Skip to main content Accessibility help

Morningness-Eveningness and Health-Related Quality of Life among Adolescents

  • Pedro Delgado Prieto (a1), Juan Francisco Díaz-Morales (a1), Cristina Escribano Barreno (a1), Mª José Collado Mateo (a1) and Christoph Randler (a2)...

Accumulating evidence suggests that evening-type adolescents are exposed to a number of determinants that might have a negative impact on their health condition. Given that few studies have investigated the association between chronotype and quality of life measures in large samples of adolescents, the aim of this study was to assess the relationship between morningness-eveningness and health-related quality of life among 1600 adolescents (aged 12-16 years). Adolescents completed the Veçú et Santé Perçue de L'adolescent (VSP-A) and the Morningness-Eveningness Scale for Children (MESC). Girls and older adolescents reported worse health indicators and were more evening oriented. Evening-type adolescents obtained lower scores on vitality, physical and psychological well-being, body image, relations with parents, relations with teachers, school work and global health scale.

La evidencia acumulada sugiere que los adolescentes vespertinos están expuestos a cierto número de determinantes que podrían tener un impacto negativo en su estado de salud. Dado que pocos estudios han investigado la asociación entre cronotipo y medidas de calidad de vida en una amplia muestra de adolescentes, el objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la relación entre matutinidad-vespertinidad y calidad de vida relacionada con la salud en 1600 adolescentes (12-16 años). Los adolescentes completaron el Cuestionario de Salud Percibida y Vivida del Adolescente (VSP-A) y la Escala de Matutinidad-Vespertinidad para Niños (MESC). Las chicas y los adolescentes mayores informaron de peores indicadores de salud y tuvieron mayor tendencia a la vespertinidad. Los adolescentes vespertinos obtuvieron puntuaciones más bajas en vitalidad, bienestar físico y psicológico, autoestima, relaciones con padres, relaciones con profesores, actividades escolares y puntuación global de salud.

Corresponding author
Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Juan Francisco Díaz Morales. Facultad de Psicología, Universidad Complutense de Madrid. Campus de Somosaguas s/n, 28223, Madrid (Spain). Phone: +34-913943198 Fax: +34-913943189. E-mail:
Hide All
Adan, A., Fabbri, M., Natale, V., & Pratt, G. (2006). Sleep Beliefs Scale (SBS) and circadian typology. Journal of Sleep Research, 15, 125132.
Baehr, E., Revelle, W., & Eastman, C. (2000). Individual differences in the phase and amplitude of the human circadian temperature rhythm: With an emphasis on morningness-eveningness. Journal of Sleep Research, 9, 117127.
Beşoluk, S., Önder, I., & Deveci, I. (2011). Morningness-Eveningness preference and academic achievement of university students. Chronobiology International, 28, 118125.
Beşoluk, S. (2011). Morningness-Eveningness preferences and university entrance examination scores of high school students. Personality and Individual Differences, 50, 248252.
Bisseger, C., Cloetta, B., Von Bisseger, U., Abel, T., & Ravens-Sieberer, U. (2005). Health-related quality of life: Gender differences in childhood and adolescence. Social and Preventive Medicine, 50, 281291.
Booth-Kewley, S., & Vickers, R. R. (1994). Associations between major domains of personality and health behaviour. Journal of Personality, 62, 281298.
Caci, H., Robert, P., Dossios, C., & Boyer, P. (2005). L'échelle de matinalité pour enfants et adolescents: Propriétés psychométriques et effet du mois de naissance [Morningness-Eveningness for children scale: Psychometric properties and month of birth effect]. L'Encéphale, 31, 5664.
Carr, J. A., Higginson, I. J., & Robinson, P. G. (2003). Quality of life. London, England: BMJ Books.
Carskadon, M. A., Vieira, C., & Acebo, C. (1993). Association between puberty and delayed phase preference. Sleep, 16, 258262.
Carskadon, M. A., Wolfson, A. R., Acebo, C., Tzischinsky, O., & Seifer, R. (1998). Adolescent sleep patterns, circadian timing, and sleepiness at a transition to early school days. Sleep, 21, 871881.
Cofer, L. F., Grice, J. W., Sethre-Hofstad, L., Radi, C. J., Zimmermann, L. K., Palmer-Seal, D., & Santa-Maria, G. (1999). Developmental perspectives on morningness-eveningness and social interactions. Human Development, 42, 169198.
Crowley, S. J., Acebo, C., & Carskadon, M.A. (2007). Sleep, circadian rhythms, and delayed phase in adolescence. Sleep Medicine, 8, 602612.
DeYoung, C. G., Hasher, L., Djikic, M., Criger, B., & Peterson, J. B. (2007). Morning people are stable people: Circadian rhythm and the higher-order factors of the Big Five. Personality and Individual Differences, 43, 267276.
Díaz-Morales, J. F. (2007). Morning and evening-types: Exploring their personality styles. Journal of Personality and Individual Differences, 43, 769778.
Díaz-Morales, J. F., Dávila, M. C., & Gutiérrez, M. (2007). Validity of the Morningness-Eveningness Scale for Children among Spanish adolescents. Chronobiology International, 24, 435447.
Díaz-Morales, J. F., Delgado, P., Escribano, C., Collado, M. J., & Randler, C. (in press). Sleep beliefs and chronotype among adolescents: The effect of a sleep education program. Biological Rhythm Research.
Díaz-Morales, J. F., & Gutiérrez, M. (2008). Morningness-Eveningness in adolescents. The Spanish Journal of Psychology, 11, 201206.
Díaz-Morales, J. F., & Sánchez-López, M. P. (2008). Morningness-Eveningness and anxiety among adults: A matter of sex/gender? Personality and Individual Differences, 44, 13911401.
Digdon, N. L. (2010). Circadian preference and college students' beliefs about sleep education. Chronobiology International, 27, 297317.
Escribano, C., Díaz-Morales, J. F., Delgado, P., & Collado, M. J. (2012). Morningness-Eveningness and school performance among Spanish adolescents: Further evidence. Learning and Individual Differences, 22, 409413.
Fredriksen, K., Rhodes, J., Reddy, R., & Way, N. (2004). Sleepless in Chicago: Tracking the effects of adolescent sleep loss during the middle school years. Child Development, 75, 8495.
Gaina, A., Sekine, M., Kanayama, H., Takashi, Y., Hu, L., Sengoku, K., & Kagamimori, S. (2006). Morning-Evening preference: Sleep pattern spectrum and lifestyles habits among Japanese junior high school pupils. Chronobiology International, 23, 607621.
Gau, S. S., Shang, C. Y., Merikangas, K. R., Chiu, Y. N., Soong, W. T., & Cheng, A. T. (2007). Association between morningness-eveningness and behavioral/emotional problems among adolescents. Journal of Biological Rhythms, 22, 268274.
Gau, S. S., & Soong, W. T. (2003). The transition of sleep-wake patterns in early adolescence. Sleep, 26, 449454.
Giannotti, F., Cortesi, F., Sebastiani, T., & Ottaviano, S. (2002). Circadian preference, sleep and daytime behaviour in adolescence. Journal of Sleep Research, 11, 191199.
Goldstein, D., Hahn, C., Hasher, L., Wiprzycka, U. J., & Zelazo, P. D. (2007). Time of day, intellectual performance, and behavioral problems in Morning versus Evening type adolescents: Is there a synchrony effect? Personality and Individual Differences, 42, 431440.
Greven, C., Chamorro-Premuzic, T., Arteche, A., & Furnham, A. (2008). A hierarchical integration of dispositional determinants of general health in students: The Big Five, trait emotional intelligence and humour styles. Personality and Individual Differences, 44, 15621573.
Hampel, P., & Petermann, F. (2006). Perceived stress, coping and adjustment in adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Health, 38, 409415.
Jozefiak, T., Larsson, B., & Wichstrom, L. (2009). Changes in quality of life among Norwegian school children: A six-month follow-up study. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, 7, 719.
Kerkhof, G. A. (1985). Inter-Individual differences in the human circadian system: A review. Biological Psychology, 20, 83112.
Kim, S., Dueker, G. L., Hasher, L., & Goldstein, D. (2002). Children's time of day preference: Age, gender and ethnic differences. Personality and Individual Differences, 33, 10831090.
Kim, S. J., Lee, Y. J., Kim, H., Cho, I. H., Lee, J., & Cho, S. (2010). Age as a moderator of the association between depressive symptoms and morningness-eveningness. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 68, 159164.
Kudielka, B. M., Federenko, I. S., Hellhammer, D. H., & Wüst, S. (2006). Morningness and eveningness: The free cortisol rise after awakening in “early birds” and “night owls”. Biological Psychology, 72, 141146.
Lange, L., & Randler, C. (2011). Morningness-Eveningness and behavioral problems in adolescents. Sleep and Biological Rhythms, 9, 1218.
Leonhard, C., & Randler, C. (2009). In sync with the family: Children and partners influence the sleep-wake circadian rhythm and social habits of women. Chronobiology International, 26, 510525.
Levin, K. A., Currie, C., & Muldoon, J. (2009). Mental well-being and subjetive health of 11- to 15-year-old boys and girls in Scotland, 1994–2006. European Journal of Public Health, 19, 605610.
Maccoby, E. E. (1998). The two sexes: Growing apart, coming together. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Meulners, L. B., & Lee, A. H. (2003). Adolescent quality of life: A school-based cohort study in Western Australia. Pediatrics International, 45, 706711.
Michel, G., Bisegger, C., Fuhr, D., & Abel, T. (2009). Age and gender differences in health-related quality of life of children and adolescents in Europe: A multilevel analysis. Quality of LifeResearch, 18, 11471157.
Nakade, M., Takeuchi, H., Kurotani, M., & Harada, T. (2009). Effects of meal habits and alcohol/cigarette consumption on morningness-eveningness preference and sleep habits by Japanese female students aged 18–29. Journal of Physiological Anthropology, 28, 8390.
Natale, V., & Alzani, A. (2001). Additional validity evidence for the composite scale of morningness. Personality and Individual Differences, 30, 293301.
Natale, V., & Bruni, O. (2000). Confronto fra tre questionari per la valutazione della tipologia circadiana in adolescenza [Comparison among three circadian rhythm questionnaires to determine circadian typology in adolescence]. Testing Psicometria Metodologia, 7, 3344.
Natale, V., & Cicogna, P. (2002). Morningness-Eveningness dimension: Is it really a continuum? Personality and Individual Differences, 32, 809816.
Nuviala, A., Ruiz, F., & Nuviala, R. (2010). Actividad física y autopercepción de la salud en adolescentes [Pyshical activity and self-perception of health in adolescents]. Revista de Ciencias del Ejercicio y la Salud, 8, 3441.
Okada, M., Suzue, T., & Jitsunari, F. (2010). Association between interpersonal relationship among high-school students and mental health. Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine, 15, 5762.
Palacio-Vieira, J. A., Villalonga-Olives, E., Valderas, J. M., Espallargues, M., Herdman, M., Berra, S., … Rajmil, L. (2008). Changes in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in a population-based sample of children and adolescents after 3 years of follow-up. Quality of Life Research, 17, 12071215.
Pane, S., Solans, M., Gaite, L., Serra-Sutton, V., Estrada, M. D., & Rajmil, L. (2006). Instrumentos de calidad de vida relacionada con la salud. Revisión sistemática de la literatura: Actualización [Health-related quality-of-life instruments in paediatric age. Systematic review of the literature: Update]. Barcelona, Spain: Agencia de Evaluación de Tecnología e Investigación Médicas.
Rajmil, L., Estrada, M. D., Herdman, M., Serra-Sutton, V., & Alonso, J. (2001). Calidad de vida relacionada con la salud (CVRS) en la infancia y la adolescencia: Revisión de la bibliografía y de los instrumentos adaptados en España [Health related quality of life (HRQOL) in childhood and adolescence: a review of the literature and instruments adapted in Spain]. Gaceta Sanitaria, 15, 3443.
Randler, C. (2007). Gender differences in morningness-eveningness assessed by self-report questionnaires: A meta-analysis. Personality and Individual Differences, 43, 16671675.
Randler, C. (2011). Association between morningness-eveningness and mental and physical health in adolescents. Psychology, Health and Medicine, 16, 2938.
Randler, C., & Bausback, V. (2010). Morningness-Eveningness in women around the transition through menopause and its relationship with climacteric complaints. Biological Rhythm Research, 41, 415431.
Randler, C., & Frech, D. (2009). Young people's time-of-day preferences affect their school performance. Journal of Youth Studies, 12, 653667.
Reinberg, A., Motohaschi, P., Bourdeleau, P., Andlauer, F., Lévi, F., & Bicakova-Rocher, A. (1988). Alteration of period and amplitude of circadian rhythms in shift-workers. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 57, 1525.
Roenneberg, T., Kuehnle, T., Pramstaller, P. P., Ricken, J., Havel, M., Guth, A., & Merrow, M. (2004). A marker for the end of adolescence. Current Biology, 14, 10381039.
Schmidt, S., & Randler, C. (2010). Morningness-Eveningness and eating disorders in a sample of adolescent girls. Journal of Individual Differences, 31, 3845.
Serra-Sutton, V., Ferrer, M., Rajmil, L., Tebé, C., Simeoni, M. C., & Ravens-Sieberer, U. (2009). Population norms and cut-off-points for suboptimal health-related quality of life in two generic measures for adolescents: The Spanish VSP-A and KINDL-R. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, 21, 735.
Serra-Sutton, V., Herdman, M., Rajmil, L., Santed, R., Ferrer, M., Simeoni, M. C., & Auquier, P. (2002). Adaptación al español del Cuestionario Veçú et Santé Perçue de L'adolescent: Una medida genérica de calidad de vida para adolescentes [Cross-cultural adaptation into Spanish of the Vecú et Sante Perçue de l'Adolescent (VSP-A): A generic measure of quality of life for adolescents]. Revista Española de Salud Pública, 76, 701712.
Serra-Sutton, V., Rajmil, L., Berra, S., Herdman, M., Aymerich, M., Ferrer, M., … Simeoni, M. C. (2006). Fiabilidad y validez del cuestionario de salud y calidad de vida para adolescentes Veçú et Santé Perçue de L'adolescent [Reliability and validity of the Spanish version of the health and quality-of-life]. Atención Primaria, 37, 203208.
Shumaker, S., & Naughton, M. (1995). The international assessment of health-related quality of life: A theoretical perspective. In Shumaker, S. & Berzon, R. (Eds.), The international assessment of health-related quality of life: Theory, translation, measurement and analysis (pp. 310). Oxford, England: Rapid Communications.
Simeoni, M. C., Auquier, P., Antoniotti, S., Sapin, C., & San Marco, J. L. (2000). Validation of a French health-related quality of life instrument for adolescents: The VSP-A. Quality of Life Research, 9, 393403.
Simeoni, M. C., Sapin, C., Antoniotti, S., & Auquier, P. (2001). Health-related quality of life reported by French adolescents: A predictive approach of health status? Journal of Adolescent Health, 28, 288294.
Smith, C., Reilly, C., & Midkiff, K. (1989). Evaluation of three circadian rhythm questionnaires with suggestions for an improved of morningness. Journal of Applied Psychology, 74, 728738.
Solans, M., Pane, S., Estrada, M. D., Serra-Sutton, V., Berra, S., Herdman, M., … Rajmil, L. (2008). Health-Related quality of life measurement in children and adolescents: A systematic review of generic and disease-specific instruments. Value in Health, 11, 742764.
Sweeting, H. (1995). Reversals of fortune? Sex differences in health in childhood and adolescence. Social Science and Medicine, 40, 7790.
Sweeting, H., & West, P. (2003). Sex differences in health at ages 11, 13 and 15. Social Science and Medicine, 56, 3139.
Takeuchi, H., Morisane, H., Iwanaga, A., Hino, N., Matsuoka, A., & Harada, T. (2002). Morningness-Eveningness preference and mood in Japanese junior high school students. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 56, 227228.
Takeuchi, H., Oishi, T., & Harada, T. (2005). Association between morningness eveningness preference and mental/physical premenstrual symptoms in Japanese females 12 to 31 years of age. Chronobiology International, 22, 10551068.
Tonetti, L., Fabbri, M., & Natale, V. (2008). Sex difference in sleep-time preference and sleep need: A cross-sectional survey among Italian pre-adolescents, adolescents and adults. Chronobiology International, 23, 743759.
Tzischinsky, O., & Shochat, T. (2011). Eveningness, sleep patterns, daytime functioning and quality of life in Israeli adolescents. Chronobiology International, 28, 338343.
Warner, S., Murray, G., & Meyer, D. (2008). Holiday and school-term sleep patterns of Australian adolescents. Journal of Adolescence, 31, 595608.
Werner, H., LeBurgeois, M. K., Geiger, A., & Jenni, O. G. (2009). Assessment of chronotype in four- to eleven year old children: Reliability and validity of the children's chronotype questionnaire. Chronobiology International, 26, 9921014.
Wittmann, M., Dinich, J., Merrow, M., & Roenneberg, T. (2006). Social jet-lag: Misalignment of biological and social time. Chronobiology International, 23, 497509.
Yang, C. K., Kim, J. K., Patel, S. R., & Lee, J. H. (2005). Age-related changes in sleep/wake patterns among Korean teenagers. Pediatrics, 115, 250256.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

The Spanish Journal of Psychology
  • ISSN: 1138-7416
  • EISSN: 1988-2904
  • URL: /core/journals/spanish-journal-of-psychology
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *



Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed