Skip to main content Accessibility help

Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale in Brazil and Portugal

  • Vanessa B. R. Leme (a1), Susana Coimbra (a2), Jorge Gato (a2), Anne Marie Fontaine (a2) and Zilda A. P. Del Prette (a1)...

This study aims to evaluate the construct validity, internal consistency and cross-cultural invariance of the Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale-Portuguese version (GSE) in a Brazilian and Portuguese sample. The GSE is composed of 10 items, designed to parsimoniously and comprehensively assess self-efficacy beliefs to deal with a wide range of stress-inducing situations. The construct validity (factorial, convergent and discriminant) and internal consistency of the instrument were established within a sample of 304 Portuguese adolescents (study 1) and a sample of 477 Brazilian adolescents (study 2). Then, the invariance of the GSE was tested in a sample of Brazilian adolescents (study 3), using Multigroup Confirmatory Factor Analysis (MGCFA). In the first two studies, the construct validity of the GSE was demonstrated in its three components and the reliability of the scales was confirmed based on satisfactory levels of internal consistency. In the third study, the cross-cultural invariance of the instrument was established. This work adds to previous research on generalized self-efficacy instruments, with good psychometric qualities. Moreover, comparisons can now be made with confidence using this instrument among adolescent samples from Portugal and Brazil.

Corresponding author
*Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Vanessa B. R. Leme. Av. Frederico Ozanan, 633. Jardim São Vicente. Santa Rita do Passa Quatro. São Paulo (Brazil). CEP: 13670–000. Phone: +55–2198069526. E-mail:
Hide All
Anastasi, A., & Urbina, S. (1997). Psychological Testing (7ª Ed.). New York, NY: Prentice Hall.
Arbuckle, J. L. (2008). Amos 17 users’ guide. Chicago, IL: SPSS.
Associação Brasileira de Empresas de Pesquisa [ABEP] (2011). Dados com base no Levantamento Socioeconômico de 2009. [Data based on the Socioeconomic Survey 2009]. Säo Paulo, Brazil: Author. Retrieved from
Bandura, A. (1982). Self-efficacy mechanism in human agency. American Psychologist, 37, 122147.
Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York, NY: W. H. Freeman and Co, Publishers.
Bandura, A. (2006a). Adolescent development from an agentic perspective. In Pajares, F. & Urdan, T. (Eds.). Self-efficacy beliefs of adolescents (pp.143). Greenwich, CT: IAP - Information Age Publishing.
Bandura, A. (2006b). Guide for constructing self-efficacy scales. In Pajares, F. & Urdan, T. (Eds.). Self-efficacy beliefs of adolescents (pp. 307337). Greenwich, CT: IAP-Information Age Publishing.
Bandura, A. (2006c). Toward a psychology of human agency. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 1, 164180.
Bandura, A., Reese, L., & Adams, N. E. (1982). Microanalysis of action and fear arousal as a function of differential levels of perceived self-efficacy. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 43, 521.
Barreira, D. D., & Nakamura, A. P. (2006). Resiliência e a auto-eficácia percebida: Articulação entre conceitos [Resilience and perceived self-efficacy: Articulation between concepts]. Aletheia, 23, 7580.
Bentler, P. M. (1990). Comparative fit indexes in structural models. Psychological Bulletin, 107, 238246.
Block, J., & Kremen, A. M. (1996). IQ and ego-resiliency: Conceptual and empirical connections and separateness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70, 349361.
Bryman, A., & Cramer, D. (2003). Análise de dados em ciências sociais: Introdução às técnicas utilizando o SPSS para Windows [Data analysis in the social sciences. Introduction to techniques using SPSS for Windows]. (3ª Ed.). Oeiras, Portugal: Celta.
Chen, F. F. (2007). Sensitivity of goodness of fit indexes to lack of measurement invariance. Structural Equation Modeling, 14, 464504.
Cheung, G. W., & Rensvold, R. B. (2002). Evaluating goodness-of-fit indexes for testing measurement invariance. Structural Equation Modeling, 9, 233255.
Coimbra, S. (2008). Estudo diferencial de autoeficácia e resiliência na antecipação da vida adulta [Differential study of self-efficacy and resilience in early adulthood]. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Universidade do Porto, Porto, Portugal.
Coimbra, S., & Fontaine, A. M. (1999). Adaptação da escala de auto-eficácia generalizada percebida (Schwarzer & Jerusalem, 1993) [Validation of the general self-efficacy scale]. In Soares, A. P., Araújo, S., & Caires, S. (Eds.), Avaliação psicológica, formas e contextos VI [Psychological assessment, forms, and contexts] (pp. 10611069). Braga, Portugal: APPORT
Coimbra, S., & Fontaine, A. M. (2010). Será que sou capaz? Estudo diferencial de auto-eficácia com alunos do 9° ano.[Can I make it? Self-efficacy differential study among 9th graders] Revista Brasileira de Orientação Profissional , 11, 522.
Davidov, E., Schmidt, P., & Schwartz, S. (2008). Bringing values back in: The adequacy of the European social survey to measure values in 20 countries. Public Opinion Quarterly, 72, 420445.
Del Prette, A., & Del Prette, Z. A. (2002). Psicologia das relações interpessoais e habilidades sociais: Vivências para o trabalho em grupo [Psychology of interpersonal relationships and social skills: Experiences for group work] . (2ª Ed.). Petrópolis, Brazil: Vozes.
Flammer, A. (1995). Developmental analysis of control beliefs. In Bandura, A. (Ed). Self-efficacy in changing societies (pp. 69113). Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.
Fornell, C., & Larker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating SEM with unobserved variables and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18, 3950.
Hackett, G. (1995). Self-efficacy in career choice and development. In Bandura, A. (Ed.). Self-efficacy in changing societies (pp. 232258). Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.
Hair, J. F., Anderson, R. E., Tatham, R. L., & Black, W. C. (1998). Multivariate data analysis (5 th ed). New York, NY: Springer.
Hu, L.-t, & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: conventional criteria versus. Structural Equation Modeling, 6, 155.
Jew, C. L., Green, K. E., & Kroger, J. (1999). Development and validation of a measure of resiliency. Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development, 32, 7581.
Kline, R. B. (2011). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling (3ª Ed. Rev). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Luszczynska, A., Gutiérrez-Doña, B., & Schwarzer, R. (2005). General self-efficacy in various domains of human functioning: Evidence from five countries. International Journal of Psychology, 40, 8089.
Maddux, J. E. (1995). Self-efficacy theory: An introduction. In Maddux, J. E. (Ed.), Self-efficacy, adaptation, and fit: Theory, research, and application (pp. 333). New York, NY: Plenum Press.
Marôco, J. (2010). Análise de equações estruturais: Fundamentos teóricos, software & aplicações [Structural equations modeling: Theoretical, software & applications] . Pêro Pinheiro, Portugal: ReportNumber, Lda.
Pajares, F. (2006). Self-Efficacy during childhood and adolescence: Implications for teachers and parents. In Pajares, F., & Urdan, T. (Eds.). Self-efficacy beliefs of adolescents (pp. 339367). Greenwich, CT: IAP - Information Age Publishing.
Pajares, F., & Urdan, T. (2006). Self-efficacy beliefs of adolescents. Greenwich, CT: IAP - Information Age Publishing.
Scholz, U., Gutiérrez-Doña, B., Sud, S., & Schwarzer, R. (2002). Is general self-efficacy a universal construct? Psychometric findings from 25 countries. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 18, 242251.
Schwarzer, R., & Jerusalem, M. (1995). Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale. In Weinman, J., Wright, S., & Johnston, M., Measures in health psychology: A user’s portfolio. Causal and control beliefs (pp. 3537). Windsor, UK: NFER-NELSON.
Schweizer, K. (2010). Some guidelines concerning the modeling of traits and abilities in test construction. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 26, 12.
Souza, I., & Souza, M. A. (2004). Validação da escala de auto-eficácia geral percebida [Validation of the general self-efficacy scale]. Revista Universidade Rural: Série Ciências Humanas, Seropédica, 26, 1217.
Wagnild, G. M., & Young, H. M. (1993). Development and psychometric evaluation of the Resilience Scale. Journal of Nursing Measurement, 1, 165178.
Zimmerman, B. J., & Cleary, T. J. (2006). Adolescents’ development of personal agency: The role of self-efficacy beliefs and self-regulatory skills. In Pajares, F. & Urdan, T. (Eds.), Self-efficacy beliefs of adolescents (pp. 4569). Greenwich, CT: IAP - Information Age Publishing.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

The Spanish Journal of Psychology
  • ISSN: 1138-7416
  • EISSN: 1988-2904
  • URL: /core/journals/spanish-journal-of-psychology
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *



Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed