Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Access
  • Cited by 92
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Aburn, Gemma Gott, Merryn and Hoare, Karen 2016. What is resilience? An Integrative Review of the empirical literature. Journal of Advanced Nursing, Vol. 72, Issue. 5, p. 980.


    Caldeira, S. and Timmins, F. 2016. Resilience: synthesis of concept analyses and contribution to nursing classifications. International Nursing Review, Vol. 63, Issue. 2, p. 191.


    Cowden, Richard G. Meyer-Weitz, Anna and Oppong Asante, Kwaku 2016. Mental Toughness in Competitive Tennis: Relationships with Resilience and Stress. Frontiers in Psychology, Vol. 7,


    Cusack, Lynette Smith, Morgan Hegney, Desley Rees, Clare S. Breen, Lauren J. Witt, Regina R. Rogers, Cath Williams, Allison Cross, Wendy and Cheung, Kin 2016. Exploring Environmental Factors in Nursing Workplaces That Promote Psychological Resilience: Constructing a Unified Theoretical Model. Frontiers in Psychology, Vol. 7,


    Donnellan, Warren J. Bennett, Kate M. and Soulsby, Laura K. 2016. Family close but friends closer: exploring social support and resilience in older spousal dementia carers. Aging & Mental Health, p. 1.


    Garner, Ian W. and Boulton, Michael J. 2016. Adolescent’s unambiguous knowledge of overcoming bullying and developing resilience. Journal of Occupational Therapy, Schools, & Early Intervention, Vol. 9, Issue. 2, p. 199.


    Haraldsson, Katarina Isaksson, Pernilla and Eriksson, Monica 2016. ‘Happy when they arrive, happy when they go home’ – focusing on promoting children’s mental health creates a sense of trust at preschools. Early Years, p. 1.


    Hayman, Karen J. Kerse, Ngaire and Consedine, Nathan S. 2016. Resilience in context: the special case of advanced age. Aging & Mental Health, p. 1.


    Kauffeld, Simone 2016. Editorial. Gruppe. Interaktion. Organisation. Zeitschrift für Angewandte Organisationspsychologie (GIO), Vol. 47, Issue. 2, p. 101.


    Limardi, Stefano Stievano, Alessandro Rocco, Gennaro Vellone, Ercole and Alvaro, Rosaria 2016. Caregiver resilience in palliative care: a research protocol. Journal of Advanced Nursing, Vol. 72, Issue. 2, p. 421.


    Liu, Danica W.Y. Fairweather-Schmidt, A. Kate Burns, Richard A. and Roberts, Rachel M. 2016. The utility of non-specific measures of resilience across the lifespan: An investigation of structural invariance across gender and age cohorts. Australian Journal of Psychology, Vol. 68, Issue. 1, p. 3.


    Madewell, Amy N. and Ponce-Garcia, Elisabeth 2016. Assessing resilience in emerging adulthood: The Resilience Scale (RS), Connor–Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC), and Scale of Protective Factors (SPF). Personality and Individual Differences, Vol. 97, p. 249.


    Minchev, Zlatogor Borisov 2016. Handbook of Research on Civil Society and National Security in the Era of Cyber Warfare.


    Mizuno, Yuya Hofer, Alex Suzuki, Takefumi Frajo-Apor, Beatrice Wartelsteiner, Fabienne Kemmler, Georg Saruta, Juri Tsukinoki, Keiichi Mimura, Masaru Fleischhacker, W. Wolfgang and Uchida, Hiroyuki 2016. Clinical and biological correlates of resilience in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: A cross-sectional study. Schizophrenia Research, Vol. 175, Issue. 1-3, p. 148.


    Park, Mi Mi and Park, Jee-Won 2016. Development of Resilience Scale for Nurses. Journal of Korean Academy of Fundamentals of Nursing, Vol. 23, Issue. 1, p. 32.


    Richardson, Jane C. and Chew-Graham, Carolyn A. 2016. Mental Health and Older People.


    Sadler, Euan Sarre, Sophie Tinker, Anthea Bhalla, Ajay and McKevitt, Christopher 2016. Developing a novel peer support intervention to promote resilience after stroke. Health & Social Care in the Community, p. n/a.


    Sands, Gina Chadborn, Neil Craig, Chris and Gladman, John 2016. Qualitative study investigating the commissioning process for older people's services provided by third sector organisations: SOPRANO study protocol. BMJ Open, Vol. 6, Issue. 5, p. e010724.


    Schulte, Eva-Maria Gessnitzer, Sina and Kauffeld, Simone 2016. Ich – wir – meine Organisation werden das überstehen! Der Fragebogen zur individuellen, Team- und organisationalen Resilienz (FITOR). Gruppe. Interaktion. Organisation. Zeitschrift für Angewandte Organisationspsychologie (GIO), Vol. 47, Issue. 2, p. 139.


    Slepian, P. Maxwell Ankawi, Brett Himawan, Lina K. and France, Christopher R. 2016. Development and Initial Validation of the Pain Resilience Scale. The Journal of Pain, Vol. 17, Issue. 4, p. 462.


    ×

What is resilience? A review and concept analysis

  • Gill Windle (a1)
  • DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0959259810000420
  • Published online: 21 December 2010
Abstract
Summary

The complexities of defining what appears to be the relatively simple concept of resilience are widely recognized. This paper analyses the concept of resilience from a range of disciplinary perspectives and clarifies a definition in order to inform research, policy and practice. The work takes a life course approach to resilience, examining evidence derived from research across the lifespan. It incorporates the methods of systematic review, concept analysis and consultation through face-to-face meetings. The synthesis of methodological approaches enables a clear identification of the antecedents, defining attributes and consequences of resilience, validated with stakeholder partners. Through this process, resilience is defined as the process of effectively negotiating, adapting to, or managing significant sources of stress or trauma. Assets and resources within the individual, their life and environment facilitate this capacity for adaptation and ‘bouncing back’ in the face of adversity. Across the life course, the experience of resilience will vary. A large proportion of resilience research is routed within the discipline of developmental psychology, and has mainly been developed with children and adolescents. A major contribution to resilience research could be made through more multi-disciplinary studies that examine the dynamics of resilience across the lifespan, its role in healthy ageing and in managing loss, such as changes in cognitive functioning.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      What is resilience? A review and concept analysis
      Your Kindle email address
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      What is resilience? A review and concept analysis
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      What is resilience? A review and concept analysis
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
Corresponding author
Address for correspondence: Dr Gill Windle, Dementia Services Development Centre, Institute of Medical Social Care Research, Bangor University, Ardudwy, Holyhead Road, Bangor, Gwynedd LL57 2PX, UK. Email: g.windle@bangor.ac.uk
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

1ME Haskett , K Nears , CS Ward , AV McPherson . Diversity in adjustment of maltreated children: Factors associated with resilient functioning. Clin Psychol Rev 2006; 26: 796812.

2S Fergus , MA Zimmerman . Adolescent resilience: a framework for understanding healthy development in the face of risk. Ann Rev Public Health 2005; 26: 399419.

3S Luthar , D Cicchetti , B Becker . The construct of resilience: a critical evaluation and guidelines for future work. Child Dev 2000; 71: 543–62.

6E Vanderbilt-Adriance , DS Shaw . Conceptualizing and re-evaluating resilience across levels of risk, time, and domains of competence. Clin Child Family Psychol Rev 2008; 11: 3058.

7GA Bonnano . Loss, trauma, and human resilience: Have we underestimated the human capacity to thrive after extremely aversive events? Am Psychol 2004; 59: 2028.

10SS Luthar , D Cicchetti . The construct of resilience: Implications for interventions and social policies. Dev Psychopathol 2000; 12: 857–85.

11JG Dyer , TM McGuinness . Resilience: Analysis of the concept. Arch Psychiat Nursing 1996; 10: 276–82.

12BM Gillespie , W Chaboyer , M Wallis , P Grimbeek . Resilience in the operating room: Developing and testing of a resilience model. J Adv Nursing 2007; 59: 427–38.

14S Beckwith , A Dickinson , S Kendall . The ‘con’ of concept analysis: A discussion paper which explores and critiques the ontological focus, reliability and antecedents of concept analysis frameworks. Int J Nursing Studies 2008; 45: 1831–41.

15J. Paley How not to clarify concepts in nursing. J Adv Nursing 1996; 24: 572–78.

24AS Masten . Ordinary magic: Resilience processes in development. Am Psychol 2001; 56: 227–38.

27GA Bonanno . Clarifying and extending the construct of adult resilience. Am Psychol 2005; 60: 265–67.

28G Netuveli , RD Wiggins , SM Montgomery , Z Hildon , D Blane . Mental health and resilience at older ages: bouncing back after adversity in the British Household Panel Survey. J Epidemiol Community Health 2008; 62: 987–91.

30M Rutter . Resilience concepts and findings: Implications for family therapy. J Family Therapy 1999; 21: 119144.

31WN Adger . Social and ecological resilience: Are they related? Prog Human Geog 2000; 24: 347–64.

32BE Goldstein . Skunkworks in the embers of the cedar fire: Enhancing resilience in the aftermath of disaster. Human Ecology 2008; 36: 1528.

33MK Kitano , RB Lewis . Resilience and coping: Implications for gifted children and youth at risk. Roeper Review 2005; 27: 200–5.

34D Sutherland . Resiliency and collateral learning in science in some students of Cree ancestry. Science Education 2005; 89: 595613.

36KM Connor , JRT Davidson . Development of a new resilience scale: The connor-davidson resilience scale (CD-RISC). Depression Anxiety 2003; 18: 7682.

38AD Ong , CS Bergeman , TL Bisconti , KA Wallace . Psychological resilience, positive emotions, and successful adaptation to stress in later life. J Personality Social Psychol 2006; 91: 730–49.

39M Roth , G von Collani . A head-to-head comparison of big-five types and traits in the prediction of social attitudes: Further evidence for a five-cluster typology. J Individ Diff 2007; 28: 138–49.

42M Rutter . Resilience, competence and coping. Child Abuse Neglect 2007; 31: 205–9.

44O Hjemdal , O Friborg , TC Stiles , JH Rosenvinge , M Martinussen . Resilience predicting psychiatric symptoms: A prospective study of protective factors and their role in adjustment to stressful life events. Clinical Psychol Psychother 2006; 13: 194201.

48PB Braudy-Harris . Another wrinkle in the debate about successful aging: The undervalued concept of resilience and the lived experience of dementia. Int J Aging Human Dev 2008; 67: 4361.

49EM Donoghue , VE Sturtevant . Social science constructs in ecosystem assessments: Revisiting community capacity and community resiliency. Society Nat Res 2007; 20: 899912.

50CT Mowbray , ME Woolley , A Grogan-Kaylor , LM Gant , ME Gilster , TRW Shanks . Neighborhood research from a spatially oriented strengths perspective. J Community Psychol 2007; 35: 667–80.

51GE Richardson . The metatheory of resilience and resiliency. J Clin Psychol 2002; 58: 307–21.

52RL Punamäki , S Qouta , E El Sarraj , E Montgomery . Psychological distress and resources among siblings and parents exposed to traumatic events. Int J Behav Dev 2006; 30: 385–97.

53LG Ryan , K Miller-Loessi , T Nieri . Relationships with adults as predictors of substance use, gang involvement, and threats to safety among disadvantaged urban high-school adolescents. Journal of Community Psychology 2007; 35: 1053–71.

54CA Olsson , L Bond , JM Burns , DA Vella-Brodrick , SM Sawyer . Adolescent resilience: A concept analysis. J Adolescence 2003; 26: 111.

55N Garmezy . Resiliency and vulnerability to adverse developmental outcomes associated with poverty. Am Behav Scientist 1985; 34: 416–30.

56EE Werner . Resilience in development. Curr Directions Psychol Sci 1995; 4: 8185.

57A Sacker , I Schoon . Educational resilience in later life: resources and assets in adolescence and return to education after leaving school at age 16. Social Sci Res 2007; 36: 873–96.

58D Charney . Psychobiological mechanisms of resilience and vulnerability: implications for successful adaption to extreme stress. Am J Psychiat 2004; 161: 195216.

59T Freeman , T Kimbrell , L Booe , M Myers , D Cardwell , DM Lindquist , J Hart , RA Komoroski . Evidence of resilience: Neuroimaging in former prisoners of war. Psychiat Res: Neuroimaging 2006; 146: 5964.

61A Daud , B af Klinteberg , P Rydelius . Resilience and vulnerability among refugee children of traumatized and non-traumatized parents. Child Adolescent Psychiat Mental Health 2008; 2: 7.

62RJ Flynn , H Ghazal , L Legault , G Vandermeulen , S Petrick . Use of population measures and norms to identify resilient outcomes in young people in care: An exploratory study. Child Family Social Work 2004; 9: 6579.

63TV Horton , JL Wallander . Hope and social support as resilience factors against psychological distress of mothers who care for children with chronic physical conditions. Rehabil Psychol 2001; 46: 382–99.

65AD Mancini , GA Bonanno . Resilience in the face of potential trauma: Clinical practices and llustrations. J Clin Psychol 2006; 62: 971–85.

67EA Hoge , ED Austin , MH Pollack . Resilience: Research evidence and conceptual considerations for posttraumatic stress disorder. Depression Anxiety 2007; 24: 139–52.

68GI Roisman . Conceptual clarifications in the study of resilience. Am Psychol 2005; 60: 264–65.

69AS Masten , JJ Hubbard , SD Gest , A Tellegen , N Garmezy , M Ramirez . Competence in the context of adversity: Pathways to resilience and maladaptation from childhood to late adolescence. Dev Psychopathol 1999; 11: 143–69.

70R Yehuda , JD Flory . Differentiating biological correlates of risk, PTSD, and resilience following trauma exposure. J Traumatic Stress 2007; 20: 435–47.

71Z Hildon , G Smith , G Netuveli , D Blane . Understanding adversity and resilience at older ages. Sociology Health Illness 2008; 30: 726–40.

73SS Luthar . Methodological and conceptual issues in the study of resilience. J Child Psychol Psychiat 1993; 34: 441–53.

74G Windle , DA Markland , B Woods . Examination of a theoretical model of psychological resilience in older age. Aging Mental Health 2008; 12: 285–92.

76NR Ahern , EM Kiehl , ML Sole , J Byers . A review of instruments measuring resilience. Issues Comp Pediatric Nursing 2006; 29: 103–25.

78KK Lin , IN Sandler , TS Ayers , SA Wolchik , LJ Luecken . Resilience in parentally bereaved children and adolescents seeking preventive services. J Clin Child Adolescent Psychol 2004; 33: 673–83.

79I Schoon , S Parsons , A Sacker . Socio-economic adversity, educational resilience, and subsequent levels of adult adaptation. J Adolescent Res 2004; 19: 383404.

81AM Almedom . Resilience, hardiness, sense of coherence, and posttraumatic growth: All paths leading to ‘light at the end of the tunnel’? J Loss Trauma 2005; 10: 253–65.

82SC Kobasa . Stressful life events, personality and health: An inquiry into hardiness. J Personality Social Psychol 1979; 37: 111.

83SR Maddi , DM Khoshaba . Hardiness and mental health. J Personality Assessment 1994; 63: 265–74.

84J Block , AM Kremen . IQ and ego-resiliency: Conceptual and empirical connections and separateness. J Personality Social Psychol 1996; 70: 349–61.

86BK Haas . A multidisciplinary concept analysis of quality of life. Western J Nursing Res 1999; 21: 728–43.

87A Xyrichis , E Ream . Teamwork: a concept analysis. J Advanced Nursing 2008; 61: 232–41.

88AS Masten , WJ Curtis . Integrating competence and psychopathology: Pathways towards a comprehensive science of adaptation in development. Dev Psychopathol 2000; 12: 529–50.

92L Campbell-Sills , SL Cohan , MB Stein . Relationship of resilience to personality, coping, and psychiatric symptoms in young adults. Behav Res Therapy 2006; 44: 585–99.

93I Sandler . Quality and ecology of adversity as common mechanisms of risk and resilience. Am J Community Psychol 2001; 29: 1961.

95MM Glymour , J Weuve , ME Fay , T Glass , LF Berkman . (2008). Social ties and cognitive recovery after stroke: Does social integration promote cognitive resilience? Neuroepidemiology 2008; 31: 1020.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Reviews in Clinical Gerontology
  • ISSN: 0959-2598
  • EISSN: 1469-9036
  • URL: /core/journals/reviews-in-clinical-gerontology
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords: