Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Satisfaction with Life Scale in a Representative Sample of Spanish Adults: Validation and Normative Data

  • Carmelo Vázquez (a1), Almudena Duque (a1) and Gonzalo Hervás (a1)
Abstract
Abstract

The Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) is a measure widely used to assess life satisfaction. This paper aims to test its psychometric properties, factor structure, and distribution scores across age, gender, education, and employment status. For this purpose, a representative sample of the Spanish population (N = 2,964) was used. Although analyses showed no significant differences across age or gender, participants with higher education level and those who held an occupation were more satisfied with their lives. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed a unifactorial structure with significant correlations between the SWLS, and subjective happiness and social support. The internal consistency of the scale was .88. Thus, our results indicate that the Spanish version of the SWLS is a valid and reliable measure of life satisfaction within the Spanish context.

Copyright
Corresponding author
*Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Carmelo Vázquez. Facultad de Psicología. Campus de Somosaguas. 28223 Pozuelo de Alarcón - Madrid (Spain). 28223. Phone: +34–913943090. Fax: 34–913943189. E-mail: cvazquez@psi.ucm.es
Footnotes
Hide All
We would like to thank Romina Jullian (Chile), Alejandra Santos (Dominican Republic), Angie Vigo Catter (Peru), Minerva Cazares (Mexico), Vickie Andrews (USA) and Macarena Rodríguez (Argentina) for their help during the translation process of the scale, and Juanjo Rahona, Sergio M. Vergara, and Covadonga Chaves for their collaboration in the different stages of the study. Moreover, we wish to thank the Coca-Cola Happiness Institute and Jesús Gallardo, Isabel de Julián and Margarita Álvarez for their help in using the study’s database and Félix Caballero and Alberto Maydeu-Olivares for their technical assistance during the data analysis.
Footnotes
References
Hide All
Anaby D., Jarus T., & Zumbo B. D. (2010). Psychometric evaluation of the Hebrew language version of the Satisfaction with Life Scale. Social Indicators Research, 96, 267274. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11205-009-9476-z
Arrindell W. A., Heesink J., & Feij J. A. (1999). The Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS): Appraisal with 1700 healthy young adults in The Netherlands. Personality and Individual Differences, 26, 815826. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0191-8869(98)00180-9
Arrindell W. A., Meeuwesen L., & Huyse F. J. (1991). The Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS): Psychometric properties in a non-psychiatric medical outpatients sample. Personality and Individual Differences, 12, 117123. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0191-8869(91)90094-R
Atienza F. L., Balaguer I., & Garcia-Merita M. L. (2003). Satisfaction with Life Scale: analysis of factorial invariance across sexes. Personality and Individual Differences, 35, 12551260. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0191-8869(02)00332-X
Atienza F. L., Pons D., Balaguer I., & García-Merita M. L. (2000). Propiedades psicométricas de la Escala de Satisfacción con la Vida en adolescentes. [Psychometric properties of the Satisfaction with Life Scale] Psicothema , 12, 331336.
Bai X., Wu C., Zheng R., & Xiaopeng R. (2011). The psychometric evaluation of the Satisfaction with Life Scale using a nationally representative sample of China. Journal of Happiness Studies, 12, 183197. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10902-010-9186-x
Bellón J. A., Delgado A., Luna J., & Lardelli P. (1996). Validez y fiabilidad del Cuestionario de Apoyo Social Funcional Duke-UNC-11. [Validity and reliability of the Duke-UNC-11 Functional Social Support Questionnaire]. Atención Primaria, 18, 153163.
Blais M. R., Vallerand R. J., Pelletier L. G., & Briere N. M. (1989). L‘Echelle de satisfaction de vie: Validation Canadienne-Francaise du «Satisfaction with Life Scale [French-Canadian validation of the Satisfaction with Life Scale]. Canadian Journal of Behavioral Science, 21, 210223. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0079854
Bok D. (2010). The politics of happiness: What government can learn from the new research on well being. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Broadhead W. E., Gehlbach S. H., DeGruy F. V., & Kaplan B. H. (1988). The Duke-UNC Functional Social Support Questionnaire: Measurement of social support in family medicine patients. Medical Care, 26, 709723. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00005650-198807000-00006
Cabañero M. J., Richart M., Cabrero J., Orts M. I., Reig A., & Tosal B. (2004). Fiabilidad y validez de la Escala de Satisfacción con la Vida de Diener en una muestra de mujeres embarazadas y puérperas. [Reliability and validity of the Satisfaction With Life Scale in a sample of pregnant and puerperal women] Psicothema , 16, 448455.
Casas F., Coenders G., González M., Malo S., Bertran I., & Figuer C. (2011). Testing the relationship between parents’ and their children’s subjective well-being. Journal of Happiness Studies, 13, 10311051. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10902-011-9305-3
Casas F., Sarriera J. C., Abs D., Coenders G., Alfaro J., Saforcada E., & Tonon G. (2012). Subjective indicators of personal well-being among adolescents. Performance and results for different scales in Latin-language speaking countries: A contribution to the international debate. Child Indicators Research, 5, 128 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12187-011-9119-1
Chico E. (2006). Personality dimensions and subjective well-being. The Spanish Journal of Psychology, 9, 3844.
Diener E., & Chan M. Y. (2011). Happy people live longer: Subjective well-being contributes to health and longevity. Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being, 3, 143. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1758-0854.2010.01045.x
Diener E., Emmons R., Larsen R. J., & Griffin S. (1985). The Satisfaction with Life Scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 49, 7175. http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15327752jpa4901_13
Diener E., & Gonzalez E. (2011). The validity of life satisfaction measures. Social Indicator Network News, 108, 15.
Diener E., Inglehart R., & Tay L. (2013). Theory and validity of life satisfaction measures. Social Indicators Research, 112, 497527. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11205-012-0076-y
Diener E., Kahneman D., Arora R., Harter J., & Tov W. (2009). Income’s differential influence on judgments of life versus affective well-being. In Diener E. (Ed.), Assessing well-being: The collected works of Ed Diener (pp. 233245). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer.
Diener E., Kahneman D., Tov W., & Arora R. (2010). Income’s association with judgments of life versus feelings. In Diener E., Helliwell J., & Kahneman D. (Eds.), International differences in well-being (pp. 315). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Diener E., Lucas R. E., Schimmack U., & Helliwell J. F. (2009). Well-being for public policy. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Diener E., Oishi S., & Lucas R. E. (2003). Personality, culture, and subjective well-being: Emotional and cognitive evaluations of life. Annual Review of Psychology, 54, 403425. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.54.101601.145056
Diener E., & Seligman M. E. P. (2002). Very happy people. Psychological Science, 13, 8184. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-9280.00415
Extremera N., Salguero J. M., & Fernández-Berrocal P. (2011). Trait meta-mood and subjective happiness: A 7–week prospective study. Journal of Happiness Studies, 12, 509517. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10902-010-9233-7
Glaesmer H., Grande G., Braehler E., & Roth M. (2011). The German version of the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS): Psychometric properties, validity, and population-based norms. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 27, 127132. http://dx.doi.org/10.1027/1015-5759/a000058
Hervás G., & Vázquez C. (2006). La regulación afectiva: Modelos, investigación e implicaciones para la salud mental & física. [Emotion regulation: Models, research and implications for mental and physical health]. Revista de Psicología General & Aplicada, 59, 932.
Hu L., & Bentler P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling, 6, 155. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10705519909540118
Huebner E. S. (2001). Manual for the Multidimensional Students’ Life Satisfaction Scale. Retrieved from http://artsandsciences.sc.edu/PSYC/pdfdocs/huebslssmanual.doc. University of South Carolina. Departament of Psychology.
Hultell D., & Gustavsson J. P. (2008). A psychometric evaluation of the satisfaction with Life scale in a Swedish nationwide sample of university students. Personality and Individual Differences, 44, 10701079. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2007.10.030
Instituto Nacional de Estadística (2001). Population and Housing Census, 2001(updated 2006). Retrieved from http://www.ine.es/en/censo2001/infotec_en.htm. Madrid, Spain: Instituto Nacional de Estadística.
Instituto Nacional de Estadística (2006). Encuesta Nacional de Salud. [National Health Survey]. Retrieved from http://www.ine.es/metodologia/t15/ens_hog06.pdf. Madrid, Spain: Ministerio de Sanidad y Consumo.
Kahneman D. (1989). Objective happiness. In Kahneman D., Diener E., & Schwarz N., (Eds.) Well-being: The foundations of hedonic psychology (pp. 325). New York, NY: Russell Sage.
Kahneman D., Krueger A., Schkade D., Schwarz N., & Stone A. (2006). Would you be happier if you were richer? A focusing illusion. Science, 312, 19081910. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1129688
Kahneman D., & Stone A. (2010). High income improves evaluation of life but not emotional well-being. National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS), 107, 1648916493. http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1011492107
Lucas R. E., Diener E., & Suh E. (1996). Discriminant validity of well-being measures. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 71, 616628. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.71.3.616
Lyubomirsky S., King L. A., & Diener E. (2005). The benefits of frequent positive affect. Psychological Bulletin, 131, 803855. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.131.6.803
Lyubomirsky S., & Lepper H. S. (1999). A measure of subjective happiness: Preliminary reliability and construct validation. Social Indicators Research, 46, 137155. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1006824100041
Lyubomirsky S., Tkach C., & DiMatteo M. R. (2006). What are the differences between happiness and self-esteem? Social Indicators Research, 78, 363404. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11205-005-0213-y
McMahon D. M. (2006). Happiness: A history. New York, NY: Grove Press.
Meyer C., Rumpf H., Hapke U., & John U. (2004). Impact of psychiatric disorders in the general population: Satisfaction with life and the influence of comorbidity and disorder duration. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 39, 435441. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00127-004-0755-3
Oishi S. (2006). The concept of life satisfaction across cultures: An IRT analysis. Journal of Research in Personality, 40, 411423. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jrp.2005.02.002
Pavot W., Diener E., Colvin C. R., & Sandvik E. (1991). Further validation of the Satisfaction with Life Scale: Evidence for the cross-method convergence of well-being. Social Indicators Research, 57, 149161. http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15327752jpa5701_17
Pavot W., & Diener E. (1993). The affective and cognitive contest of self reports measures of subjective well-being. Social Indicators Research, 28, 120. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01086714
Pavot W., & Diener E. (2008). The Satisfaction with Life Scale and the emerging construct of life satisfaction. Journal of Positive Psychology, 3, 137152. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17439760701756946
Rahona J. J., Vergara S., Hervás G., & Vázquez C. (2012). Un análisis con Teoría de la Respuesta al Ítem de la escala de Satisfacción con la Vida (SWLS) en una muestra representativa de la población española.[Item Response Theory analysis of the Satisfaction with Life Scale in a representative sample of the Spanish population]. Manuscript in preparation.
Satorra A. & Bentler P. M. (1994). Corrections to test statistics and standard errors in covariance structure analysis. In von Eye A. & Clogg C. C. (Eds.) Latent variable analysis: Applications for developmental research (pp. 399419). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Schimmack U., & Oishi S. (2005). The influence of chronically accessible and temporarily accessible information on life satisfaction judgments. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 89, 395406. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.89.3.395
Schwarz N., & Strack F. (1999). Reports of subjective well-being: Judgmental processes and their methodological implications. In Kahneman D., Diener E., & Schwarz N. (Eds.) Well-being: The foundations of hedonic psychology (pp. 6184). New York, NY: Russell Sage.
Shin D. C., & Johnson D. M. (1978). Avowed happiness as an overall assessment of the quality of life. Social Indicators Research, 5, 475492. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00352944
Stone A. A., Schwartz J. E., Broderick J. E., & Deaton A. (2010) A snapshot of the age distribution of psychological well-being in the United States. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS), 107, 99859990. http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1003744107
Swami V., & Chamorro-Premuzic T. (2009). Psychometric evaluation of the Malay satisfaction with life scale. Social Indicators Research, 92, 2533. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11205-008-9295-7
Vázquez C. (2009). La ciencia del bienestar psicológico. [The science of well-being] In Vázquez C. & Hervás G. (Eds.), La ciencia del bienestar: Fundamentos de una psicología positiva. [The science of Well-Being: Foundations of positive psychology] (pp. 1346). Madrid, Spain: Alianza Editorial.
Vázquez C., Rahona J. J., Gómez D., Caballero F. F., & Hervás G. (2012). A national representative study of the relative impact of physical and psychological problems on life satisfaction. Manuscript submitted for publication.
Veenhoven R. (1994). El estudio de la satisfacción con la vida. [The study of the satisfaction with life]. Intervención Psicosocial, 9, 87116.
Vitterso J., Biswas-Diener R., & Diener E. (2005). The divergent meanings of life satisfaction: Item response modeling of the satisfaction with life scale in Greenland and Norway. Social Indicators Research, 74, 327348. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11205-004-4644-7
Watson D., Clark L. A., & Tellegen A. (1988). Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: The PANAS scales. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54, 10631070. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.54.6.1063
Westaway M. S., Maritz C., & Golele N. J. (2003). Empirical testing of the satisfaction with life scale: A South African pilot study. Psychological Reports, 92, 551554. http://dx.doi.org/10.2466/PR0.92.2.551-554
Wild D., Grove A., Martin M., Eremenco S., McElroy S., Verjee-Lorenz A., & Erikson P. (2005). Principles of good practice for the translation and cultural adaptation process for patient-reported outcomes (PRO) measures: Report of the ISPOR Task Force for Translation and Cultural Adaptation. Value in Health, 8, 94104. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1524-4733.2005.04054.x
Wu C. H., & Wu C. Y. (2008). Life satisfaction in persons with schizophrenia living in the community-validation of the satisfaction with life scale. Social Indicators Research, 85, 447460. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11205-007-9136-0
Wu C. H., & Yao G. (2006). Analysis of factorial invariance across gender in the Taiwan version of the satisfaction with life scale. Personality and Individual Differences, 40, 12591268. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2005.11.012
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

The Spanish Journal of Psychology
  • ISSN: 1138-7416
  • EISSN: 1988-2904
  • URL: /core/journals/spanish-journal-of-psychology
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 8
Total number of PDF views: 75 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 578 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 21st January 2018. This data will be updated every 24 hours.