Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-568f69f84b-56sbs Total loading time: 0.19 Render date: 2021-09-22T23:19:19.703Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true, "newUsageEvents": true }

Post-Traumatic Growth among Older People after the Forced Lockdown for the COVID–19 Pandemic

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  10 September 2021

Montserrat Celdrán*
Affiliation:
Universitat de Barcelona (Spain)
Rodrigo Serrat
Affiliation:
Universitat de Barcelona (Spain)
Feliciano Villar
Affiliation:
Universitat de Barcelona (Spain)
*Corresponding
Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Montserrat Celdrán. Universitat de Barcelona. Departament de Cognició, Desenvolupament i Psicologia de l’Educació. E-mail: mceldran@ub.edu

Abstract

We explored post-traumatic growth (PTG) in older adults immediately after the forced lockdown in Spain during March to April, 2020, due to the COVID–19 pandemic. The study also tried to identify the variables that predict PTG, focusing on the experience of COVID, sociodemographic variables, and social resources. In total 1,009 people aged 55 years and older participated in the study and completed an online questionnaire comprising the following elements: The short form of the Post-traumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI-SF), sociodemographic and social resources questions, and their experiences of COVID–19 (if they had been infected themselves or if they had experienced the loss of someone close). Results showed that only a quarter of the participants experienced higher PTG after the forced lockdown, with only age and social resources being correlated with scores on the PTGI-SF. Looking at the strengths that older adults put into action to combat the pandemic and its social and health consequences could be an important consideration when planning future social policies for this and other pandemics.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
© Universidad Complutense de Madrid and Colegio Oficial de Psicólogos de Madrid 2021

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

Footnotes

Conflicts of Interest: None.

Funding Statement: Rodrigo Serrat is a Serra Húnter Programme tenure-track lecturer at the Universitat de Barcelona.

References

Adhikari, S. P., Meng, S., Wu, Y.-J., Mao, Y.-P., Ye, R.-X., Wang, Q.-Z., Sun, C., Sylvia, S., Rozelle, S., Raat, H., & Zhou, H. (2020). Epidemiology, causes, clinical manifestation and diagnosis, prevention and control of coronavirus disease (COVID–19) during the early outbreak period: A scoping review. Infectious Diseases of Poverty, 9(1), Article 29. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40249-020-00646-xCrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ahorsu, D. K., Lin, C. Y., Imani, V., Saffari, M., Griffiths, M. D., & Pakpour, A. H. (2020). The fear of COVID–19 scale: Development and initial validation. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11469-020-00270-8CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Brooke, J., & Jackson, D. (2020). Older people and COVID–19: Isolation, risk and ageism. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 29, 20442046. https://doi.org/10.1111/jocn.15274CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Burrell, A., & Selman, L. E. (2020). How do funeral practices impact bereaved relatives’ mental health, grief and bereavement? A mixed methods review with implications for COVID–19. Advanced online publication. OMEGA-Journal of Death and Dying. https://doi.org/10.1177/0030222820941296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Calhoun, L. G., Cann, A., & Tedeschi, R. G. (2010). The posttraumatic growth model: Sociocultural considerations. In Weiss, T. & Berger, R. (Eds.), Posttraumatic growth and culturally competent practice: Lessons learned from around the globe (p. 114). John Wiley & Sons Inc. http://doi.org/10.1002/9781118270028.ch1Google Scholar
Cann, A., Calhoun, L. G., Tedeschi, R. G., Taku, K., Vishnevsky, T., Triplett, K. N., & Danhauer, S. C. (2010). A short form of the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory. Anxiety, Stress & Coping, 23(2), 127137. http://doi.org/10.1080/10615800903094273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cárdenas Castro, M., Barrientos Delgado, J., Ricci Alvarado, E., & Páez Rovira, D. (2015). Spanish adaptation and validation of the posttraumatic growth inventory–short form. Violence and Victims, 30(5), 756769. http://doi.org/10.1891/0886-6708.VV-D-13-00165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chan, K. J., Young, M. Y., & Sharif, N. (2016). Well-being after trauma: A review of posttraumatic growth among refugees. Canadian Psychology/Psychologie Canadienne, 57(4), 291299. https://doi.org/10.1037/cap0000065CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Davison, E. H., Kaiser, A. P., Spiro, A. III, Moye, J., King, L. A., & King, D. W. (2016). From late-onset stress symptomatology to later-adulthood trauma reengagement in aging combat veterans: Taking a broader view. The Gerontologist, 56(1), 1421. https://doi.org/10.1093/geront/gnv097CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ehni, H. J., & Wahl, H. W. (2020). Six propositions against ageism in the COVID–19 pandemic. Journal of Aging & Social Policy, 32(4–5), 515525. https://doi.org/10.1080/08959420.2020.1770032CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Erikson, E. (1963). Childhood and society. Norton.Google Scholar
Ferrarese, C., Silani, V., Priori, A., Galimberti, S., Agostoni, E., Monaco, S., Padovani, A., & Tedeschi, G. (2020). An Italian multicenter retrospective-prospective observational study on neurological manifestations of COVID–19 (NEUROCOVID). Neurological Sciences, 41, 13551359. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10072-020-04450-1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fokkema, T., De Jong Gierveld, J., & Dykstra, P. A. (2012). Cross-national differences in older adult loneliness. The Journal of Psychology, 146(1–2), 201228. https://doi.org/10.1080/00223980.2011.631612CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fontanesi, L., Marchetti, D., Mazza, C., Di Giandomenico, S., Roma, P., & Verrocchio, M. C. (2020). The effect of the COVID–19 lockdown on parents: A call to adopt urgent measures. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy. 12(S1), S79S81. http://doi.org/10.1037/tra0000672CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Groarke, J. M., Berry, E., Graham-Wisener, L., McKenna-Plumley, P. E., McGlinchey, E., & Armour, C. (2020). Loneliness in the UK during the COVID–19 pandemic: Cross-sectional results from the COVID–19 Psychological Wellbeing Study. PLOS ONE, 15(9), Article e0239698. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0239698CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Greenberg, N., Docherty, M., Gnanapragasam, S., & Wessely, S. (2020). Managing mental health challenges faced by healthcare workers during covid–19 pandemic. BMJ, 368, Article m1211. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.m1211Google ScholarPubMed
Helgeson, V. S., Reynolds, K. A., & Tomich, P. L. (2006). A meta-analytic review of benefit finding and growth. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 74(5), 797816. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.74.5.797CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ishikawa, R. Z. (2020). I may never see the ocean again: Loss and grief among older adults during the COVID–19 pandemic. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 12(S1), S85S86. http://doi.org/10.1037/tra0000695CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jayawickreme, E., & Blackie, L. E. (2016). Exploring the psychological benefits of hardship: A critical reassessment of posttraumatic growth. Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kahlon, M. K., Aksan, N., Aubrey, R., Clark, N., Cowley-Morillo, M., Jacobs, E. A., Mundhenk, R., Sebastian, K. R., & Tomlinson, S. (2021). Effect of layperson-delivered, empathy-focused program of telephone calls on loneliness, depression, and anxiety among adults during the COVID–19 pandemic: A randomized clinical trial. JAMA Psychiatry, 78(6), 616622. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2021.0113CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kim, S. H., Kjervik, D., Belyea, M., & Choi, E. S. (2011). Personal strength and finding meaning in conjugally bereaved older adults: A four-year prospective analysis. Death Studies, 35(3), 197218. https://doi.org/10.1080/07481187.2010.518425CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lay, J. C., Pauly, T., Graf, P., Mahmood, A., & Hoppmann, C. A. (2020). Choosing solitude: Age differences in situational and affective correlates of solitude-seeking in midlife and older adulthood. The Journals of Gerontology: Series B, 75(3), 483493. https://doi.org/10.1093/geronb/gby044Google ScholarPubMed
Linley, P. A., & Joseph, S. (2004). Positive change following trauma and trauma: A review. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 17, 1121. https://doi.org/10.1023/B:JOTS.0000014671.27856.7eCrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
López, J., Camilli, C., & Noriega, C. (2015). Posttraumatic growth in widowed and non-widowed older adults: Religiosity and sense of coherence. Journal of Religion and Health, 54(5), 16121628. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10943-014-9876-5CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Losada-Baltar, A., Jiménez-Gonzalo, L., Gallego-Alberto, L., Pedroso-Chaparro, M. d. S., Fernandes-Pires, J., & Márquez-González, M. (2020). “We’re staying at home”. Association of self-perceptions of aging, personal and family resources and loneliness with psychological distress during the lock-down period of COVID–19. The Journals of Gerontology: Series B, 76, e10e16. https://doi.org/10.1093/geronb/gbaa048CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Luchetti, M., Lee, J. H., Aschwanden, D., Sesker, A., Strickhouser, J. E., Terracciano, A., & Sutin, A. R. (2020). The trajectory of loneliness in response to COVID–19. American Psychologist, 75(7), 897908. https://doi.org/10.1037/amp0000690CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Luhmann, M., Fassbender, I., Alcock, M., & Haehner, P. (2020). A dimensional taxonomy of perceived characteristics of major life events. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1037/pspp0000291CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mayland, C. R., Harding, A. J., Preston, N., & Payne, S. (2020). Supporting adults bereaved through COVID–19: A rapid review of the impact of previous pandemics on grief and bereavement. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management, 60(2), e33e39. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2020.05.012CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Menéndez, S., Pérez-Padilla, J., & Maya, J. (2018). Empirical research of university programs for older people in Europe: A systematic review. Educational Gerontology, 44(9), 595607. https://doi.org/10.1080/03601277.2018.1518459CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mueller, A. L., McNamara, M. S., & Sinclair, D. A. (2020). Why does COVID–19 disproportionately affect older people? Aging, 12(10), 99599981. https://doi.org/10.18632/aging.103344CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Nalipay, M. J. N., & Mordeno, I. G. (2018). Positive metacognitions and meta-emotions as predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder and posttraumatic growth in survivors of a natural disaster. Journal of Loss and Trauma, 23(5), 381394. https://doi.org/10.1080/15325024.2017.1415734CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nowlan, J. S., Wuthrich, V. M., & Rapee, R. M. (2015). Positive reappraisal in older adults: A systematic literature review. Aging & Mental Health, 19(6), 475484. https://doi.org/10.1080/13607863.2014.954528CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ost Mor, S., Palgi, Y., & Segel-Karpas, D. (2020). The definition and categories of positive solitude: Older and younger adults’ perspectives on spending time by themselves. The International Journal of Aging and Human Development. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1177/0091415020957379CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pérez-San-Gregorio, M. N., Martín-Rodríguez, A., Borda-Mas, M., Avargues-Navarro, M. L., Pérez-Bernal, J., Conrad, R., & Gómez-Bravo, M. N. (2017). Post-traumatic growth and its relationship to quality of life up to 9 years after liver transplantation: A cross-sectional study in Spain. BMJ Open, 7(9), Article 017455. http://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2017-017455CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Previtali, F., Allen, L. D., & Varlamova, M. (2020). Not only virus spread: The diffusion of ageism during the outbreak of Covid–19. Journal of Aging & Social Policy, 32, 506514. https://doi.org/10.1080/08959420.2020.1772002CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Riffle, O. M., Lewis, P. R., & Tedeschi, R. G. (2020). Posttraumatic growth after disasters. In Schulenberg, S. E. (Ed.), Positive psychological approaches to disaster (pp. 155167). Springer. http://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-32007-2_10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sawyer, A., Ayers, S., & Field, A. P. (2010). Posttraumatic growth and adjustment among individuals with cancer or HIV/AIDS: A meta-analysis. Clinical Psychology Review, 30(4), 436447. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2010.02.004CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Shahid, Z., Kalayanamitra, R., McClafferty, B., Kepko, D., Ramgobin, D., Patel, R., Aggarwal, C. E., Vunnam, R., Sahu, N., Bhatt, D., Jones, K., Golamari, R. & Jain, R. (2020). COVID‐19 and older adults: What we know. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 68(5), 926929. https://doi.org/10.1111/jgs.16472CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sim, B. Y., Lee, Y. W., Kim, H., & Kim, S. H. (2015). Post-traumatic growth in stomach cancer survivors: Prevalence, correlates and relationship with health-related quality of life. European Journal of Oncology Nursing, 19(3), 230236. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejon.2014.10.017CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Stanko, K. E., Cherry, K. E., Ryker, K. S., Mughal, F., Marks, L. D., Brown, J. S., Gendusa, P. F., Sullivan, M. C., Bruner, J., Welsh, D. A., Su, L. J., & Jazwinski, S. M. (2015). Looking for the silver lining: Benefit finding after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita in middle-aged, older, and oldest-old adults. Current Psychology, 34, 564575. http://doi.org/10.1007/s12144-015-9366-2CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Stanton, A. L., Bower, J. E., & Low, C. A. (2006). Posttraumatic growth after cancer. In Calhoun, L. G. & Tedeschi, R. G. (Eds.), Handbook of posttraumatic growth: Research and practice (pp. 138175). Erlbaum.Google Scholar
Tang, C. S. K. (2006). Positive and negative postdisaster psychological adjustment among adult survivors of the Southeast Asian earthquake–tsunami. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 61(5), 699705. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychores.2006.07.014CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tedeschi, R. G., & Calhoun, L. G. (1996). The Posttraumatic Growth Inventory: Measuring the positive legacy of trauma. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 9(3), 455471. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02103658CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tedeschi, R. G., & Calhoun, L. G. (2004). Posttraumatic growth: Conceptual foundations and empirical evidence. Psychological Inquiry, 15(1), 118. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327965pli1501_01CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tyrrell, C. J., & Williams, K. N. (2020). The paradox of social distancing: Implications for older adults in the context of COVID–19. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 12(S1), S214S216. http://doi.org/10.1037/tra0000845CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Verity, R., Okell, L. C., Dorigatti, I., Winskill, P., Whittaker, C., Imai, N., Cuomo-Dannenburg, G., Thompson, H., Walker, P. G. T., Fu, H., Dighe, A., Griffin, J. T., Baguelin, M., Bhatia, S., Boonyasiri, A., Cori, A., Cucunubá, Z., FitzJohn, R., Gaythorpe, K., … & Ferguson, N. M. (2020). Estimates of the severity of coronavirus disease 2019: A model-based analysis. The Lancet Infectious Diseases, 20(6), 669677. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30243-7CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Villar, F. (2019). From university extension classrooms to universities of experience: The University of the Third Age in Spain. In Formosa, M. (Ed.), The university of the third age and active ageing: European and Asian-pacific perspectives: Vol. 23. International perspectives on aging (pp. 119129). Springer. http://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-21515-6_10Google Scholar
Vishnevsky, T., Cann, A., Calhoun, L. G., Tedeschi, R. G., & Demakis, G. J. (2010). Gender differences in self-reported posttraumatic growth: A meta-analysis. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 34(1), 110120. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-6402.2009.01546.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Williams, C. Y. K., Townson, A. T., Kapur, M., Ferreira, A. F., Nunn, R., Galante, J., Phillips, V., Gentry, S., & Usher-Smith, J. A. (2021). Interventions to reduce social isolation and loneliness during COVID–19 physical distancing measures: A rapid systematic review. PLOS ONE, 16(2), Article e0247139. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0247139CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
World Health Organization. (2015). World report on ageing and health. https://www.who.int/ageing/events/world-report-2015-launch/en/Google Scholar
World Health Organization. (2021). Coronavirus disease (COVID–19) pandemic. https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019Google Scholar
Wu, X., Kaminga, A. C., Dai, W., Deng, J., Wang, Z., Pan, X., & Liu, A. (2019). The prevalence of moderate-to-high posttraumatic growth: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Affective Disorders, 243, 408415. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2018.09.023CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Post-Traumatic Growth among Older People after the Forced Lockdown for the COVID–19 Pandemic
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Post-Traumatic Growth among Older People after the Forced Lockdown for the COVID–19 Pandemic
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Post-Traumatic Growth among Older People after the Forced Lockdown for the COVID–19 Pandemic
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *