Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Assessing Mindfulness on a Sample of Catalan-Speaking Spanish Adolescents: Validation of the Catalan Version of the Child and Adolescent Mindfulness Measure

  • Ferran Viñas (a1), Sara Malo (a1), Mònica González (a1), Dolors Navarro (a1) and Ferran Casas (a1)...

Abstract

Background: Interest in mindfulness has increased over the last decade, resulting in several mindfulness-based interventions being developed and their efficacy empirically demonstrated. The practice of mindfulness has been associated with low levels of anxiety or depression and improved quality of life or personal well-being. The aim of this study is to translate the Child and Adolescent Mindfulness Measure (CAMM) and adapt it to Catalan so as to analyze its internal consistency and construct and convergent validity. Method: The CAMM was administered to a sample of secondary school students ranging in age from 11 to 16 years old. Results: The Catalan version of the CAMM shows a good fit with the unidimensional model and internal consistency similar to the original version (α = .80). Furthermore, CAMM scores correlated positively with subjective well-being, temperamental dimensions of effortful control and self-esteem. Conclusions: The Catalan Version of CAMM is a valid and reliable measure of mindfulness skills.

Copyright

Corresponding author

*Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Ferran Viñas. Quality of Life Research Institute. Universidad de Girona, C/ Mª Aurèlia Capmany, 63-65. Mòdul M-20, 1ª planta. Despacho 132. Campus Montilivi. 17071 Girona (Spain). Phone: +34–972418980, Fax: +34–972418032. E-mail: ferran.vinas@udg.edu

References

Hide All
Baer, R. A., (2007). Mindfulness, assessment, and transdiagnostic processes. Psychological Inquiry: An International Journal for the Advancement of Psychological Theory, 18, 238242. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10478400701598306
Baer, R. A., Smith, G. T., & Allen, K. B. (2004). Assessment of mindfulness by self-report: The Kentucky inventory of mindfulness skills. Assessment, 11, 191206. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1073191104268029
Baer, R. A., Smith, G. T., Hopkins, J., Krietemeyer, J., & Toney, L. (2006). Using self-report assessment methods to explore facets of mindfulness. Assessment, 13, 2745. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1073191105283504
Barnhofer, T., Duggan, D. S., & Griffith, J. W. (2011). Dispositional mindfulness moderates the relation between neuroticism and depressive symptoms. Personality and Individual Differences, 51, 958962. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2011.07.032
Bergoni, C., Tschacher, W., & Kupper, Z. (2013). The assessment of mindfulness with self-report measures: Existing scales and open issues. Mindfulness, 4, 191202. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12671-012-0110-9
Bermúdez, J. (2011). Estabilidad de la personalidad [The stability of personality]. In Bermúdez, J., Pérez-García, A. M., Ruiz, J. A., Sanjuán, P., & Rueda, B (Eds.), Psicología de la personalidad [Psychology of personality] (pp. 157200). Madrid, Spain: Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia.
Brefczynski-Lewis, J. A., Lutz, A., Schaefer, H. S., Levinson, D. B., & Davidson, R. J. (2007). Neural correlates of attentional expertise in long-term meditation practitioners. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 104, 1148311488. http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0606552104
Brown, K. W., & Ryan, R. M. (2003). The benefits of being present: Mindfulness and its role in psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84, 822848. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.84.4.822
Casas, F., Coenders, G., Cummins, R. A., González, M., Figuer, C., & Malo, S. (2008). Does subjective wellbeing show a relationship between parents and their children? Journal of Happiness Studies, 9, 197205. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10902-007-9044-7
Cattell, R. B. (1966). The scree test for the number of factors. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 1, 245276. http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15327906mbr0102_10
Chambers, R., Lo, B. C. Y., & Allen, N. B. (2008). The impact of intensive mindfulness training on attentional control, cognitive style, and affect. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 32, 303322. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10608-007-9119-0
Costa, P. T. Jr., & McCrae, R. R. (1997). Longitudinal stability of adult personality. In Hogan, R., Johnson, J., & Briggs, S. (Eds.), Handbook of personality psychology (pp. 269290). New York, NY: Academic Press.
Cummins, R. A., Eckersley, R., Lo, S. K., Okerstrom, E., Hunter, B., & Davern, M. (2004). Australian unity wellbeing index: Cumulative psychometric record. Melbourne, Australia: Australian Centre on Quality of Life, School of Psychology, Deakin University.
Cummins, R. A., Eckersley, R., Pallant, J., van Vugt, J., & Misajon, R. (2003). Developing a national index of subjective well-being: The Australian unity well-being index. Social Indicators Research, 64, 159190. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1024704320683
Cummins, R. A., & Gullone, E. (2000). Why we should not use 5-point Likert scales: The case for subjective quality of life measurement. Proceedings, Second International Conference on Quality of Life in Cities (pp. 7493). Singapore, Asia: National University of Singapore.
Cunha, M., Galhardo, A., & Pinto-Gouveia, J. (2013). Child and Adolescent Mindfulness Measure (CAMM): Estudo das características psicométricas da versão portuguesa. Psicologia: Reflexão e Crítica, 26, 459468. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0102-79722013000300005
Davidson, R. J., Kabat-Zinn, J., Schumacher, J., Rosenkranz, M., Muller, D., Santorelli, S. F., … Sheridan, J. F. (2003). Alterations in brain and immune function produced by mindfulness meditation. Psychosomatic Medicine, 65, 564570. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.PSY.0000077505.67574.E3
Dimidjian, S., & Linehan, M. M. (2003). Defining an agenda for future research on the clinical application of mindfulness practice. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 10, 166171. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/clipsy.bpg019
Eberth, J., & Sedlmeier, P. (2012). The effects of mindfulness meditation: A meta-analysis. Mindfulness, 3, 174189. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12671-012-0101-x
Edwards, T. C., Huebner, C. E., Connell, F. A., & Patrick, D. L. (2002). Adolescent quality of life, Part I: Conceptual and measurement model. Journal of Adolescence, 25, 275286. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/jado.2002.0470
Ellis, L. K., González, M., & Viñas, F. (2009, April). Cross-cultural differences in temperament during adolescence: The United States and Spain. Poster presented at the 2009 Biennial meeting of the society of research in child development. Denver, Colorado.
Ellis, L. K., & Rothbart, M. K., (2001, April). Revision of the early adolescent temperament questionnaire. Poster presented at the 2001 Biennial meeting of the society of research in child development. Minneapolis, Minnesota.
García, F., & Musitu, G. (2001). Autoconcepto Forma 5: AF5. Manual. Madrid, Spain: TEA.
Garland, E. L., Gaylord, S. A., & Fredrickson, B. L. (2011). Positive reappraisal mediates the stress-reductive effects of mindfulness: An upward spiral process. Mindfulness, 2, 5967. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12671-011-0043-8
Greco, L. A., Baer, R. A., & Smith, G. T. (2011). Assessing mindfulness in children and adolescents: Development and Validation of the Child and Adolescent Mindfulness Measure (CAMM). Psychological Assessment, 23, 606614. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0022819
Grossman, P., Niemann, L., Schmidt, S., & Walach, H. (2004). Mindfulness-based stress reduction and health benefits. A meta-analysis. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 57, 3543. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0022-3999(03)00573-7
Hölzel, B. K., Carmody, J., Vangel, M., Congleton, C., Yerramsetti, S. M., Gard, T., & Lazar, S. W. (2011). Mindfulness practice leads to increases in regional brain gray matter density. Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging, 30, 3643. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pscychresns.2010.08.006
Horn, J. L. (1965). A rationale and test for the number of factors in factor analysis. Psychometrika, 30, 179185. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02289447
Kabat-Zinn, J. (1994). Wherever you go, there you are: Mindfulness meditation in everyday life. New York, NY: Hyperion.
Kabat-Zinn, J. (2003). Mindfulness-based interventions in context: Past, present, and future. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 10, 144156. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/clipsy.bpg016
Kaiser, H. F. (1958). The varimax criterion for analytic rotation in factor analysis. Psychometrika, 23, 187–200. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02289233
Lutz, A., Brefczynski-Lewis, J., Johnstone, T., & Davidson, R. J. (2008). Regulation of the neural circuitry of emotion by compassion meditation: Effects of meditative expertise. PLoS ONE 3, e1897. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0001897
Malo, S., Bataller, S., Casas, F., Gras, M. E., & González, M. (2011). Análisis psicométrico de la escala multidimensional de autoconcepto AF5 en una muestra de adolescentes y adultos de Cataluña [Psychometric analysis of the AF5 multidimensional scale of self-concept in a sample of adolescents and adults in Catalonia]. Psicothema, 23, 871878.
Meiklejohn, J., Phillips, C., Freedma, M. L., Griffin, M. L., Biegel, G., … Saltzman, A. (2012). Integrating mindfulness training into K-12 education: Fostering the resilience of teachers and students. Mindfulness, 3, 291307. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12671-012-0094-5
O’Connor, B. P. (2000) SPSS and SAS programs for determining the number of components using parallel analysis and Velicer’s MAP Test. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments and Computers, 32, 396402. http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/BF03200807
Pace, T. W. W., Negi, L. T., Adame, D. D, Cole, S. P., Sivilli, T. I., Brown, … Raison, C. L. (2009). Effect of compassion meditation on neuroendocrine, innate immune and behavioral responses to psychosocial stress. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 34, 8798. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psyneuen.2008.08.011
Patrick, D. L., Edwards, T. C., & Topolski, T. D. (2002). Adolescent quality of life, part II: Initial validation of a new instrument. Journal of Adolescence, 25, 287300. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/jado.2002.0471
Sedlmeier, P., Eberth, J., Schwarz, M., Zimmermann, D., Haarig, F., Jaeger, S., & Kunze, S. (2012). The psychological effects of meditation: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 138, 11391171. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0028168.supp
Shapiro, S. L., Carlson, L. E., Astin, J. A., & Freedman, B. (2006). Mechanisms of mindfulness. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 62, 373386. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jclp.20237
Tang, Y. Y., Lu, Q., Geng, X., Stein, E. A., Yang, Y., & Posner, M. I. (2010). Short-term meditation induces white matter changes in the anterior cingulate. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 107, 1564915652. http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1011043107
Thompson, B. L., & Waltz, J. A. (2008). Mindfulness, self-esteem, and unconditional self-acceptance. Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive-Behavior Therapy, 26, 119126. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10942-007-0059-0
Vallejo, M. A. (2006). Mindfulness. Papeles del Psicólogo, 27, 9299.
Yamagata, S., Takahashi, Y., Shigemasu, K., Ono, Y., & Kijima, N. (2005). Development and validation of Japanese Version of Effortful Control Scale for Adults. The Japanese Journal of Personality, 14, 3041. http://dx.doi.org/10.2132/personality.14.30
Zenner, Ch., Herrnleben-Kurz, S., & Walach, H. (2014). Mindfulness-based interventions in schools––a systematic review and meta-analysis. Frontiers in Psychology, 5, 120. http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00603

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed