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Impact of Parenting Styles on Adolescents' Self-Esteem and Internalization of Values in Spain

  • Isabel Martínez (a1) and José Fernando García (a2)


The relationship of parenting styles with adolescents' outcomes was analyzed within a sample of Spanish adolescents. A sample of 1456 teenagers from 13 to 16 years of age, of whom 54.3% were females, reported on their parents' child-rearing practices. The teenagers' parents were classified into one of four groups (authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, or neglectful). The adolescents were then contrasted on two different outcomes: (1) priority given to Schwartz's self-transcendence (universalism and benevolence) and conservation (security, conformity, and tradition) values and (2) level of self-esteem (appraised in five domains: academic, social, emotional, family and physical). The results show that Spanish adolescents from indulgent households have the same or better outcomes than adolescents from authoritative homes. Parenting is related with two self-esteem dimensions—academic and family—and with all the self-transcendence and conservation values. Adolescents of indulgent parents show highest scores in self-esteem whereas adolescents from authoritarian parents obtain the worst results. In contrast, there were no differences between the priority given by adolescents of authoritative and indulgent parents to any of the self-transcendence and conservation values, whereas adolescents of authoritarian and neglectful parents, in general, assign the lowest priority to all of these values.

La relación entre los estilos de socialización parental y sus efectos en los adolescentes se ha analizado con jóvenes españoles. Se midieron las practicas de socialización de los padres en una muestra de 1456 adolescentes de 13 a 16 años, de los cuales el 54,3% eran chicas. Los padres fueron clasificados en cuatro grupos diferentes (autorizativos, autoritarios, indulgentes y negligentes). Se analizaron las puntuaciones de los adolescentes en dos variables diferentes: (1) la prioridad que los adolescentes daban a los valores de auto-trascendencia (universalismo y benevolencia) y conservación (seguridad, conformidad y tradición) de Schwartz y (2) la autoestima de los adolescentes (medida con cinco dominios: académico, social, emocional, familiar y físico). Los resultados muestran que los adolescentes españoles de hogares indulgentes consiguen los mismos o mejores resultados que los adolescentes educados en familias autorizativas. Los estilos de socialización se relacionan con dos dimensiones de la autoestima—académica y familiar—y con todos los valores de auto-trascendencia y conservación. Los hijos de padres indulgentes obtienen las mayores puntuaciones en autoestima, mientras que los hijos de padres autoritarios obtienen los peores resultados. Por otra parte, no se dan diferencias en la prioridad que los hijos de padres autorizativos e indulgentes dan a los valores de auto-trascendencia y conservación, mientras que los hijos de padres autoritarios y negligentes son los que asignan, en general, la menor prioridad a todos estos valores.


Corresponding author

Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Isabel Martínez. Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Departamento de Psicología, Avda. de los Alfares, 44, 16071- Cuenca (Spain). Tel: +34-969179100. Fax: +34-969179107. E-mail:


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Impact of Parenting Styles on Adolescents' Self-Esteem and Internalization of Values in Spain

  • Isabel Martínez (a1) and José Fernando García (a2)


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