Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home

BADEN and HESSE (DARMSTADT)

Extract

The prospect of the Elections for the German Diet has determined the Leaders of the National Liberal Party in South Germany to endeavour to arouse their adherents from the condition of apathy into which they had lately fallen, and to define more accurately the characteristic attributes which should distinguish the Party as a whole, and as freed from those minor divisions which have so lamentably weakened it during the last few years.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      BADEN and HESSE (DARMSTADT)
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      BADEN and HESSE (DARMSTADT)
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      BADEN and HESSE (DARMSTADT)
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/), which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is unaltered and is properly cited. The written permission of Cambridge University Press must be obtained for commercial re-use or in order to create a derivative work.
References
Hide All

1 Elections to the Reichstag were due to take place on 28 October 1884.

2 Secessionists.

3 On the Deutsche Freisinnige Partei, see n. 3 in Berlin section.

4 Provinces of Oberhessen, Rheinhessen, and Starkenburg. The meeting in question was the Landesversammlung of the Hessian Fortschittspartei (Hessian Progressive party), the regional branch of the National Liberal Party.

5 Otto von Bismarck.

6 The meeting resulted in the ‘Heidelberg Declaration’ which adhered to the programmatic Berlin declaration of 29 May 1881. The National Liberal Party had sought to reinvigorate itself through this declaration following the secession of the Liberal Union in 1880.

7 Jocelyn is probably referring to Bismarck's Reichstag speech of 20 March 1884.

8 Run-off vote.

9 Hesse and Prussia, as the legal successors to Hesse-Nassau and the Free City of Frankfurt, were co-owners of the Main-Weser railway, and agreed on the acquisition of the remaining shares by Prussia on 20 November 1878. The transfer of ownership was effected on 1 April 1880.

10 The privately owned Hessische-Ludwigs-Eisenbahngesellschaft was founded in 1845.

11 In 1879.

12 The Rheinische Eisenbahn-Gesellschaft (founded in 1836), was nationalised by the Prussian law of 14 February 1880.

13 On 30 September 1884.

14 Notification of the Königliche Eisenbahndirektion zu Frankfurt, 4 January 1885.

15 The Serbo-Bulgarian War, triggered by the proclamation of unification between Bulgaria and the Ottoman province of Eastern Rumelia on 18 September, took place from 14 to 28 November 1885. The Bulgarian victory over Serbia led to the recognition of the status quo; in April 1886, on the basis of the Tophane Agreement, Abdul Hamid II appointed the Prince of Bulgaria as Governor-General of Eastern Rumelia.

16 Alexander I was the second son of Alexander of Hesse.

17 Jocelyn is referring to the provisional Hilfs-Comité for the relief of wounded Bulgarian soldiers; the collecting point in the palace of Prince Alexander was established on 17 November 1885.

18 This dispatch is not marked ‘Consular’ but is included in the consular section of the volume FO 30/264.

19 The British consulate at Frankfurt was raised to the status of consulate general for Frankfurt, the Province of Hesse-Nassau, the Grand Duchy of Hesse, and the Grand Duchy of Baden in October 1882.

20 In his capacity as acting consul throughout July and August 1885 Goldbeck had provided a statement for the German authorities about the marriage of the British consul general for Borneo, and took steps to secure the release of five British subjects who had been arrested in Frankfurt.

21 Since Bishop Ketteler's death in 1877.

22 After the promulgation of the Hessian church laws of 23 April 1875, and especially the Gesetz betreffend die Vorbildung und Anstellung der Geistlichen, no new candidates were admitted to the seminary. It was not, however, formally closed. For the Prussian May Laws of 1873–1875, see n. 17 in Munich section and n. 131 in Berlin section.

23 Alexander was referring to the Norddeutsche Allgemeine Zeitung of 27 September 1886, which alleged that Alexander had left Bulgaria in a cowardly fashion and out of self-interest.

24 Conrad von Saldern.

25 After the successful counter-revolution against the Russian controlled provisional government (which had assumed power on 21 August 1886) Alexander returned to Bulgaria on 28 August and to Sofia on 3 September. Ultimately, Alexander, the return of whom was disapproved of by Russia, left Bulgaria on 8 September 1886, one day after his abdication as prince (knyaz) of Bulgaria.

26 Narodnо sybranie, the National Assembly of Bulgaria.

27 Signatory powers (Britain, Austria-Hungary, France, Germany, Italy, Russia and the Ottoman Empire) of the Treaty of Berlin (1878) through which Bulgaria became an autonomous principality of the Ottoman Empire.

28 Tarnovo Constitution of 1879.

29 The incumbent government, under Minister President Vasil Radoslavov, had taken power on 28 August 1886.

30 Wilhelm von Heuduck.

31 French: ‘surprise military attack intended to take out opposing forces in one swift manoeuvre’.

32 Section 28 of the Anti-Socialist Law of 1878 (see n. 10 in Dresden section) authorized federal governments, with prior approval of the Federal Council, to impose a minor state of siege (Kleiner Belagerungszustand) in towns and districts where activities of the Social Democrats jeopardised public safety. The measures restricted the freedom of assembly and dissemination of publications, allowed for the expulsion of persons suspected of endangering public security, and imposed a general ban on weapons.

33 On 16 December 1886.

34 The Reichstag elections took place on 21 February 1887.

35 The serving candidate at Friedberg was a Freisinnig Liberal, while the serving candidate at Mainz was a member of the Catholic Zentrumspartei (Centre). The only socialist elected in the previous elections of 1884 was Wilhelm Liebknecht at Offenbach. Miquel was simultaneously elected in three electoral districts.

36 The Bulgarian minister of finance, Konstantin Stoilov, arrived at Vienna on 30 March 1887 on a special mission to the European powers. For Alexander's abdication in 1886, see n. 25 in this section.

37 Alexander's 30th birthday was on 5 April 1887.

38 Enclosure: translation of speech by Ludwig Karl Friedrich Turban, undated.

39 Johann Christian Roos.

40 Jocelyn is referring to the reconciliation between the Baden government and the Catholic Church in 1879–1880 and the so called ‘Peace Law’ (Friedensgesetz) of 5 March 1880.

41 The elections took place later in October 1887.

42 Most probably Aleksandr F. Golovin.

43 Jakob Finger.

44 No enclosures included in FO 30/268.

45 Ferdinand Ladenburg.

46 Bismarck's campaign against Switzerland concerned German and European socialists and radicals residing in that country, and the arrest of a German police inspector (who had been investigating the smuggling of socialist newspapers into Germany) by Swiss authorities in April 1889. At the time of the dispatch – in addition to tighter border controls and rigorous customs inspections – closing the frontier to the canton of Aargau and the abrogation of the Swiss German treaty on settlement rights of 1876 were being deliberated.

47 Turban was referring to the instructions of 11 and 19 June 1889 he gave to the Baden plenipotentiary to the Federal Council, Adolf Freiherr Marschall von Bieberstein.

48 Enclosures: original (clipping) from Karlsruher Zeitung and translation, both undated.

49 Elections of the Baden Landtag took place on 9 (electoral delegates) and 23 October 1890.

50 The meeting of the Seegau Kriegerbund took place on 1 September, not on 3 September as stated in the dispatch.

51 For Sedan Day (2 September), see n. 50 in Dresden section.

52 On 19 August 1889.

53 Enclosure: translation of speech by the Grand Duke of Baden in which he referred to an ‘internal Foe, – a concealed enemy, going about closely veiled, and who must be overcome’.

54 Helmuth von Maltzahn.

55 According to Article 70 of the imperial constitution of 1871, the federal states paid per capita contributions to the empire (Matrikularbeiträge) in order to balance the deficit of the imperial budget. The federal states, for their part, received indirect taxes and tariff revenues that exceeded 130 million Reichsmark (‘Franckenstein Clause’ of 1879).

56 The final results for Hesse were: two anti-Semites, two Socialists, two Progressives and three National Liberals.

57 Nicola Racke.

58 Franz Jöst.

59 Philipp Wasserburg.

60 Carl Ulrich.

61 August Dreesbach.

62 The final results for Baden were: eight members of the Catholic Zentrumspartei, three Conservatives; one left liberal; one Progressive; and one Socialist.

63 The proposal was part of the government bill to revise the Baden church laws (Article 4); it was rejected by the Landtag on 17 April 1888.

64 Christian Roos.

65 Wilhelm Pickenbach and Oswald Zimmermann.

66 See n. 4 in this section.

67 Siegmund Salfeld; on 29 October 1890.

68 Enclosures: original newspaper clipping, Finger to Salfeld (undated), and translation, 1 November 1890.

69 Alice.

70 Battle of the Nations, 16–19 October 1813.

71 Vladimir Alexandrovich Fredericks.

72 In his address, which was sanctioned by the Grand Duke, Turban hinted at the struggles of the Baden government with the Democratic and Catholic parties in the run-up to the elections of the Baden chambers. Contested fields of policy included constitutional and electoral reforms and further revisions of church laws, especially the admission of religious congregations and male religious orders.

73 Enclosures: translations of Turban's address (8 September) and Friedrich I's reply (9 September1891).

74 Elections took place on 24 September (electoral delegates) and 2 October 1891.

75 An independent ministry of the interior.

76 Moritz Ellstätter (minister of finance).

77 The Landtag reconvened on 18 January 1892; the debate (including the vote on the motion of the Zentrum faction) took place on 26 January.

78 The education of priests was regulated by the laws of 5 March 1880 and 5 July 1888 which, amongst other things, stipulated attendance at a university. New religious orders were, as regulated by the Church Law of 9 October 1860, subject to approval of the Baden government.

79 Bismarck visited Vienna on the occasion of his son's wedding from 18 to 22 June 1892. His audience with the Austrian emperor was impeded by the intervention of Leo von Caprivi and Wilhelm II.

80 Eckhard was referring to Bismarck's resignation from office on 18 March 1890.

81 Jocelyn died on 11 November 1892.

82 Mervyn Wingfield, 7th Viscount Powerscourt, represented the family at Jocelyn's funeral on 14 November.

83 Friedrich I attended the meeting of the Badischer Militärvereinsverband on 4 June. Enclosures: original (clipping) from Karlsruher Zeitung of 6 June 1893 and translation.

84 In press reports on the speech of 14 May, the Grand Duke reportedly said that it was not the number but the quality of soldiers upon which Germany must rely. For the army bill (Imperial Military Law), see nn. 312 and 322 in Berlin section.

85 Elections to the Reichstag took place on 15 June 1893.

86 Constitution of 22 August 1818.

87 On 14 May 1892.

88 The committee which discussed the two diverging motions of 24 November (Democrats) and 15 December 1893 (Zentrum faction) presented its report to the second chamber on 6 June; it was passed on 22 June 1894.

89 Declaration by minister Eisenlohr before the committee on 17 May 1894.

90 Enclosures: Rede seiner Königlichen Hoheit des Goßherzogs bei dem Schluß der Ständeversammlung am 28 Juni 1894 (printed copy and translation).

91 The elections took place on 20 (electoral delegates) and 27 October 1893.

92 Zentrumspartei (Catholics).

93 The law which readmitted missions in Baden was passed by both chambers on 19 and 26 June 1894 and was promulgated on 28 June.

94 Law of 5 March 1880.

95 13 to 17 February 1894.

96 Albert Gönner.

97 Law on the modification of income tax of 26 June 1894, passed by the second chamber on 21 May.

98 On 22 June 1894.

99 Buchanan is referring to August Eisenlohr's speech in the Baden Landtag of 22 June 1894.

100 Friedrich I stayed at Berlin from 21 to 29 March; on 27 March he visited Bismarck at Friedrichsruh.

101 Friedrich I was referring to the speech Bismarck gave to members of the first and second Prussian house and the German Reichstag at Friedrichsruh on 25 March 1895. See also n. 107 in this section.

102 Ignatz Metz.

103 Federal Council.

104 For the ‘subversion bill’ (Umsturzvorlage), see n. 381 in Berlin section; the bill was dismissed by the Reichstag in its second reading on 11 May 1895.

105 Zentrumspartei (Catholics).

106 Alexander Friedrich.

107 Buchanan is referring to the speech of 25 March (see n. 101 in this section) in which Bismarck stated that he was happy when imperial policy was criticised by state parliaments as it proved their shared interest in German affairs.

108 Elections took place on 12 October (electoral delegates); the second ballots were concluded on 30 October 1895.

109 Georg Philipp Pfisterer.

110 Albert Klein.

111 On 16 June the second chamber of the Baden Landtag granted 3.3 million marks to remedy the damage caused by the floods of March 1896, which had affected areas west and south-west of the Black Forest.

112 In his speech the Grand Duke referred to the construction of the Karlsruhe Rhine Port (opened in 1901); on 20 May the second chamber approved the payment of the first instalment (200,000 marks) to the city of Karlsruhe.

113 The Civil Procedure Code of 1877 was amended in May 1898. At the time of the dispatch the Imperial Office for Justice (Reichsjustitzamt) adjusted the provisions of the bill to the new German Civil Code which was passed in July 1896 (see n. 456 in Dresden section).

114 On 22 June 1894.

115 The motion by the National Liberal faction was passed on 15 June 1895; it requested the Baden government to present a bill on the election of the Landtag, and for directly and indirectly elected members to be in equal proportion.

116 Wilhelm visited Nicholas II, who stayed at Darmstadt from 11 to 29 October, on 19 October. The tsar returned the visit the following day (at Wiesbaden).

117 Victoria arrived 22 October 1896.

118 From 19 October 1894 Nicholas II was Regimentschef (colonel-in-chief) of the 24th (2nd Grand Ducal Hessian) Life Dragoon Regiment. On 17 November 1894 he was likewise made Regimentschef of the 8th (1st Westphalian) Hussars, known thenceforth as the Emperor Nicholas II of Russia's.

119 The tsar visited Warsaw from 31 August to 4 September 1897.

120 Nicholas, as tsarevich, visited Athens in November 1890. Theodoros Deligiannis was dismissed as premier in April 1897 in the course of the Greco-Turkish War. By the time of the dispatch Deligiannis’ successor had been replaced as well.

121 Buchanan is referring to the rebellion of Pashtun tribes in the Tirah valley which led to the Tirah Campaign of 1897–1898.

122 Afghanistan.

123 Mozaffar ad-Din Shah Qajar.

124 Karlsruher Zeitung, 24 October 1897. The Grand Duke's request to visit the imperial couple on 23 October was declined on 22 October.

125 Friedrich I's position among the German princes was distinguished by his long reign and marriage to Princess Luise of Prussia, aunt to Wilhelm II of Germany.

126 From 2 to 28 October 1897.

127 The letters from Alexandra Feodorovna and Luise are dated 22 and 23 October 1897 respectively.

128 On 21 October; Wilhelm II departed for Darmstadt.

129 Nicholas II visited Wilhelm II at Wiesbaden on 20 October; the visit was returned on 21 October 1897.

130 See n. 118 in this section.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Royal Historical Society Camden Fifth Series
  • ISSN: 0960-1163
  • EISSN: 1478-5110
  • URL: /core/journals/royal-historical-society-camden-fifth-series
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed