Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

The Importance of Personality and Parental Styles on Optimism in Adolescents

  • Cristian Zanon (a1), Micheline Roat Bastianello (a2), Juliana Cerentini Pacico (a2) and Claudio Simon Hutz (a2)

Abstract

Some studies have suggested that personality factors are important to optimism development. Others have emphasized that family relations are relevant variables to optimism. This study aimed to evaluate the importance of parenting styles to optimism controlling for the variance accounted for by personality factors. Participants were 344 Brazilian high school students (44% male) with mean age of 16.2 years (SD = 1) who answered personality, optimism, responsiveness and demandingness scales. Hierarchical regression analyses were conducted having personality factors (in the first step) and maternal and paternal parenting styles, and demandingness and responsiveness (in the second step) as predictive variables and optimism as the criterion. Personality factors, especially neuroticism (β = –.34, p < .01), extraversion (β = .26, p < .01) and agreeableness (β = .16, p < .01), accounted for 34% of the optimism variance and insignificant variance was predicted exclusively by parental styles (1%). These findings suggest that personality is more important to optimism development than parental styles.

Copyright

Corresponding author

*Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Cristian Zanon. Universidade São Francisco. Rua Alexandre Rodrigues Barbosa, 45. Centro, Itatiba - SP Federal (Brazil). +55–5133085246. E-mail: crstn.zan@gmail.com

References

Hide All
Bastianello, M. R., Zanon, C., Pacico, J. C., & Hutz, C. S. (2013). Adaptation and validation of the revised life oriented test for Brazilian adolescents. Unpublished Results. Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul.
Belsky, J. (1984). The determinants of parenting: A process model. Child Development, 55, 8396. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.1984.tb00275.x
Ben-Zur, H. (2003). Happy adolescents: The link between subjective well-being, internal resources, and parental factors. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 32, 6779.
Blanch, A., & Aluja, A. (2011). Personality and job stress: A comparison of direct effects on parenting. The Spanish Journal of Psychology, 14, 667674. http://dx.doi.org/10.5209/rev_SJOP.2011.v14.n2.15
Boland, A., & Cappeliez, P. (1997). Optimism and neuroticism as predictors of coping and adaptation in older women. Personality and Individual Differences, 22, 909919. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0191-8869(96)00251-6
Brodski, S. K., & Hutz, C. S. (2012). The repercussions of emotional abuse and parenting styles on self-esteem, subjective well-being: A retrospective study with university students in Brazil. Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma, 21, 256276. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10926771.2012.666335
Hutz, C. S., & Nunes, C. H. S. S. (2001). Escala Fatorial de Ajustamento Emocional/Neuroticismo [Factorial Scale of Emotional Adjustmen/Neuroticism]. São Paulo, Brazil: Casa do Psicólogo.
Hutz, C. S., Nunes, C. H. S. S., Silveira, A. D., Serra, J., Anton, M., & Wieczoreck, L. S. (1998). The development of the big five markers for personality assessment in Brazil. Psicologia: Reflexão e Crítica, 11, 395411.
Huver, R. M. E., Otten, R., de Vries, H., & Engels, R. C. M. E. (2010). Personality and parenting style in parents of adolescents. Journal of Adolescence, 33, 395402. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2009.07.012
Jensen-Campbell, L. A., Knack, J., & Rex-Lear, M. (2008). Personality and social relationships. In Corr, P. J. & Matthews, G.. (Eds.), The Cambridge handbook of personality (pp. 506523). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
John, O. P., Naumann, L. P., & Soto, C. J. (2010). Paradigm shift to the integrative big-five trait taxonomy: History, measurement, and conceptual issues. In John, O. P., Robins, R. W., & Pervin, L. A. (Eds.), Handbook of personality: Theory and research (pp. 114158). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Johnson, M. M. (1998). Applying a modified situational leadership model to residential group care settings. Child & Youth Care Forum, 27, 383398. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02589263
Karademas, E. C. (2006). Self-efficacy, social support and well-being: The mediating role of optimism. Personality and Individual Differences, 40, 12811290. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2005.10.019
Lai, J. C. L. (2009). Dispositional optimism buffers the impact of daily hassles on mental health in Chinese adolescents. Personality and Individual Differences, 47, 247249. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2009.03.007
Lamborn, S. D., Mounts, N. S., Steinberg, L., & Dornbusch, S. M. (1991). Patterns of competence and adjustment among adolescents from authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, neglectful families. Child Development, 62, 10491065. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1131151
Maccoby, E. E., & Martin, J. A. (1983). Socialization in the context of the family: Parent–child interaction. In Mussen, P. H. & Heatherington, E. M. (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology: Socialization, personality, and social development (pp. 535585). New York, NY: Wiley.
Marshall, G. N., Wortman, C. B., Kusulas, J. W., Hervig, L. K., & Vickers, R. R. (1992). Distinguishing optimism from pessimism: Relations to fundamental dimensions of mood and personality. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 62, 10671074. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037//0022-3514.62.6.1067
McCrae, R. R., & John, O. P. (1992). An introduction to the five-factor model and its applications. Journal of Personality, 60, 175215. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6494.1992.tb00970.x
McCrae, R. R., & Costa, P. T. J. (2010). The five-factor theory of personality. In John, O. P., Robins, R. W. & Pervin, L. A., (Eds). Handbook of personality: Theory and research. (3 rd Ed., pp. 159181). New York, NY: The Guilford Press.
Milligan, M. (2003). Optimism and the five-factor model of personality, coping, and health behavior. Dissertation Abstracts International, 64, 5830.
Nunes, C. H. S. S., & Hutz, C. S. (2006). Development and validation of an extraversion scale in the Big Five Personality model. Psico-USF, 11, 147155.
Nunes, C. H. S. S., & Hutz, C. S. (2007). Development and validation of an agreeableness scale in the Big Five personality model. Psicologia: Reflexão e Crítica, 20, 2025.
Nunes, C. H. S. S., Hutz, C. S., & Nunes, M. F. O. (2010). Bateria Fatorial de Personalidade [Factorial Personality Battery]. São Paulo, Brazil: Casa do Psicólogo.
Orejudo, S., Puyuelo, M., Fernández-Turrado, T., & Ramos, T. (2012). Optimism in adolescence: A cross-sectional study of the influence of family and peer group variables on junior high school students. Personality and Individual Differences, 52, 812817. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2012.01.012
Pacico, J. C., Zanon, C., Bastianello, M. R., & Hutz, C. S. (2011). Adaptation and validation of the hope index for Brazilian adolescents. Psicologia: Reflexão e Crítica, 24, 666670. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0102-79722011000400006
Peterson, C. (2000). The future of optimism. American Psychologist, 55, 4455. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037//0003-066X.55.1.44
Scheier, M. F., & Carver, C. S. (1985). Optimism, coping, and health: Assessment and implications of generalized outcome expectancies. Health Psychology, 4, 219247. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037//0278-6133.4.3.219
Scheier, M. F., & Carver, C. S. (1992). Effects of optimism on psychological and physical well-being: Theoretical overview and empirical update. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 16, 201228. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01173489
Scheier, M. F., Carver, C. S., & Bridges, M. W. (1994). Distinguishing optimism from neuroticism (and trait anxiety, self-mastery, and self-esteem): A reevaluation of the Life Orientation Test. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67, 10631078. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037//0022-3514.67.6.1063
Seligman, M. E. P. (1998). Learned optimism. (2 nd Ed.). New York, NY: Pocket Books Simon and Schuster.
Sharpe, J. P., Martin, N. R., & Roth, K. A. (2011). Optimism and the big five factors of personality: Beyond neuroticism and extraversion. Personality and Individual Differences, 51, 946951. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2011.07.033
Smith, T. W., Pope, M. K., Rhodewalt, F., & Poulton, J. L. (1989). Optimism, neuroticism, coping, and symptom reports: An alternative interpretation of the Life Orientation Test. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 56, 640648. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037//0022-3514.56.4.640
Teixeira, M. A. T., Bardagi, M. P., & Gomes, W. B (2004). Improvement of an instrument to assess perceived parental responsiveness and demandingness in adolescence. Avaliação Psicológica, 3, 112.
Tellegen, A., Lykken, D. T., Bouchard, T. J., Wilcox, K. J., Segal, N. L., & Rich, S. (1988). Personality similarity in twins reared apart and together. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54, 10311039. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037//0022-3514.54.6.1031
Vasconcellos, S. J. L., & Hutz, C. S. (2008). Development and validation of an openness scale. Avaliação Psicológica, 7, 135141.
Williams, D. G. (1992). Dispositional optimism, neuroticism, and extraversion. Personality and Individual Differences, 13, 475477. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0191-8869(92)90076-2

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed