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On the occasion of the New Year, the Saxon Press has spoken in very optimist language of the state of Europe, as guaranteeing a continuance of peace. The Germans seem to have a belief in the existence of a separate diplomatic faculty, to whose agency they ascribe events due more to the natural evolution of affairs than to the forethought and contrivance of statesmen. Prince Bismarck is credited with the monopoly of this force, with which he regulates at will the European alliances, bringing the continent into an international system controlled by Germany. The feeling that the Reichskanzler has created a German hegemony in Europe, is expressed in the ‘Dresdner Nachrichten’ in some remarks of which the following is the purport.

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1 On 1 January 1884.

2 In the protocol of 22 March 1883 Austria-Hungary and Germany prolonged their Dual Alliance of 7 October 1879 (see n. 489 in Berlin section).

3 Latin: ‘The Britons, separated from all the world’ (Virgil, Ecl.1.66).

4 Ludwig Haberkorn.

5 French: ‘close’ (of session).

6 Federal Council.

7 For the debate in the Federal Council on 5 April 1884, see pp. 33–34.

8 Elections to the Reichstag were to be held on 28 October 1884.

9 Deutsche Freisinnige Partei. See n. 3 in Berlin section.

10 The Anti-Socialist Law (Law against the Publicly Dangerous Endeavours of Social Democracy) of 21 October 1878 banned social democratic and socialist societies, associations, meetings, and publications which aimed at ‘the overthrow of the existing political or social order’. The law, which was originally limited to two and a half years, was prolonged by the Reichstag on 12 May 1884. It was renewed a total of four times until 1890.

11 Hermann von Nostitz-Wallwitz.

12 Strachey is referring to the Catiline conspiracies to overthrow the Roman Republic in the 1st century bc.

13 Die Quintessenz des Sozialismus (Gotha, 1874).

14 Die Frau und der Sozialismus (Zurich, 1879) [Die Frau in der Vergangenheit, Gegenwart und Zukunft (Zurich, 1879)].

15 At Leipzig the minor state of siege was imposed on 27 June 1881; it was annually renewed until 1890. For Section 28 of the Anti-Socialist Law which underpinned these measures, see n. 32 in the Darmstadt section.

16 Ferdinand Ißleib.

17 The Carbonari was an Italian secret society which existed in the first decades of the nineteenth century; Marianne was the name of a republican secret society during the Second French Empire.

18 Federal Council.

19 Der Sozialdemokrat (weekly periodical, established in 1879).

20 Borsdorf; on 2 July 1881.

21 Theodor Otto Burkhardt and Max Preißer.

22 Elections to the Reichstag were held on 28 October 1884.

23 For the Anti-Socialist Law of October 1878, see n. 10 in this section.

24 For the ‘minor state of siege’, see n. 15 in this section.

25 The candidate in 1881 was also August Bebel – who stood simultaneously in thirty-five constituencies.

26 Heine was Reichstag deputy for Leipzig (county) from 1869 to 1880; in 1884 the defeated incumbent was Johann Gottfried Dietze.

27 Louis Viereck.

28 Kartell der Ordnungsparteien, i.e. the National Liberals and the conservative parties. See n. 208 in Berlin section.

29 Bruno Geiser.

30 See n. 3 in Prussia section.

31 The so called Weißbuch, a collection of diplomatic papers on Angra Pequena submitted by Bismarck to the Reichstag on 11 December, was published on 12 December 1884 . The first Weißbuch on colonial policy – pertaining to the Togo area and Biafra Bay – was presented to the Reichstag on 4 December. On the Angra Pequena question, see pp. 36–37 and n. 26 in Berlin section.

32 Dresdner Nachrichten, 16 December 1884.

33 This word is underlined in pencil in the dispatch and accompanied by ‘!!’ in the margin.

34 On 15 December 1884 the Reichstag refused to grant the post of an additional director in the Berlin Auswärtiges Amt.

35 At the time of the dispatch German protectorates were Angra Pequena (Lüderitz Bay; from 1885 German South West Africa), Kamerun (German Cameroon), and Togoland.

36 Nationalliberale Korrespondenz, Berlin.

37 Dresdner Anzeiger.

38 Nationalliberale Korrespondenz, Berlin.

39 Ndumbé Lobé Bel, leader of the Duala.

40 Latin: ‘laudably he has submitted himself’. The phrase Auctor (the author) laudabiliter se subiecit refers to the Roman Congregation of the Inquisition.

41 On 3 March Herbert von Bismarck was sent to London in consequence of ongoing colonial disputes between Great Britain and Germany (see pp. 44–49 in Berlin section). The ‘grand success’ refers to Granville's conciliatory statement in the House of Lords on 6 March.

42 Earl Granville.

43 Dresdner Nachrichten.

44 Dresdner Journal.

45 Edwin von Manteuffel died on 17 June 1885.

46 Eduard von Moeller.

47 Elsass-Lothringische Protestpartei.

48 The amalgamation with Baden, which had been dismissed in 1871, was discussed in 1879 in connection with the imperial law concerning the constitution and administration of Alsace-Lorraine, promulgated on 4 July 1879.

49 Strafgesetzbuch für das Deutsche Reich of 15 May 1871 (newly edited in 1876).

50 Sedan Day was on 2 September. It was (semi-officially) intended to commemorate the German victory in the Battle of Sedan, which took place on 1 and 2 September 1870 during the Franco-Prussian War, and the capitulation of the French emperor, Napoleon III.

51 The trial took place from 28 to 30 September 1885 and resulted in the acquittal of all nine defendants on 7 October. On 4 August 1886 the court of appeal at Freiberg sentenced them to six and nine months imprisonment respectively.

52 Strafgesetzbuch of 15 May 1871.

53 The Gotha Congress of 22 to 27 May 1875 resulted in the foundation of the Sozialistische Arbeiterpartei Deutschlands.

54 For the Anti-Socialist Law of October 1878, see n. 10 in this section.

55 Strachey is referring to party conferences at Wyden, Switzerland (21–23 August 1880), and Copenhagen (29 March–2 April 1883).

56 Der Sozialdemokrat (established 1879).

57 Based on a Greek proverb (Juvenal), it literally means ‘warmed up boiled cabbage’ and was used as a metaphor for wearisome, repeated arguments.

58 Christian Julius Schwabe.

59 Strachey is referring to the army bill presented by the French minister of war, Boulanger, to the chamber of deputies on 25 May 1886.

60 At the time of the dispatch Herbert von Bismarck, as state secretary for foreign affairs, was in charge of the Auswärtiges Amt (Foreign Office).

61 The general elections to the House of Commons took place from 1–27 July 1886; the results returned of the Conservatives to government.

62 Strachey is referring to the failed First Home Rule Bill which was introduced by Gladstone on 8 April 1886; it subsequently led to the split of the Liberal Party and the dissolution of parliament.

63 This refers to Gladstone's warning to Austria-Hungary after the occupation of Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1878.

64 On 6 February 1896 Rosebery took over as the new foreign secretary in the brief Liberal administration under Gladstone (1 February to 20 July 1886).

65 This is referring to the ultimatum and subsequent naval blockade of Greek ports in May 1886, which the signatory powers of the Berlin Congress had imposed as a result of Greek attitudes towards Turkey in the ongoing frontier dispute. The blockade was lifted after Greek demobilization on 7 June.

66 This is probably referring to the Earl Granville's policy.

67 The secret ‘reptile fund’ or ‘Guelph fund’ consisted of the confiscated assets of King Georg V of Hanover. It was administered by a Prussian commission and, amongst other things, used for influencing the Prussian and German press. The expression ‘reptile’ was originally coined by Bismarck to describe the agents of the likewise dethroned prince elector of Hesse, but the meaning was quickly deflected back onto its originator. Accordingly, journalists and press in the service of the Prussian government and its Literarische Büro were termed ‘reptile press’.

68 On 21 August 1886 a group of pro-Russian military officers carried out a plot against the knyaz of Bulgaria, and forced him to abdicate; Alexander was subsequently deported to Russia. According to the erroneous newspaper reports to which Strachey referred he was brought to Vidin. In an article of 22 August the Cologne Gazette accused Britain of having abandoned Alexander to his fate.

69 For Randolph Churchill's incognito journey, see n. 101 in Berlin section.

70 Strachey is referring to the Prince of Wales (later Charles I) and George Villiers, Duke of Buckingham, who travelled to Madrid in 1623 to negotiate Charles’ marriage with the Infanta of Spain, Maria Anna; they were not successful.

71 Churchill's companion ‘Tommy’ [William Henry] Trafford.

72 Alexander III.

73 Randolph Churchill resigned on 20 December 1886.

74 Conservative party.

75 Katkov was editor of the Moscow Gazette; for Kaulbars, see n. 106 in Berlin section.

76 Electoral Law of 31 May 1869 – adopted by the imperial constitution of 1871. The Reichstag was directly elected by universal suffrage for men aged 25 years or older.

77 The debate took place on 24 January 1887. On the failed army bill (military septennate) and the dissolution of the Reichstag on 13 January, see pp. 73–75.

78 Deutsche Freisinnige Partei. See n. 3 in Berlin section.

79 See n. 67 in this section.

80 French: ‘imposed constitution’. This expression particularly refers to La Charte Octroyée which established a constitutional monarchy in France in 1814.

81 The July Ordinances were a were a series of repressive decrees instituted by Charles X which led to the July Revolution of 1830 and his subsequent abdication.

82 See n. 67 in this section.

83 Wolffs Telegraphisches Bureau, Berlin news agency founded in 1849.

84 For the army bill (the military septennate) which led to the snap elections for the Reichstag on 21 February 1887, see n. 119 in Berlin section.

85 For the debates, see pp. 73–75.

86 On 24 January the Daily News reported that war was imminent between France and Germany and that Germany was about to demand explanations from France, regarding the movements of French troops on the German frontier.

87 Dresdner Nachrichten, 27 January 1887.

88 Prices on the London and other European stock exchanges fell on the day that the Daily News article was published.

89 Dresdner Journal, 27 January 1887.

90 Name not traceable.

91 On the army bill (military septennate) which led to the snap elections for the Reichstag on 21 February 1887, see n. 119 in Berlin section.

92 See n. 3 in Berlin section.

93 Dresdner Zeitung, 18 February 1887.

94 See n. 67 in this section.

95 Additional note to No 25: ‘Sir Julian, There are some expressions in this despatch which I think may not be favorably viewed by the Queen, especially those marked in P.P. 2 & 7. I have some doubt as to the expediency of sending the despatch to H.M.’ H.H. [Henry Hervey], 28 March; I[ddesleigh]. ‘It is rather an amusing skit on the hysterical enthusiasm of the Germans for their glorious selves. Qy.’

96 On 22 March.

97 Karl Woermann, director of the Saxon picture gallery.

98 Clemens Peter.

99 Superintendent Ernst Julius Meier.

100 Dresdner Anzeiger, 22 March 1887.

101 German: ‘enlarger of the empire’; as in semper augustus, one of the appellations of the Holy Roman Emperor.

102 Note in margin: ‘I think the Desph in question was addressed also to other of H.M.R.R. [Her Majesty's Royal Representatives] but will probably be found under Germany[.]’ J.H.G.B. [John Henry Gibbs Bergne].

103 Dresdner Anzeiger, 10 April 1887.

104 The Duke of Edinburgh, Alfred, succeeded to the ducal throne of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha in 1893; his son Alfred was hereditary prince from 1893 until his early death in 1899.

105 Strachey is referring to the news service of the Prussian Literarisches Büro. Waschzettel (literally ‘laundry list’, given here as ‘washing bills’) was the derisive name for semi-official information passed to the loyal press.

106 Christian Karl Josias von Bunsen was Prussian envoy to London from 1842–1854.

107 Dresdner Anzeiger, 26 April 1887.

108 The editorial in the Standard of 23 April 1887 stated that ‘unless the German authorities can clearly justify their action, public opinion throughout Europe will loudly condemn their proceedings’. For the Schnæbelé incident, see pp. 83–84.

109 Nationalliberale Korrespondenz.

110 See n. 105 in this section.

111 Dresdner Nachrichten, 27 April 1887.

112 French: ‘present circumstances’.

113 Strachey is referring to the Dresdner Nachrichten of 28 April 1887.

114 The first night of Lohengrin at the Paris Éden-Théâtre, scheduled for 26 April 1887, was postponed after the intervention of the French government. The only performance of the opera, originally scheduled for ten performances, took place on 5 May.

115 Separate minute in FO 68/171 reads: ‘Mr Strachey's No 31. Qy: ‘Send this to the Queen – “The Germans are a servile people”, see p. 3, may not be agreeable to H.M.’ H.H. [Henry Hervey], 2 May. ‘The Queen would not lose much by the suppression of this desp[atch].’ T.V.L. [Thomas Villiers Lister]; ‘I agree.’ S[alisbury].

116 On 23 April 1887.

117 The emperor's 90th birthday was on 22 March 1887. See pp. 293–294.

118 Bernhard and Charlotte.

119 George Goschen made these comments on 4 May 1887 at a Unionist banquet held at the Bow and Bromley Institute in London.

120 The disputed Irish crimes (coercion) bill, directed at the non-payment of rents, was introduced in parliament in March 1887 and became law on 19 July that year.

121 Latin: ‘not thus mighty Etruria grew’ (Virgil, Georgics, Book II).

122 Deutsche Freisinnige Partei. See n. 3 in Berlin section.

123 This is referring to the self-government of Ireland within the United Kingdom (home rule).

124 Additional note (minute) to dispatch: ‘The last sheet of this Despatch is peculiar. Shall it be marked and sent on to The Queen in the ordinary course.’ [unclear initials], 4 July. ‘Lord Salisbury, Shall Mr Strachey be called on to explain the last para[graph] of this peculiar Despatch? He perhaps refers to himself & his Vice Consul. If so I think the Crown is the real sufferer.’ J.P. [Julian Paunceforte] ‘Take no notice. It is not worth while sending on Mr. Strachey's despatches.’ S[alisbury], 5 July.

125 The 50th anniversary of Victoria's reign was on 20 June 1887.

126 Joseph T. Mason and Wilhelm Knoop.

127 Edward and Alexandra.

128 Grover Cleveland.

129 The names of the remaining people referred to in the dispatch are not traceable.

130 The grain tariff bill was introduced in the Reichstag on 1 December and passed on 17 December 1887.

131 The Anti-Socialist Law of 1878 (see n. 10 this section) was renewed for the fourth time on 17 February 1888 (effective until 30 September 1890).

132 The clause allowed the denaturalization of Social Democrats; it was rejected by the Reichstag on 17 February.

133 This catchphrase had originated in an anecdote about Edmund Burke, meaning ‘I agree’.

134 Ludwig Haberkorn.

135 Paul Alfred Stübel.

136 Bismarck made the speech on the state of foreign affairs at the first reading of the military loan bill.

137 See n. 489 in Berlin section.

138 Latin: ‘an event or situation covered by the provisions of a treaty’.

139 See n. 67 in this section.

140 This is referring to Bismarck's refusal to recognize Ferdinand I as knyaz (prince) of Bulgaria.

141 Friedrich Wilhelm; he was suffering from cancer of the larynx.

142 Latin: ‘tears of things’ (Virgil, Aeneid, 1.461).

143 Victoria.

144 At the time of the dispatch Victoria and Friedrich Wilhelm were staying at San Remo.

145 For Friedrich Wilhelm's treatment by Mackenzie, see n. 103 in Munich section.

146 Quotation (‘from one of the scullions’) from Edward Gibbon's The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, Vol. 1, ch. 4 (1776).

147 Wilhelm I died on 9 March 1888.

148 French phrase used in the German language: ‘rock of bronze’, allegory for the strength and sovereignty of the monarchy, first used by Friedrich Wilhelm I in 1716.

149 Strachey is referring to the imperial rescript to Otto von Bismarck of 12 March 1887 (see pp. 95–98), the rescript for Alsace-Lorraine of 15 March, and the rescript of 21 March on the participation of the crown prince in the affairs of government.

150 Julius Reichardt.

151 See n. 3 in Berlin section.

152 Victoria.

153 Marcus Claudius Marcellus, who, before his death, was considered presumptive heir of Emperor Augustus. Strachey is referring to Crown Prince Wilhelm.

154 ‘Fremde Einflüsse im Reiche’, Die Grenzboten: Zeitschrift für Politik, Literatur und Kunst, 19 April 1888.

155 National Liberals.

156 Victoria visited Berlin from 24 to 26 April 1888 on her return journey from Italy.

157 Deutsche Freisinnige Partei. See n. 3 in Berlin section.

158 Victoria's servants Abdul Karim and Mohammad Buksh.

159 An organ of the so-called ‘reptile press’, see n. 67 in this section.

160 The author of the article was, on Bismarck's instruction, Moritz Busch.

161 National Liberals.

162 On 26 May 1888.

163Keine Frauenzimmerpolitik’, published on 11 April 1888. For the ‘Bismarckite libels’, see previous dispatch.

164 Deutsche Freisinnige Partei. See n. 3 in Berlin section.

165 In his leader of 1 June 1888.

166 See pp. 99–100.

167 Pun: Britte (Brit), instead of Dritte (third)

168 Cleon became leader of Athenian democracy in 429 bc; he was a politician without noble ancestry and spoke out strongly against the conservatives. Catiline was a Roman senator who promoted the plight of the plebs and attempted to overthrow the Roman Republic and the elite power of the Senate in 63 bc.

169 William Shakespeare, King Lear, Act 1, Scene 1.

170 The Standard, 18 June 1888.

171 Imperial proclamation to the army, 16 June 1888.

172 Mamertines were Italian mercenaries who seized the Sicilian city of Messina in 288 BC. Mamluks were members of a military caste with Turkish, Mongol and Circassian slave heritage; they remained powerful in Ottoman Egypt until 1811.

173 Proclamation of 18 June 1888.

174 Speech from the throne on the occasion of the opening of the Reichstag on 25 June 1888.

175 Dresdner Anzeiger, 27 June 1888.

176 Dresdner Nachrichten, 27 June 1888.

177 Edward arrived at Berlin on 17 June and returned to London on 25 June.

178 The documents in question included Friedrich III's diaries, which had already been transferred to Windsor before his death.

179 Austria-Hungary.

180 On 25 June 1888.

181 Albert returned on 27 June.

182 Heinrich von Friesen-Rötha.

183 Paul Alfred Stübel.

184 Strachey is referring to the joint declaration of 1791 in which Leopold II and Friedrich Wilhelm II supported Louis XVI against the French Revolution.

185 National Liberals.

186 See pp. 308-309.

187 On 20 September the Deutsche Rundschau – without authorization – published extracts of Friedrich III's diary written during the Franco-Prussian War.

188 Die Grenzboten: Zeitschrift für Politik, Literatur und Kunst, 27 September 1888.

189 In his report to Wilhelm II of 23 September, Bismarck questioned the authenticity of the diary but nevertheless advised prosecuting the Deutsche Rundschau. This report and Bismarck's letter to the Prussian minister for justice of 25 September, in which the latter was instructed to act accordingly, were published on 27 September 1888.

190 Die Grenzboten: Zeitschrift für Politik, Literatur und Kunst, 11 October 1888.

191 Dresdner Journal.

192 The Fatal Illness of Frederick the Noble (1888); the German edition (enclosure to dispatch) was published as Friedrich der Edle und seine Ärzte (1888) on 14 October und subsequently confiscated by the Prussian authorities.

193 Friedrich III reigned from 9 March to 15 June 1888.

194 See n. 67 in this section.

195 See n. 208 in Berlin section.

196 Deutsche Freisinnige Partei. See n. 3 in Berlin section.

197 The Foreign Office cipher book was found in the Kronprinzenpalais (crown prince's palace) at the end of October.

198 There is great vigour in his invective, and no want of vindictiveness. I admit that now speaking as a critic, and perhaps not as an impartial one, I must say I think it wants finish.’ Beaconsfield, House of Commons Debate, 3 April 1868. This remark was addressed to Salisbury.

199 See n. 208 in Berlin section.

200 Hamburg, as agreed in the treaty with the German Empire of 25 May 1881, entered into the Customs Union on 15 October 1888.

201 Strachey is referring to the incorporation of Altona and the Elbe River below Hamburg into the customs territory, in May and June 1880.

202 On 5 November in the Dresden Tivolisaal.

203 In his talk Peters discussed the Abushiri revolt, an uprising which had occurred in consequence of the Sultan of Zanzibar leasing areas on the East African coast to the German East Africa Company.

204 At the time of the dispatch the Eastern Congo territory (part of the Congo Free State) was de facto ruled by an elite of Swahili-Arab merchants and local allies. In 1887, thanks to Henry Morton Stanley, the Swahili-Arab merchant Hamed bin Mohamed el Murjebi (alias Tippu Tip) had been appointed governor of the Stanley Falls district. Tippu Tip had also agreed to supply the Emin Pasha Relief Expedition intended to release Emin Pasha (Eduard Schnitzer), who, as governor of the Egyptian province of Equatoria, was besieged by Mahdist forces. At the time of Peters's speech, contradictory news about the fate of the expedition was in circulation. In fact, it had already met with Emin Pasha who initially refused to leave Equatoria.

205 In his speech in the House of Lords, on 6 November 1888, Salisbury referred to the Anglo-German co-operation with regard to the slave and arms trade in East Africa.

206 On 16 November 1888 Wilhelm II, upon his reception of deputations of the Evangelical and Catholic workers’ associations at Breslau, expressed his satisfaction at the result of the elections to the Prussian chamber of deputies, which had taken place on 6 November.

207 Strachey is referring to the late Friedrich III.

208 See n. 3 in Berlin section.

209 On 16 November Ferdinand Friedensburg, on the emperor's instruction, notified the public that the emperor was content with the ‘excellent’ elections at Breslau.

210 Julius Reichardt.

211 For the ‘reptile’ press, see n. 67 in this section.

212 The Rye House Plot of 1683 was a failed conspiracy to assassinate the pro-Catholic King Charles II and his brother (the future James II).

213 French Revolution of 1789.

214 See n. 67 in this section.

215 Humorous German figure of speech of French origin: ‘by order of the mufti’, i.e. by order of the superior and in this case by order of Bismarck.

216 See pp. 111–113 and pp. 316–317.

217 Strachey mistakes the party news sheet Conservative Correspondenz for the National Liberal newspaper Der Korrespondent von und für Deutschland which is quoted in the dispatch. For the Morier incident, see pp. 114–115.

218 Franco-Prussian War, 1870–1871.

219 Un Ministère de la Guerre de vingt-quatre jours, du 10 août au 4 septembre 1870 par le général Cousin de Montauban comte de Palikao (Paris, 1871).

220 This is referring to the treaties drawn up between Great Britain and Prussia (9 August 1870) and between Great Britain and France (11 August 1870) relative to the independence and neutrality of Belgium.

221 Der Korrespondent von und für Deutschland was referring to extracts of Queen Victoria's diary from 1870, which had been quoted by the liberal weekly Die Nation.

222 Dresdner Anzeiger, 17 January 1889.

223 Speech held on 24 January at the Königlich Preussische Akademie der Wissenschaften.

224 Menus written in German were used for the first time at a formal dinner to celebrate the royal parade, on 10 September 1888.

225 Friedrichsruh, Bismarck's manor house.

226 Friedrich III and Victoria.

227 Wilhelm I.

228 ‘Die Nationalliberalen und der Reichskanzler’ (‘The National Liberals and the Imperial Chancellor’), Hamburger Nachrichten, 8 February 1889.

229 The National Liberals.

230 Auguste Viktoria.

231 Strachey is referring to adherents of Adolf Stoecker's anti-Semitic Lutheran movement.

232 This refers to the imperial foreign office.

233 Dresdner Nachrichten (editor: Emil Bierey) and Dresdner Zeitung (Lippmann Badt).

234 For the ‘reptile’ press, see n. 67 in this section.

235 Otto Stromer von Reichenbach.

236 The reference to the marquis de Louvois and his son, both seventeenth century French statesmen, is an allusion to Otto von Bismarck and his son Herbert.

237 Oeil-de-bœuf (French: ‘bulls eye’), the name for a small oval window,which, figuratively, also refers to an antechamber to Louis XIV's bedroom at Versailles.

238 Pitt reportedly made the private remark ‘The duke [of Newcastle, the prime minister] might as well send his jackboot to lead us’ after Thomas Robinson was appointed leader of the House of Commons, in 1754.

239 Murad I and Muhi-ud-Din Muhammad.

240 Dresdner Zeitung.

241 Malet left Berlin for London on 24 February 1889 and returned on 14 March.

242 Herbert von Bismarck visited London and Epsom – Rosebery's seat – on a special mission from 22 March to 30 March 1889.

243 Lippmann Badt.

244 Beresford visited Berlin in early February 1889 where he had an audience with Wilhelm II, on 2 February, and an interview with Bismarck, on 3 February.

245 Victoria visited Berlin from 24 to 26 April 1888; Victoria's audience with Bismarck was on 25 April.

246 The diplomatic manoeuvres of early 1889 originated in Bismarck's plan for an Anglo-German alliance. Numerous exploratory contacts had been made since 1887 with regard to an Anglo-German rapprochement, and the defensive treaty was to be of limited duration and directed against France. For the Triple Alliance, see n. 174 in Berlin section.

247 For the ‘reptile’ press, see n. 67 in this section.

248 Dresdner Journal.

249 Hartmann, Eduard von, Zwei Jahrzehnte deutscher Politik und die gegenwärtige Weltlage (Leipzig 1889).

250 The anglophobic expression ‘perfidious Albion’ was a stock phrase in nineteenth-century France and widely used in Wilhemine Germany.

251 On 23 April 1889.

252 The fictitious characters Pyrgopolynices (The Braggart Soldier by Titus Maccius Plautus, c. 205 BC) and Bobadil, Captain (Every Man in his Humour by Ben Johnson, 1598) are known for their boastfulness.

253 The 800th anniversary of the Wettin Dynasty was celebrated in grand style at Dresden from 15 to 19 June. For Sedan Day, see n. 50 in this section; on Wilhelm II's visit, see the following dispatch.

254 German: ‘municipal council’.

255 Greek: ‘hubris’.

256 Respectively, the battles of 3 July1866, 16 August 1870, and 1 September 1870.

257 Dresdner Anzeiger, 2 September 1889.

258 Wilhelm II visited Dresden from 5 to 10 September 1889.

259 Strachey is referring to the Wettin anniversary; see n. 253 in this section.

260 Wilhelm I visited Dresden from 14 to 20 September 1882 (Kaisertage).

261 On 7 September 1889.

262 Strachey is referring to the first and thirteenth emperors of the Roman Empire.

263 15 October 1889.

264 For the so-called ‘Cartel’, see n. 208 in Berlin section.

265 Deutsche Freisinnige Partei. See n. 3 in Berlin section.

266 Paul Schickert.

267 Friedrich Bönisch.

268 Fortschrittspartei.

269 Strachey is referring to the revolutionary government of 1871, La Commune de Paris (March – May 1871).

270 Strachey is referring to the Imperial Law Concerning Disability and Old-Age Insurance of 22 June 1889.

271 Strachey is referring to the Abushiri revolt of 1888–1889. See n. 203 in this section.

272 On 24 October 1889.

273 For the ‘reptile’ press, see n. 67 in this section.

274 Emil Bierey.

275 The Dresdner Nachrichten was referring to the purchase of land (210,000 square kilometres) and of mining rights (290,000 square kilometres), as agreed between the Groll-Syndicate and the Deutsche Kolonial-Gesellschaft für Südwest-Afrika (German South West Africa Company) on 19 September 1889.The imperial chancellor ultimately withheld his approval of this contract.

276 On 5 November 1889, at the first reading of the bill to extend the Anti-Socialist Law of 1878 (see n. 10 in this section).

277 Christian Julius Schwabe.

278 Trade unions and the freedom of coalition were regulated by Sections152 and 153 of the Trade Regulations Act for the North German Confederation of 1869 (adopted as Reichsgewerbeordnung in 1871).

279 Christian von Abeken.

280 Limbach.

281 On the financial transfers between the German Empire and the federal states, see n. 55 in Darmstadt section.

282 George Goschen.

283 Leonce von Könneritz (minister of finance).

284 For the imperial rescript and the proclamation of 4 February 1890, see n. 249 in Berlin section.

285 Latin: ‘reduction to an absurdity’.

286 Additional note to dispatch: ‘[To] Sir T. Sanderson. Mr Strachey No 12 February 21. It is our general habit to mark Mr Strachey's Despatches with a[n] X only. But the present one in spite of its style, is of more than usual interest. Should it not be circulated to the Cabinet, and sent to the Home Office, for perusal?’ W.A.C. [William A. Cockerell], 24 February 1890. ‘Certainly. I have marked it ac[cor]d[ingl]y. Strachey though “crusty” is decidedly clear, and when he has something practical to write about, he writes well.’ T.H.S. [Thomas Henry Sanderson]

287 For the so-called ‘Cartel’, see n. 208 in Berlin section.

288 The Social Democrats won a total of six seats in Saxon constituencies.

289 For the army bill (military septennate), see n. 119 in Berlin section.

290 See n. 3 in Berlin section.

291 See n. 208 in Berlin section.

292 Deutschkonservative Partei (10) and Deutsche Reichspartei (Freikonservative) (3).

293 Louis Heinrich Buddeberg.

294 For the ‘reptile’ press, see n. 67 in this section.

295 Strachey is referring to the coup of 9 November 1799 (18 Brumaire in the year VIII, French Republican Calendar), when Napoleon overthrew the governing Directoire exécutif.

296 Dresdner Journal.

297 Dresdner Nachrichten.

298 For the imperial rescript and the proclamation of 4 February 1890, see n. 249 in Berlin section.

299 Emil Bierey.

300 The term state socialism refers to Bismarck's social policy (to appease the working classes) and the laws on health insurance (1883), accident insurance (1884), and old-age and disability insurance (1889; see n. 270 in this section).

301 On Bismarck's resignation, see pp. 123–124.

302 Horace Walpole's phrase ‘it rained gold boxes’ (posthumously published in his Memoirs of the Reign of King George the Second (1822)) refers to the support which William Pitt received from several cities after he was dismissed as secretary of state for the southern department, in April 1857.

303 For the ‘reptile’ press, see n. 67 in this section.

304 See previous dispatch and pp. 121–123.

305 Resolution of the International Workers’ Congresses at Paris of 20 July 1889 (to commemorate the Haymarket riot of 1886).

306 The demand was made in the Berliner Volkstribüne of 22 March 1890.

307 ‘Parnellites’ were Irish nationalist supporters of Charles Stewart Parnell.

308 Open letter to Schippel, published on 1 April 1890.

309 On 13 April 1890.

310 Bimetallism is a monetary system based on both gold and silver money as legal tender with a fixed rate of exchange between the two metals.

311 Arendt was member of the Deutsche Reichspartei; the extreme interests of the so-called Junker were represented by the Deutschkonservative Partei.

312 The gold standard was adopted in December 1871; Strachey is referring to the Coin Law of 9 July 1873 which established the Mark as the common currency in all German states (from 1 January 1876).

313 The International Workers Congresses (Paris, 20 May 1889) had called for international demonstrations and strikes on 1 May 1890.

314 The Riot Act of 1714 gave the authorities the power to forcibly disband groups of twelve or more people who were rowdy, or had unlawfully come together and who had ignored pleas to disperse.

315 At the opening of the Reichstag, on 6 May 1890, Wilhelm II announced a Trade Law amendment bill which regulated and extended the protection of workers.

316 Strachey's reference to the Tusculanae Disputationes by Cicero (45 bc) alludes to Bismarck's interviews with the American, French and Russian newspapers, and in particular to the interview with Evgenii L‘vovich Kochetov (pseudonym L‘vov) on 28 April 1890, published in the Novoye Vremya on 10 May 1890.

317 I.e. a pro-Ottoman policy against Russia.

318 Alexander von Battenberg, prince (knyaz) of Bulgaria.

319 French: ‘ambush’, in this context the surprise attackers. This refers to the coup against Alexander of Bulgaria in August 1886; see n. 25 in Darmstadt section.

320 The Seven Years’ War, 1756–1763, which marked the emergence of Prussia as a Great Power.

321 The amendment bill to the Imperial Military Law of 1887 (see n. 119 in Berlin section) provided for an increase in the strength of the army by 18,577 additional men, taking the total to 486,983. The bill was passed on 28 June 1890.

322 Strachey is referring to Plato's dialogue Crito ( Κρίτων).

323 Deutsche Freisinnige Partei. See n. 3 in Berlin section.

324 Albert arrived at Vienna on 1 October, and proceeded to Styria, together with the two emperors, on the same day. He returned on 11 October 1890.

325 Johann I.

326 Luitpold.

327 Literally ‘world view’ (concept of the world).

328 Alliance of Austria-Hungary, Germany, Great Britain, and Russia.

329 On 4 December at the opening of the conference at Berlin.

330 For the rescripts in question, see n. 249 Berlin section and n. 171 in this section.

331 Leipziger Zeitung.

332 French: ‘just spirit’.

333 Strachey is referring to the English educators and headmasters Thomas Arnold and Henry Drury.

334 German equivalent to a grammar school.

335 For the ‘reptile’ press, see n. 67 in this section.

336 In his speech Wilhelm denounced journalists as ‘candidates destined to starve, […] being in many cases depraved former grammar school pupils [Gymnasiasten]’.

337 ‘New Course’ refers to the realignment of policy after Bismarck's dismissal in 1890.

338 Bismarck's manor house at Friedrichsruh.

339 For the conflict over Bismarck's interference in imperial politics, see pp. 129–131.

340 On Bismarck's retirement, see pp. 123–124.

341 Dresdner Nachrichten, 17 February 1891.

342 Dresdner Zeitung, 21 Feburary 1891.

343 The Fronde, a historical term for the violent political opposition to the growing power of royal government and resultant series of civil wars in mid-seventeenth century France.

344 The Dresdner Zeitung was referring to the ‘inspired’ articles in the Hamburger Nachrichten and the Allgemeine Zeitung.

345 Sächsische Arbeiter-Zeitung.

346 See n. 148 in this section.

347 See n. 215 in this section.

348 On 6 May 1891 at Bonn.

349 Dresdner Zeitung, 15 May 1891.

350 Latin: ‘under guardianship’; those at universities who do not hold a master's degree.

351 Corps were originally regional corporations of students (e.g. Borussia for Prussia); the Burschenschaft fraternities dated back to the national movement of 1815 and drew their members from a larger, and less elitist, base.

352 ‘Academic’ fencing.

353 Sächsische Arbeiter-Zeitung, 8 May 1891.

354 Decision of the Reichsgericht of 6 March 1883; duels were prohibited under Section 15 of the Imperial Penal Code of 1871.

355 In his declaration in the Prussian house of deputies, on 1 June 1891, Caprivi – despite widespread concerns about a meagre harvest and rising food prices – announced that taxation on corn would remain unaltered.

356 Dresdner Journal.

357 Dresdner Anzeiger, 3 June 1891.

358 Sächsische Arbeiter-Zeitung, 3 June 1891.

359 Dresdner Nachrichten, 3 June 1891.

360 The proclamation is dated Berlin, 1 June 1891.

361 Dresdner Journal, 20 August 1891.

362 A French naval squadron visited Portsmouth from 19 to 26 August 1891 on its return from Kronstadt (see n. 340 in Berlin section). On 20 August the Queen received French naval officers at Osborne House; on 21 August she reviewed the fleet.

363 This is referring to the accession of the conservative government in 1886.

364 See n. 63 in this section.

365 Wilhelm II visited Great Britain from 4 to 13 July 1891.

366 The Daily Chronicle was largely supportive of Gladstone; the Daily News was partly owned by Henry Labouchère who belonged to the radical wing of the Liberal party.

367 On 18 October 1891, in honour of Helmholtz’ 70th birthday (31 August), Wilhelm II made him Wirklicher Geheimer Rat (Geheimrat; privy councillor) with the grade (Prädikat) Exzellenz.

368 German: ‘eye mirror’; the ophthalmoscope was invented in 1851.

369 Deutsche Fortschrittspartei, founded in 1861; known as the Deutsche Freisinnige Partei from 1884 (see n. 3 in Berlin section).

370 Virchow participated in the March Revolution of 1848.

371 Strachey is referring to the Prussian constitutional conflict of 1859–1866, which revolved around plans for the reorganization of the army and parliamentary rights against the monarchy and its executive. The incident he mentions happened in the Prussian house of deputies, on 2 June 1865, when Bismarck, in the course of a fierce political debate, challenged Virchow to a duel (which was declined by the latter).

372 Strachey is referring to the festivities on the occasion of Virchow's 70th birthday (13 October).

373 In his toast at the banquet of the provincial diet of Brandenburg, at Berlin, on 5 March 1890, Wilhelm II said ‘I will smash those who are in the way of this work’ [Work =Wilhelm II's duty as sovereign].

374 At the Berlin town hall on 21 October 1891.

375 George III, 1771 (as quoted in a letter by John Calcraft to William Pitt, 1st Earl of Chatham, 24 March 1771).

376 See n. 337 in this section.

377 Friedrichsruh, Bismarck's manor house.

378 For the so-called ‘Cartel’, see n. 208 in Berlin section.

379 For the incidents in question, see n. 261 in Berlin section (Arnim affair of 1874), n. 224 in Berlin section (prosecution of Geffcken in 1888), and pp. 114–115 (Morier incident of 1888–1889).

380 Strachey is referring to the ninety-nine day reign of Friedrich III.

381 See n. 67 in this section.

382 See pp. 123–124.

383 By-elections for the Reichstag were held in the electoral districts Stolp (Pomerania; 27 October), Rastenburg (East Prussia; 18 November), and Hall (Württemberg; 23 November). By-elections of federal states were held, among others, in Kaiserslautern (Bavaria, 7 November) and Trier (Prussia, 21 November).

384 Commercial treaties based on a most-favoured-nation clause were concluded with Austria-Hungary, Italy, Belgium, and Switzerland. They were passed by the Reichstag on 18 December 1891 and came into effect in February 1892.

385 New (protective) German tariffs had been introduced by the Imperial Tariff Law of 15 July 1879.

386 Dresdner Anzeiger, 12 December 1891.

387 See n. 3 in Berlin section.

388 Strachey is referring to the editorials of 10 to 13 December 1891 in the Dresdner Nachrichten.

389 The speech was held at the banquet of the provincial diet of Brandenburg at Berlin, on 24 February 1891.

390 Thomas Paine, in his Rights of Man: Being an Answer to Mr. Burke's Attack on the French Revolution, part one (1791), quotes a Brunswick soldier as saying ‘If the prince says, eat straw, we eat straw’.

391 Friedrich Wilhelm.

392 In the Battle of Rossbach (5 November 1757) Friedrich II led Prussian forces to a victory over a Franco-Imperial allied army. The battle marked a turning point in the Seven Years’ War.

393 For Bismarck's dismissal, see pp. 123–124.

394 From Epistle to Dr Arbuthnot by Alexander Pope (1735).

395 For the ministerial crisis and Caprivi's resignation as Prussian minister president, see pp. 138–140.

396 See n. 296 in Berlin section.

397 Strachey is referring to the sitting of the Hungarian Delegations at Budapest, on 3 October 1892, in which Kálnoky expressed his conviction that future British foreign policy would undergo no important modification under the Gladstone administration. This had replaced Salisbury's conservative government on 18 August 1892.

398 Rumours of Britain's accession to the Triple Alliance (see n. 174 in Berlin section) had been prevalent since its renewal in May 1891 and Wilhelm II's visit to Britain in July 1891.

399 Georg von Metzsch.

400 Dresdner Nachrichten.

401 The trial conducted by Brausewetter at the Berlin Landgericht dealt with two pamphlets in which Ahlwardt accused the armament company Ludwig Loewe & Co. of selling defective rifles and being part of a Franco-Jewish conspiracy against Germany. On 9 December 1892 Ahlwardt, headmaster of a Berlin primary school and member of the German Reichstag, was found guilty of libel and sentenced to five months’ imprisonment.

402 William Shakespeare, The Tragedy of Othello, the Moor of Venice, Act 5, Scene 2.

403 Federal Council.

404 On 6 December 1892 Hohenthal testified that in February 1889 he had overheard a conversation between two of the plaintiffs, Isodor Löwe and Oberstleutnant Kühne, and a third person, on supply of weapons to the army. According to Hohenthal the conversation also contained derogatory remarks about military officers.

405 The international monetary conference was held at Paris in 1881.

406 The Royal Commission was appointed to inquire into the changes in the relative values of precious metals (Gold and Silver Commission), November 1886 to October 1888.

407 See n. 310 in this section.

408 Strachey's report to the Marquess of Salisbury of 16 February 1887 was printed as Report on the Recent Currency Discussions in Germany, March 1887.

409 In the interpellation, dated 9 December 1892 and discussed in the Reichstag on 12 December, Mirbach enquired about the intended German course of action at the Brussels Monetary Conference (22 November to 17 December) with regard to the depreciation of silver.

410 Commercial Report to the Earl of Rosebery, Dresden, 21 May 1886.

411 Latin: ‘diametrically’.

412 Latin: ‘something said in passing’.

413 Strachey is referring to Caprivi's reply to Mirbach's interpellation on 12 December 1892. On the anti-Semite Ahlwardt see the previous dispatch.

414 See n. 312 in this section.

415 Dresdner Nachrichten, 16 December 1892.

416 Federal Council.

417 Dresdner Anzeiger, 1 January 1893.

418 Otto von Bismarck.

419 This French dictum is ascribed to Louis XV and refers to the First Partition of Poland, in 1772, which would not have taken place ‘if only Choiseul [French foreign minister 1766–1770 ] had been here’.

420 ‘New Course’ refers to the realignment of policy after Bismarck's dismissal in 1890.

421 For the army bill (Imperial Military Law), see nn. 312 and 322 in Berlin section.

422 Dresdner Anzeiger.

423 See n. 371 in this section.

424 Strachey is referring to the constitutive meeting of the Bund der Landwirte (Agarian League) at the Berlin Tivoli brewery on 18 February 1892, and the debates in the German Reichstag (28 January to 17 February) and the Prussian house of deputies (14 to 16 February).

425 Latin: ‘landed estates’.

426 See n. 310 in this section.

427 Manors.

428 Landeskulturrat für das Königreich Sachsen.

429 The International Sanitary Conference took place at Dresden from 11 March to 15 April; it dealt with the prevention of epidemic diseases.

430 Strachey is referring to the revolutionary government, La Commune de Paris (March to May 1871).

431 Franco-Prussian War of 1870–1871.

432 For the army bill of 1893 (Imperial Military Law), see nn. 312 and 322 in Berlin section.

433 See n. 371 in this section.

434 Amongst other things, this is referring to the so-called Lex Heinze which stipulated the prosecution of ‘pimping’ and the censorship of ‘immoral’ publications, artwork, and depictions. After its first reading, on 3 and 15 December 1892, the amendment bill to the Imperial Criminal Code was transferred to committee.

435 In his address of 9 May 1893 Wilhelm II stated that, if the newly elected Reichstag was to reject the army bill again, he would be prepared to make every effort to see it through.

436 The German Reichstag was dissolved on 6 May 1893 and new elections were scheduled for 15 June.

437 Strachey is referring to Sections 130–131 and Sections 185–200 of the Imperial Criminal Code of 1871.

438 For the ‘Kartell der Ordnungsparteien’, see n. 208 in Berlin section.

439 See n. 3 in Berlin section.

440 Strachey is probably referring to Barth's article ‘Die Sackgasse’ (The Deadlock), published in Die Nation: Wochenschrift für Politik, Volkswirtschaft und Literatur, No 32, 6 May 1893.

441 Eduard Wetzlich (Konservativer Landesverein).

442 This refers to the ‘Tivoli Programme’ named after the Berlin Tivoli brewery where, in 1892, the party conference of the Deutschkonservative Partei (German Conservative Party) adopted an anti-Semitic programme.

443 Strachey is referring to the plans of the British Mediterranean Squadron to visit Taranto (16 October) and La Spezia (23 October). The Russian visit to Toulon (a return of the French visit to Kronstadt in 1891) was scheduled for 13 October. For the Triple Alliance, see n. 174 in Berlin section.

444 Dresdner Anzeiger, 16 September 1893.

445 This is referring to the lack of British support for Siam in the Franco-Siamese War of 1893.

446 Nationalliberale Korrespondenz, Berlin.

447 The Saturday Review of Politics, Literature, Science, and Art, 28 October 1893.

448 See n. 443 to previous dispatch.

449 Fiftieth anniversary of military service, 22 October 1893.

450 Note in file: ‘Mr Strachey, No 4, 4 January 1894. This is an interesting Despatch. I think Strachey used the word Home Rule rather loosely – but there is no question that the tendency in Germany has been towards centralization. Whether there is not a certain equilibrium and whether we are not on one side of it and the Germans on the other and both tending towards it is another question.’ T.H.S. [Thomas Henry Sanderson], 8 January 1894; ‘Is there not something more to be said? (and as to this I should take to ask Strachey.) Is there not a first reaction against this centralization, and have these not been very distinct signs of State individualism of late in Bavaria, & to a less [sic] degree in Wurtemberg? Has not, to put it another way, the attempted legislative & administrative centralization awakened the independent nations among the populations of the smaller [note in margin: ‘the Southern’] German nationalities?’ R[osebery].

451 FO 68/178: George Strachey to Earl of Rosebery, No 45, Dresden, 9 December 1893 (not included in this volume); Rosebery's request is dated 23 December.

452 The Government of Ireland Bill (Second Home Rule Bill) was defeated in the House of Lords on 8 September 1893.

453 The German Reichstag was first established as the Reichstag of the North German Confederation in 1867.

454 With exception of Bavaria and Württemberg.

455 Taxation on beer belonged to the reserved rights (Reservatrechte) retained by Baden, Bavaria and Württemberg in the November (Versailles) Treaties of 1870 (for Bavaria, see n. 220 in Munich section). The taxation on beer in the Imperial Territory of Alsace Lorraine – which had its origins in French legislation – was regulated by decree of 10 March 1875.

456 A first draft of the German Civil Code (Bürgerliche Gesetzbuch) was presented in 1888; the code was finally, passed by the Reichstag on 1 July 1896 and became effective 1 January 1900.

457 On 15 November 1893.

458 See n. 200 in this section.

459 Strachey is referring to Otto von Bismarck's visit to Wilhelm II on 26 January 1894.

460 Friedrichsruh, Bismarck's manor house.

461 Wilhelm's conciliatory letter to Bismarck was delivered – together with a bottle of old Rhine wine – on 22 January 1894.

462 Princess Marie von Sachsen-Weimar-Eisenach, wife of Heinrich VII , Prince Reuß zu Köstritz.

463 ‘Outright Bismarckite’. The term was used for the pro-Bismarckian Deutsche Reichspartei (Freikonservative).

464 Dresdner Nachrichten, 26 January 1894.

465 See n. 337 in this section.

466 See n. 3 in Berlin section.

467 Dresdner Zeitung, 26 January 1894.

468 Albert visited Berlin from 25 to 28 January 1894 on the occasion of Wilhelm II's birthday (27 January); he met with Bismarck on 26 January.

469 For the commercial treaty, see n. 354 in Berlin section.

470 Battle of Königgrätz (3 July 1866; part of the Austro-Prussian War) in which Austrian and Saxon troops were defeated by Prussia.

471 French: ‘It's the Prussian that I like the best’.

472 Arnold von Frege-Weltzien on 31 January 1894.

473 Gladstone resigned as prime minister on 2 March 1894; his administration was succeeded by that of the Earl of Rosebery.

474 Strachey is referring to the Second Home Rule Bill; see n. 452 in this section.

475 Die Nation: Wochenschrift für Politik, Volkswirtschaft und Literatur, 10 March 1894. Die Nation was edited by Theodor Barth, who belonged to the Freisinninge Vereinigung (Free-Minded Union; founded by moderate members of the Deutsche Freisinnige Partei in May 1893). The left wing of the former Deutsche Freisinnige Partei (see n. 3 in Berlin section) henceforth constituted the Freisinnige Volkspartei (Free-Minded People's Party).

476 Article 1 of the commercial treaty between Russia and Germany (see n. 354 in Berlin section) granted German and Russian subjects equal rights to trade and industry in the territory of the other contracting partner. This article – as with all 21 articles of the treaty – was passed by the Reichstag on 16 March 1894.

477 Deutsche Reformpartei (German Reform Party) and the Deutschsoziale Partei (German Social Party).

478 ‘New Course’ refers to the realignment of policy after Bismarck's dismissal in 1890.

479 Leo Graf von Caprivi and Karl Heinrich von Boetticher.

480 Dresdner Nachrichten, 18 March 1894.

481 The Berlin International Miners’ Congress was held from 14 to 19 May 1894.

482 The majority of British delegates left Berlin on 18 May and 19 May before the congress closed.

483 Dresdner Anzeiger, 11 June 1894.

484 The interview, dated Paris 6 June, was published in the Frankfurter Zeitung on 7 June 1894. For the Anglo-Congolese (Anglo-Belgian) agreement of 12 May 1894, see n. 365 in Berlin section.

485 Name not traceable.

486 The Revolution of 1848.

487 See n. 250 in this section.

488 See n. 3 in this section.

489 The daily Vossische Zeitung (Königlich privilegirte Berlinische Zeitung von Staats- und gelehrten Sachen) and the weekly Die Nation.

490 Dresdner Anzeiger, 6 September 1894.

491 The sixth Universal Peace Congress met at Antwerp from 29 August to 1 September 1894. The main resolutions concerned duelling, the inviolability of human life, the abolishment of death penalties, free activity of all countries in new colonies, the necessity of permanent treaties of arbitration, the truce of armaments, the freezing of naval budgets, and the institution of a Peace Sunday on the continent.

492 The territory of Alsace-Lorraine was annexed by the German Empire in 1870–1871. It was known as the Reichsland (imperial territory) Elsaß-Lothringen.

493 The council of elders in pre-classical Athens; named after the rock north-west of the Acropolis.

494 Latin: ‘cut off from the empire’.

495 Strachey is referring to Bebel's speech of 15 July 1893.

496 On Caprivi's resignation and Hohenlohe's succession as imperial chancellor, see pp. 164–168.

497 Dresdner Nachrichten, 28 October 1894.

498 The Dresdner Nachrichten was referring to the Heligoland-Zanzibar Treaty of 1890 (see n. 436 in Berlin section), Caprivi's speech in the Prussian house of deputies of 29 January 1892 concerning the elementary school bill (see pp. 138–140), the controversial German–Russian commercial treaty of 10 February 1894, and Caprivi's instruction to the German ambassador to Vienna of 9 June 1892 not to attend Herbert Bismarck's Viennese wedding.

499 Italian: ‘sacrifice of the intellect’ (a concept of Christian devotion, here subjugation to the authority of the emperor).

500 Dresdner Anzeiger.

501 Leipziger Tageblatt.

502 Latin: ‘anthology’.

503 For the ‘reptile press’, see n. 67 in this section.

504 Dresdner Zeitung.

505 Dresdner Journal, 27 October 1894.

506 Constantin Rössler, Die Sozialdemokratie (Berlin 1894).

507 For the ‘reptile press’, see n. 67 in this section. For Bismarck's ‘relationship with’ and ‘campaign’ against Friedrich I and Victoria, see pp. 99–100, 104–106, and 111.

508 Die Grenzboten: Zeitschrift für Politik, Literatur und Kunst, 18 October 1894.

509 Strachey is referring to the ‘subversion bill’ (Umsturzvorlage), see n. 381 in Berlin section. For the Anti-Socialist Law which had expired in 1890, see n. 10 in this section.

510 Werner von Blumenthal, on 10 November 1894.

511 The petition to the Reichstag and the Federal Council was drawn up by the Dresden Konservative Verein on 3 July 1894.

512 Dresdner Anzeiger, 12 November 1894.

513 On 12 November 1894.

514 Strachey is referring to Emil Witte's article, dated 19 November, on the German reaction to the Standard's editorial of 12 November (see pp. 169–170).

515 See n. 391 in Berlin section.

516 Alexander III died on 1 November 1894.

517 Vossische Zeitung (Königlich privilegirte Berlinische Zeitung von Staats- und gelehrten Sachen).

518 Die Grenzboten: Zeitschrift für Politik, Literatur und Kunst, 1 November 1894.

519 Dresdner Journal, 3 November 1894.

520 Liebknecht, together with other members of the Social Democratic faction, remained seated during cheers for the emperor in the Reichstag sittings of 6 December 1894. In a letter of 9 December the imperial chancellor requested the Reichstag to give its approval to Liebknecht's prosecution for lèse-majesté. This was rejected on 15 December.

521 Dresdner Journal. On the so-called ‘reptile press’, see n. 67 in this section.

522 This refers to the new administration under Hohenlohe and is an allusion to Caprivi's ‘New Course’.

523 Ernst von Köller, Prussian minister of the interior.

524 The German proverb ‘Wasser auf seine Mühlen bringen’ translates as ‘That's all grist to his mill’.

525 Watzdorf's wife was a distant cousin of Georg von Metzsch.

526 Senior civil servants in the ministry for finance.

527 French: ‘a schemer was needed, a dancer was chosen’ from Beaumarchais’ play La Folle Journée, ou Le Mariage de Figaro (1884).

528 ‘The German Emperor's Defeat’, The Spectator, 18 May 1895. Amongst other things, the article discussed the implications of the Reichstag's rejection of a surcharge on tobacco (13 May) and of the ‘subversion bill’ (Umsturzvorlage; see n. 381 in Berlin section) on 11 May.

529 Strachey is referring, in particular, to Wilhelm's speech of 23 November 1891, in which he – in the face of subversive socialist activities – demanded army recruits to follow his orders without grumbling, even if he ordered them to shoot their own relatives.

530 Instigated by the Catholic Zentrum faction, the bill was extended to protect recognized religious institutions and their doctrines from sacrilege along with incitement to blasphemy.

531 For the opening of the Kiel Canal, see pp. 177–179.

532 For the Franco-Russian rapprochement, see pp. 153–154.

533 Strachey is referring to the Spectator article of 29 June 1895 (‘Effects of the English Crisis Abroad’ ) which reported on international reactions to Rosebery's resignation, on 22 June 1895, and the succession of Salisbury as prime minister.

534 Goschen was appointed First Lord of the Admiralty. His sister Marian was married to Georg von Metzsch.

535 Wilhelm visited England from 5 to 15 August 1895 to attend the Cowes Week regattas. The article in question, published on 5 August, criticised Wilhelm's inexperience in foreign affairs and Germany's policy towards Russia, France and East Asia. Enclosure: newspaper clipping from The Standard, 5 August 1895.

536 Strachey is referring to the Hamburger Nachrichten . For the ‘reptile’ press, see n. 67 in this section.

537 Dresdner Nachrichten, 8 August 1895.

538 Dresdner Anzeiger, 9 August 1895, and Dresdner Journal, 8 August 1895.

539 Berliner Tageblatt and Vossische Zeitung (Königlich privilegirte Berlinische Zeitung von Staats- und gelehrten Sachen).

540 Strachey is referring to an article which appeared in the Vossische Zeitung (21 August 1895) concerning a delegation comprising seven employers’ representatives and seven representatives of workmen's associations, which had been sent by the British Iron Trade Association to Belgium and Germany in July and August 1895. According to the article the delegation gained access to German iron works under the pretext of investigating the conditions of labour; instead it focussed on the technical details of production and thereby infringed business ethics.

541 Dresdner Zeitung, 23 August 1895.

542 Method of converting pig iron into steel without the consumption of fuel, named after Sidney Gilchrist Thomas.

543 Report on the Effects of the German Customs Tariff Reform and on the Revision in 1885, 10 September 1885.

544 On Sedan Day (2 September), see n. 50 in this section.

545 Battles of Gravelotte (18 August 1870) and Beaumont (30 August 1870).

546 French: ‘Sun King’ (i.e. Louis XIV).

547 Latin: ‘pardon the expression’.

548 German: ‘Germany above all’; first line of Das Lied der Deutschen, by Hoffmann von Fallersleben (1841).

549 In the imperial rescript issued at Stettin on 8 September 1895 Wilhelm II referred to the socialists and their press as ‘unpatriotic enemies’ who, during the course of the celebrations for the 25th anniversary of the Franco-Prussian War and Sedan Day, had insulted the memory of Wilhelm I and thus offended the German people.

550 ‘Sacrosanct’ (hochheillig).

551 Ethische Kultur of 14 September 1895; the article in question was entitled ‘Der Kaiser und die Sozialdemokratie’.

552 Strachey is referring to the Court of Star Chamber, an early modern English court of law, which became notorious for arbitrary decisions.

553 Law of majestas; this refers to the ancient Roman laws on treason.

554 Name not traceable. Possibly Strachey is referring to Heinrich von Treitschke.

555 Friedrich Wilhelm, Elector of Brandenburg.

556 Latin: ‘‘denouncer’. In his Annales Tacitus describes the role and abuse of delatores, during the reigns of Tiberius, Cladius and Nero.

557 The article in the Dresdner Journal (21 November 1895), which insinuated that Britain had adopted a conciliatory course towards the Porte, had been prompted by the Hamidian massacres against the Armenian population. These had spread throughout the Ottoman Empire after a rally of 2,000 Armenians, petitioning for reforms at Constantinople, on 1 October 1895, had been violently broken up.

558 Johannes Poppe.

559 In a speech of 2 December 1895 Wilhelm II expressed his expectation of support from his army, especially in times of political catchphrases and party considerations.

560 Translation of Allerhöchstderselbe, a pronoun which used in official writing instead of er (he), roughly equivalent to ‘the aforesaid all-highest’.

561 Literally ‘world view’ (concept of the world).

562 Friedrich Wilhelm, Elector of Brandenburg.

563 Latin: the full phrase ‘bruta fulmina et vana’ means ‘thunderbolts that strike blindly and in vain’ and is attributed to Pliny the Elder.

564 Strachey is referring to the article ‘The Threat of Repression in Germany’, published on 30 November.

565 For the crisis in the South African Republic, the failed ‘Jameson Raid’ and Wilhelm II's subsequent Kruger telegram, see pp. 188–195.

566 Character in Ben Jonson's comedy Every Man in his Humour (1598); a cowardly braggart.

567 Leander Starr Jameson.

568 For the Triple Alliance, see n. 174 in Berlin section.

569 The nationalist Alldeutscher Verband held its meeting on 7 January.

570 On 28 November 1895, in a review of Georg Wislicenus’ Unsere Kriegsflotte (1895).

571 In March 1895 the Reichstag approved eighty per cent of the navy estimates for the fiscal year 1895–1896. As in previous years the budget guaranteed the maintenance of the existing fleet, but not its extension.

572 Amongst other things, the articles and letters in question referred to German intrigues in South Africa.

573 See pp. 188–195.

574 Elizabeth I.

575 On the Kruger telegram and the Transvaal conflict, see pp. 188–195.

576 Wilhelm had visited the Isle of Wight annually since 1889 to attend the Cowes Week regattas.

577 Albert was referring to Chamberlain's immediate repudiation of the ‘Jameson Raid’, on 1 January, his subsequent communications with the Transvaal government and the announcement of an investigation.

578 For the Transvaal question, see the previous dispatches and pp. 188–195.

579 Name not traceable.

580 The bill stipulated the introduction of an indirect three-class franchise based on tax revenue. It was passed on 6 and 18 March and enacted on 28 March 1896; it replaced the Electoral Law of 1868.

581 On 30 March 1896.

582 Held on 7 and 8 April 1896.

583 Nicholas II visited Britain from 22 September 1896 to 5 October. On 27 and 29 September he met Salisbury at Balmoral where they discussed the situation in the Near East and the Ottoman Empire, following recurring outbreaks of violence against Armenians at Constantinople, which had started in August 1896.

584 Dresdner Zeitung.

585 Wilhelm II and Nicholas II met at Breslau on 5 and 6 September 1896.

586 Bismarck used this expression in a speech he made in 1888 when he stated that the ‘whole of the Balkans is not worth the bones of a single Pomeranian grenadier.’

587 National Zeitung, 22 November 1896.

588 On the Hamburg dock strike, see pp. 206–207.

589 Friedrichsruh, Bismarck's manor house.

590 Dresdner Anzeiger, 1 December 1896.

591 Nationalliberale Korrespondenz.

592 Hermann Paasche.

593 George Strachey left Dresden for London on 29 March 1897; he retired on a pension on 1 July.

594 French: ‘to pay a call’.

595 Latin: ‘weariness of life’.

596 Strachey is referring to health and financial problems.

597 Eric Barrington.

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Royal Historical Society Camden Fifth Series
  • ISSN: 0960-1163
  • EISSN: 1478-5110
  • URL: /core/journals/royal-historical-society-camden-fifth-series
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