Hostname: page-component-77c89778f8-n9wrp Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-07-18T17:04:27.989Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

Of Psychometric Means: Starke R. Hathaway and the Popularization of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  09 February 2015

Rebecca Schilling
Affiliation:
West Viriginia School of Osteopathic Medicine E-mail: RSchilling@osteo.wvsom.edu
Stephen T. Casper
Affiliation:
Clarkson University E-mail: scasper@clarkson.edu

Argument

The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) was developed at the University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, in the 1930s and 1940s. It became a highly successful and highly controversial psychometric tool. In professional terms, psychometric tools such as the MMPI transformed psychology and psychiatry. Psychometric instruments thus readily fit into the developmental history of psychology, psychiatry, and neurology; they were a significant part of the narrative of those fields’ advances in understanding, intervening, and treating people with mental illnesses. At the same time, the advent of such tools also fits into a history of those disciplines that records the rise of obsessional observational and evaluative techniques and technologies in order to facilitate patterns of social control that became typical during the Progressive Era in the United States and after. It was those patterns that also nurtured the resistance to psychometrics that emerged during the Vietnam War and after.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2015 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Anon. 1947. “Mental Treatment: Method Devised for Separating Curables from Incurables.” New York Times, 27 April.Google Scholar
Anon. c. 1947. “Application for Grant-in-Aid.” In University of Minnesota Archives, Hathaway, Starke R. Box 1. Folder 14.Google Scholar
Anon. 1965a. “Personality Tests.” Washington Post, 9 June, p. a24.Google Scholar
Anon. 1965b. “Yes, I Believe I am Being Followed,” Time: The Weekly Magazine 85 (25) 18 June, p. 25A. In University of Minnesota Archives, Hathaway, Starke R. Box 1. Folder 2: Hathaway, Starke. Media Clippings, 1939–1984.Google Scholar
Anon. 1966a. “Test Given Pupils Meant for Adults. Publisher Says Questions on Sex and Religion are not Designed for Youths.” New York Times, 8 Feburary, p. 41.Google Scholar
Anon. 1966b. “City Schools Bar Sex-Habits Test: Donovan Says It Is ‘Clearly Invasion of Privacy’.” New York Times, 10 February, p. 44.Google Scholar
Anon. 1986. “Starke Rosecrans Hathaway (1903–1984).” American Psychologist 41 (7):834835.Google Scholar
Appel, Toby A. 2000. Shaping Biology: The National Science Foundation and American Biological Research, 1945–1975. Baltimore & London: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
Bard, B. 1966. “The ‘Brain Watchers’ in the Schools,” New York Post, May 21. In University of Minnesota Archives, Hathaway, Starke R. Box 1. Folder 2: Hathaway, Starke. Media Clippings, 1939–1984.Google Scholar
Boden, Margaret A. 2006. Mind as Machine: A History of Cognitive Science, vols. 1–2. Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
Buchanan, Roderick D. 1994. “The Development of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory.” Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences 30:148161.Google Scholar
Buchanan, Roderick D. 1997. “Ink Blots or Profile Plots: The Rorschach versus the MMPI as the Right Tool for a Science-Based Profession.” Science, Technology & Human Values 22 (2):168206.Google Scholar
Buchanan, Roderick D. 2002. “On Not Giving Psychology Away: The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory and Public Controversy over Testing in the 1960s.” History of Psychology 5 (3):284309.Google Scholar
Burnham, John C., ed. 2012. After Freud Left: A Century of Psychoanalysis in America. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Burnham, John C. 1988. Paths into American Culture: Psychology, Medicine, and Morals. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.Google Scholar
Capshew, James H. 1999. Psychologists on the March: Science, Practice, and Professional Identity in America, 1929–1969. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Casper, Stephen T. 2008. “Atlantic Conjunctures in Anglo-American Neurology: Lewis H. Weed and Johns Hopkings Neurology.” Bulletin of the History of Medicine 82 (3):646671.Google Scholar
Causey, Mike. 1965. “Personality-Test Ban Set by Civil Service.” Washington Post, 4 June, p. b1.Google Scholar
Clawson, R. 1975. “Somebody's Looking in Your Skull.” Billings Gazette Sunday Magazine. In University of Minnesota Archives, Hathaway, Starke R. Box 1. Folder 2 Hathaway, Starke. Media Clippings, 1939–1984.Google Scholar
Coon, Deborah J. 1993. “Standardizing the Subject: Experimental Psychologists, Instrospection, and the Technoscientific Ideal.” Technology and Culture 34:757783.Google Scholar
Corrigan, Richard. 1965. “Pupils Given ‘Offensive’ Personality Test.” Washington Post, 11 June, p. b4.Google Scholar
Dahlstrom, W. Grant. 1992. “The Growth in Acceptance of the MMPI.” Professional Psychology: Research and Practice 23 (5):345348.Google Scholar
Danziger, Kurt. 1990. Constructing the Subject: Historical Origins of Psychological Research. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Engstrom, Eric J. 2003. Clinical Psychiatry in Imperial Germany: A History of Psychiatric Practice. Ithaca NY: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
Evans, Bonnie Louise. 2011. “Mental Defectives, Child Psychotics, and the Origins of Autism Research at the Maudsley Hospital, 1913–1983.” Ph.D. diss., Kings College Cambridge.Google Scholar
Farreras, Ingrid G., Hannaway, Caroline, and Harden, Victoria A.. 2004. Mind, Brain, Body and Behavior: Foundations of Neuroscience and Behavioral Research at the National Institutes of Health. Washington DC: IOS Press.Google Scholar
Forman, Paul. 2007. “The Primacy of Science in Modernity, of Technology in Postmodernity, and of Ideology in the History of Technology.” History and Technology 23 (1/2):1152.Google Scholar
Forman, Paul. 2010. “(Re)cognizing Postmodernity: Help for Historians – of Science Especially.” Berichte zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte 33 (2):157175.Google Scholar
Forman, Paul. 2012. “On the Historical Forms of Knowledge Production and Curation: Modernity Entailed Disciplinarity, Postmodernity Entails Antidisciplinarity.” Osiris 27 (1):5697.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Foucault, Michel. 1988. “Technologies of the Self.” In Technologies of the Self, edited by Martin, Luther H., Gutman, Huck, and Hutton, Patrick H., 1649. London: Tavistock.Google Scholar
Friendly, Alfred. 1966. “Personalities Resent Testing: Touted MMPI System of Determining Emotional Stability Riddled by Invasion of Privacy Charges.” Washington Post, 18 September, p. e3.Google Scholar
Gavrus, Delia. 2011. “Men of Dreams and Men of Action: Neurologists, Neurosurgeons, and the Performance of Professional Identity, 1920–1950.” Bulletin of the History of Medicine 85 (1):5792.Google Scholar
Gibby, Robert E., and Zickar, Michael J.. 2008. “A History of the Early Days of Personality Testing in American Industry: An Obsession with Adjustment.” History of Psychology 11:164184.Google Scholar
Gould, Stephen J. 1981. The Mismeasure of Man. New York: Norton.Google Scholar
Gregg, Alan. 1941. What Is Psychiatry?” RG 3. Series 906. Box 2. Folder 19: Program and Policy. Rockefeller Archive Center.Google Scholar
Grob, Gerald A. 1983. Mental Illness and American Society, 1875–1940. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Grob, Gerald A. 1991a. From Asylum to Community: Mental Health Policy in Modern America. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Grob, Gerald A. 1991b. “Origins of DSM-I: A Study in Appearance and Reality.” American Journal of Psychiatry 148 (4):421431.Google Scholar
Grubb, Robert L. 2011. Neurosurgery at Washington University: A Century of Excellence. St. Louis MO: Washington University Press.Google Scholar
Hale, Nathan G. 1995. The Rise and Crisis of Psychoanalysis in the United States: Freud and the Americans, 1917–1985. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Harrison, Emma. 1961. “‘Normal’ Man Sits for His Portrait.” New York Times, 12 May, p. 31.Google Scholar
Hathaway, Starke R. 1939. “The Personality Inventory as an Aid in the Diagnosis of Psychopathic Inferiors.” Journal of Consulting Psychology 3:112117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hathaway, Starke R. 1942. Physiological Psychology. New York and London: D. Appleton Century Co.Google Scholar
Hathaway, Starke R. July 1963. “Bibliographic Sketch.” In University of Minnesota Archives. Hathaway, Starke R. Personal Papers. Box 1. Folder 10: Hathaway, Starke. Publication Lists.Google Scholar
Hathaway, Starke R. 1964a. “MMPI: Professional Use by Professional People.” American Psychologist 19:204211.Google Scholar
Hathaway, Starke R. 1964b. “The Many Voices of Division 12.” Presidential Address, Division 12, American Psychological Association. September 1964. University of Minnesota Archives. Hathaway, Starke R. Box 1. Folder 4: Hathaway, Starke. Photography, c. 1930–1977.Google Scholar
Hathaway, Starke R. 1971. “Foreword.” In University of Minnesota Archives. Hathaway, Starke R. Personal Papers. Box 1. Folder 16.Google Scholar
Hathaway, Starke R. 1974. “Through Psychology My Way.” In The Psychologists, vol. 2, edited by Krawiec, Theophile S., 105123. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Hathaway, Starke R., and McKinley, John C.. 1940. “A Multiphasic Personality Schedule: I. Construction of the Schedule.” Journal of Psychology 10:249254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hathaway, Starke R., and McKinley, John C.. 1943a. Booklet for the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. New York: Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
Hathaway, Starke R., and McKinley, John C.. 1943b. The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. University of Minnesota Archives.Google Scholar
Hathaway, Starke R., and Meehl, Paul E.. 1951. An Atlas for the Clinical Use of the MMPI. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
Hathaway, Starke R., and Monachesi, E. D.. 1961. An Atlas of Juvenile MMPI Profiles. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
Herman, Ellen. 1995. The Romance of American Psychology: Political Culture in the Age of Experts. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
Igo, Sarah Elizabeth. 2007. The Averaged American: Surveys, Citizens, and the Making of a Mass Public. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
Kennedy, Craig Hall, Hughes, Jamie G. H. H., and McNeil, Jeffrey A.. 2012. “A History of Military Psychology.” In Military Psychology: Clinical and Operational Applications, edited by Kennedy, Craig Hall and Zillmer, Eric A., 124. New York and London. Guilford Press.Google Scholar
Kevles, Daniel J. 1968. “Testing the Army's Intelligence: Psychologists and the Military in World War I.” Journal of American History 55:565581.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
King, Patricia, Good, Ellison, and Brantner, John P.. 1961. The Physician's Guide to MMPI. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
King, Patricia, Good, Ellison, and Brantner, John P.. 1974. A Practical Guide to the MMPI: An Introduction for Psychologists, Physicians, Social Workers, and Other Professionals. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
Laing, Ronald David. 1967. The Politics of Experience. New York: Random House.Google Scholar
Lyotard, Jean-Francois. 1984. The Postmodern Condition: A Report on Knowledge. Minneapolis. University of Minnesota.Google Scholar
Marks, Harry. 2000. The Progress of Experiment: Science and Therapeutic Reform in the United States, 1900–1990. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Mazie, David. 1963. “What Does Sex Life Have to Do With a Job?” Minneapolis Tribune. June 16. In University of Minnesota Archives, Hathaway, Starke R. Box 1. Folder 2 Hathaway, Starke. Media Clippings, 1939–1984.Google Scholar
McKinley, John C., Baker, Abraham Bert, and Hathaway, Starke R.. 1940. An Outline of Neuropsychiatry. Minneapolis: S.N.Google Scholar
McKinley, John C., and Hathaway, Starke R.. 1940. “A Multiphasic Personality Schedule: II. A Differential Study of Hypochondriasis.” Journal of Psychology 10:255268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McKinley, John C., and Hathaway, Starke R.. 1942a. “A Multiphasic Personality Schedule: III. The Measurement of Symptomatic Depression.” Journal of Psychology 14:7384.Google Scholar
McKinley, John C., and Hathaway, Starke R.. 1942b. “A Multiphasic Personality Schedule: IV. Psychasthena.” Journal of Psychology 26:614624.Google Scholar
McKinley, John C., and Hathaway, Starke R.. 1944. “The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. V. Hysteria, Hypomania and Psychopathic Deviate.” Journal of Applied Psychology 28 (2):153–17.Google Scholar
Micale, Mark. S. 1993. “On the ‘Disappearance’ of Hysteria.” Isis 84 (3):496526.Google Scholar
O’Donnell, John M. 1985. The Origins of Behaviorism: American Psychology, 1870–1920. New York: New York University Press.Google Scholar
Napoli, Donald S. 1981. Architects of Adjustment: The History of the Psychological Profession in the United States. London: Kennikat Press.Google Scholar
Porter, Theodore. 1986. The Rise of Statistical Thinking, 1820–1900. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Pressman, Jack. 1998. Last Resort: Psychosurgery and the Limits of Medicine. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Rose, Nikolas. 1985. The Psychological Complex: Psychology, Politics and Society in England, 1869–1939. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
Rose, Nikolas. 1989. Governing the Soul: The Shaping of the Private Self. London and New York: RoutledgeGoogle Scholar
Rose, Nikolas. 1996. Inventing Our Selves: Psychology, Power, and Personhood. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Robinson, Douglas. 1969. “Psychologist, Testifying for the Defense, Says Tests Indicate Sirhan Has Paranoid Tendencies.” New York Times, 11 March, p. 24.Google Scholar
Rutherford, Alexandra. 2009. Beyond the Box: B. F. Skinner's Technology of Behavior from Laboratory to Life, 1950s-1970s. Toronto, Buffalo, London: University of Toronto Press.Google Scholar
Scull, Andrew. 2009. Hysteria: The Biography. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Schneider, William H., ed. 2002. Rockefeller Philanthropy and Modern Biomedicine: International Initiatives from World War I to the Cold War. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.Google Scholar
Skinner, Burrhus Frederick. 1972. Walden Two, 24th ed.New York: Macmillan Company.Google Scholar
Shorter, Edward. 2009. Before Prozac: The Troubled History of Mood Disorders in Psychiatry. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Shorter, Edward, and Healy, David. 2007. Shock Therapy: A History of Electroconvulsive Treatment in Mental Illness. New Brunswick NJ and London: Rutgers University Press.Google Scholar
Sokal, Michael M. 1987. Psychological Testing and American Society, 1890–1930. New Brunswick NJ and London: Rutgers University Press.Google Scholar
Spingarn, Jerome. 1957. “The Manipulation of Buyers, Voters.” Washington Post, 28 April, e. 6.Google Scholar
Sturm, Thomas, and Ash, Mitchell G.. 2005. “Roles of Instruments in Psychological Research.” History of Psychology 8 (1):334.Google Scholar
Szasz, Thomas S. 1960. “The Myth of Mental Illness.” American Psychologist 15 (2):113118.Google Scholar
Vidal, Fernando. 2009. “Brainhood, Anthropology of Modernity.” History of Human Sciences 22:536.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Weiss, Sheila F. 2010. The Nazi Symbiosis: Human Genetics and Politics in the Third Reich. Chicago. University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
Wilson, Winston D. n.d. “A Guide to the MMPI” in University of Minnesota Archives, Hathaway, Starke R. Box 1. Folder 16. Pages 1–32.Google Scholar
Wolin, Sheldon S. 2010. Democracy Inc.: Managed Democracy and the Spectre of Inverted Totalitarianism. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar