Disease, and Interdisciplinary Council on Quality of Care and Outcomes Research. Circulation 2009; 119: 2235–49.
61W Hacke , S Schwab , M Horn , M Spranger , M DeGeorgia , R von Kummer . ‘Malignant’ middle cerebral artery infarction: clinical course and prognostic signs. Arch Neurol 1996; 53: 309–15.
62R Gupta , ES Connolly , S Mayer , MS Elkind . Hemicraniectomy for massive middle cerebral artery territory infarction: a systematic review. Stroke 2004; 35: 539–43.
63K Vahedi , J Hofmeijer , E Juettler , E Vicaut , B George , A Algra , GJ Amelink , P Schmiedeck , S Schwab , PM Rothwell , MG Bousser , HB Van Der Worp , W Hacke ; DECIMAL, DESTINY, and HAMLET investigators. Early decompressive surgery in malignant middle cerebral artery infarction: pooled analysis of three randomized controlled trials. Lancet Neurol 2007; 6: 215–22.
65J Broderick , S Connolly , E Feldmann , D Hanley , C Kase , D Krieger , M Mayberg , L Morgenstern , CS Ogilvy , P Vespa , M Zuccarello ; American Heart Association; American Stroke Association Stroke Council; High Blood Pressure Research Council; Quality of Care and Outcomes in Research Interdisciplinary Working Group. Guidelines for the management of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage in adults: 2007 update: a guideline from the American Heart Association/ American Stroke Association Stroke Council, High Blood Pressure Research Council, and the Quality of Care and Outcomes in Research Interdisciplinary Working Group. Stroke 2007; 38: 2001–23.
66CS Anderson , Y Huang , JG Wang , H Arima , B Neal , B Peng , E Heeley , C Skulina , MW Parsons , JS Kim , QL Tao , YC Li , JD Jiang , LW Tai , JL Zhang , E Xu , Y Cheng , S Heritier , LB Morgenstern , J Chalmers ; INTERACT Investigators. Intensive blood pressure reduction in acute cerebral haemorrhage trial (INTERACT): a pilot randomised trial. Lancet Neurol 2008; 7: 391–99.
67AD Mendelow , BA Gregson , HM Fernandes , GD Murray , GM Teasdale , DT Hope , A Karimi , MD Shaw , DH Barer ; STICH investigators. Early surgery versus initial conservative treatment in patients with spontaneous supratentorial intracerebral haematomas in the International Surgical Trial in Intracerebral Haemorrhage (STICH): a randomised trial. Lancet 2005; 365: 387–97.
68AD Mendelow , A Unterberg . Surgical treatment of intracerebral haemorrhage. Curr Opin Crit Care 2007; 13: 169–74.
69AI Qureshi , AD Mendelow , DF Hanley . Intracerebral haemorrhage. Lancet 2009; 373: 1632–44.
71G Lanzino , NF Kassell , TP Germanson , GL Kongable , LL Truskowski , JC Torner , JA Jane . Age and outcome after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: why do older patients fare worse? J Neurosurg 1996; 85: 410–18.
72MG O'Sullivan , N Dorward , IR Whittle , AJ Steers , JD Miller . Management and long-term outcome following subarachnoid hemorrhage and intracranial aneurysm surgery in elderly patients: an audit of 199 consecutive cases. Br J Neurosurg 1994; 8: 23–30.
73M Sugita , H Nukui , C Kobayashi , T Horikoshi , T Yagishita . Surgical outcomes in elderly patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Int Congress Ser 2004; 1259: 169–75.
75C Stapf , AV Khaw , RR Sciacca , C Hofmeister , HC Schumacher , J Pile-Spellman , H Mast , JP Mohr , A Hartmann . Effect of age on clinical and morphological characteristics in patients with brain arteriovenous malformation. Stroke 2003; 34: 2664–69.
76H Masud , RO Morris . Epidemiology of falls. Age Ageing 2001; 30: 3–7.
77M Torn , WL Bollen , FJ Van Der Meer , EE Van Der Wall , FR Rosendaal . Risks of oral anticoagulant therapy with increasing age. Arch Intern Med 2005; 165: 1527–32.
78JH Miller , JM Wardlaw , GA Lammie . Intracerebral hemorrhage and cerebral amyloid angiopathy: CT features and pathological correlation. Clin Radiol 1999; 54: 422–29.
79SM Fridriksson , J Hillman , H Saveland , L Brandt . Intracranial aneurysm surgery in the 8th and 9th decades of life: impact on population-based management outcome. Neurosurgery 1995; 37: 627–31.
81M Johansson , KG Cesarini , CF Contant , L Persson , P Enblad . Changes in intervention and outcome in elderly patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage. Stroke 2001; 32: 2845–49.
82European Stroke Organisation (ESO) Executive Committee; ESO Writing Committee. Guidelines for management of ischaemic stroke and transient ischaemic attack 2008. Cerebrovasc Dis 2008; 25: 457–507.
84EE Smith , KA Hassan , J Fang , D Selchen , MK Kapral , G Saposnik ; On behalf of the Investigators of the Registry of the Canadian Stroke Network (RCSN) for the Stroke Outcome Research Canada (SORCan) Working Group. Do all ischemic stroke subtypes benefit from organized inpatient stroke care? Neurology 2010; 75: 456–62.
87G Saposnik , MK Kapral , SB Coutts , J Fang , AM Demchuk , MD Hill ; Investigators of the Registry of the Canadian Stroke Network (RCSN) for the Stroke Outcome Research Canada (SORCan) Working Group. Do all age groups benefit from organized inpatient stroke care? Stroke 2009; 40: 3321–27.