Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-99c86f546-zzcdp Total loading time: 0.302 Render date: 2021-11-28T02:44:30.544Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true, "newUsageEvents": true }

Schizophrenia and Crime

A Longitudinal Follow-up of 644 Schizophrenics in Stockholm

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  02 January 2018

Per Lindqvist*
Affiliation:
Department of Forensic Psychiatry, University Hospital, Umeå, Sweden, and Department of Forensic Medicine, University of Umeå, Sweden
Peter Allebeck
Affiliation:
Department of Medicine, Section for Community Medicine, Karolinska Institute at Huddinge University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden
*
Correspondence

Extract

To compare the crime rate of schizophrenics with that of the general population, data from the Central Swedish Police Register on 790 schizophrenic patients discharged from hospitals in Stockholm in 1971 was analysed for the period 1972–86. Relative risk of criminal offence was assessed by comparing the observed number of offences committed with the expected number (estimated from official statistics). The crime rate among male schizophrenics was almost the same as that in the general male population, whereas among females it was twice that of the general female population. The rate of violent offences was, however, four times higher among the schizophrenics. The violence recorded was almost exclusively of minor severity.

Type
Papers
Copyright
Copyright © Royal College of Psychiatrists, 1990 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Addad, M., Benezech, M., Bourgeois, M., et al (1981) Criminal acts among schizophrenics in French mental hospitals. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 169, 289293.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Allebeck, P. & Wistedt, B. (1986) Mortality in schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry, 43, 650653.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
American Psychiatric Association (1900) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM–III) (3rd edn). Washington, DC: APA.Google ScholarPubMed
Armitage, P. (1987) Statistical Methods in Medical Research. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific.Google Scholar
Benezech, M., Bourgeois, M. & Yesavage, J. (1980) Violence in the mentally ill: a study of 547 patients at a French hospital for the criminally insane. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 168, 698700.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Binder, R. L. & Mcniel, D. E. (1988) Effects of diagnosis and context on dangerousness. American Journal of Psychiatry, 145, 728732.Google ScholarPubMed
Blackburn, R. (1968) Emotionality, extraversion and aggression in paranoid and nonparanoid schizophrenic offenders. British Journal of Psychiatry, 115, 13011302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Christie, N. (1982) Limits to pain. Oxford, UK: Martin Robertson & Company.Google Scholar
Cohen, C. I. (1980) Crime among mental patients – a critical analysis. Psychiatric Quarterly, 52, 100107.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Collins, J. (1982) Drinking and Crime. New York: Tavistock.Google Scholar
Craig, T. J. (1982) An epidemiologic study of problems associated with violence among psychiatric inpatients. American Journal of Psychiatry. 139, 12621266.Google ScholarPubMed
Eitinger, L. (1978) Psykoser og kriminalitet i Norge. Nordisk Tidsskrift for Kriminalvidenskab, 66, 2947.Google Scholar
Ekblom, B. (1970) Acts of violence by patients in mental hospitals. Dissertation. Uppsala: Scandinavian University Press.Google ScholarPubMed
Gottlieb, P., Gabrielsen, G. & Kramp, P. (1987) Psychotic homicides in Copenhagen from 1959 to 1983. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 76, 285292.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Heath, D. B. (1983) Alcohol and aggression: a “missing link” in world-wide perspective. In Alcohol, Drug Abuse and Aggression (ed. E. Gottheil et al, pp. 89103). Springfield, Illinois, USA: Charles C. Thomas.Google Scholar
Häfner, H. & Böker, W. (1982) Crimes of Violence by Mentally Abnormal Offenders. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Krakowski, M., Volavka, J. & Brizer, D. (1986) Psychopathology and violence: a review of the literature. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 27, 131148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kristjansson, E., Allebeck, P. & Wistedt, B. (1987) Validity of the diagnosis schizophrenia in a psychiatric inpatient register. Nordisk Psykiatrisk Tidsskrift, 41, 229234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lagos, J. M., Perlmutter, K. & Saexinger, H. (1977) Fear of the mentally ill: empirical support for the common man's response. American Journal of Psychiatry, 134, 11341137.Google ScholarPubMed
Miettinen, O. F. (1985) Theoretical Epidemiology. New York: John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
Mills, M. J. (1988) Civil commitment. The relationship between perceived dangerousness and mental illness. Archives of General Psychiatry, 45, 770772.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Monahan, J. & Steadman, H. J. (1983) Crime and mental disorder: an epidemiological approach. In Crime and Justice: An Annual Review of Research, vol. 4 (eds. M. Tonry & N. Morris), pp. 145189. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
Planansky, K. & Johnston, R. (1977) Homicidal aggression in schizophrenic men. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 55, 6573.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rappeport, J. R. & Lassen, G. (1965) Dangerousness-arrest rate comparisons of discharged patients and the general population. American Journal of Psychiatry, 121, 776783.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rossi, A. M., Jacobs, M., Monteleone, M., et al (1986) Characteristics of psychiatric patients who engage in assaultive or other fear-inducing behaviors. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 174, 154160.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rubin, B. (1972) Prediction of dangerousness in mentally ill criminals. Archives of General Psychiatry, 27, 397407.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Segal, S. P., Watson, M. A. Golofinger, S. M., et al (1988) Civil commitment in the psychiatric emergency room: The assessment of dangerousness by emergency room clinicians. Archives of General Psychiatry, 45, 748752.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Steadman, H. J. (1980) The right not to be a false positive: problems in the application of the dangerousness standard. Psychiatric Quarterly, 52, 8499.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tanay, E. (1987) Homicidal behavior in schizophrenics. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 32, 13821388.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Taroiff, K. & Sweillam, A. (1980) Assault, suicide, and mental illness. Archives of General Psychiatry, 37, 164169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Taylor, P. (1982) Schizophrenia and crime. In Abnormal Offenders, Delinquency, and the Criminal Justice System (eds. J. Gunn & D. P. Farrington). New York: John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
Taylor, P. J. & Gunn, J. (1984) Violence and psychosis. I – Risk of violence among psychotic men. British Medical Journal, 288, 19451949.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Taylor, P. J. & Parrott, J. M. (1988) Elderly offenders. A study of age-related factors among custodially remanded prisoners. British Journal of Psychiatry, 152, 340346.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Teplin, L. A. (1985) The criminality of the mentally ill: a dangerous misconception. American Journal of Psychiatry, 142, 593599. The Penal Code of Sweden (1972) (original trans. Th. Sellin; amendment trans. Getz, J. L.). NJ: South Hackensack.Google ScholarPubMed
The Swedish Code of Judicial Procedure, (1968) (trans. Bruzelius, A. & Ginsburg, R. B.). NJ: South Hackensack.Google Scholar
Virkkcunen, M. (1974a) Alcohol as a factor precipitating aggression and conflict behaviour leading to homicide. British Journal of Addiction, 69, 149154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Virkkcunen, M. (1974b) Observations on violence in schizophrenia. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 50, 145151.Google Scholar
Walker, N. (1978) Dangerous people. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, 1, 3750.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Weller, M. P. I. & Weller, B. G. A. (1988) Crime and mental illness. Medicine, Science and the Law, 28, 3846.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wiersma, D. (1966) Crime and schizophrenics. Excerpta Criminologica, 6, 169181.Google Scholar
Wikstrom, P.-O. H. (1985) Everyday violence in contemporary Sweden. The National Council for Crime Prevention (report no. 15). Stockholm: Liber Förlag.Google Scholar
Wolfgang, M. E. (1958) Patterns in Criminal Homicide. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
World Health Organization (1967) Manual of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases, Injuries, and Causes of Death, 1965 revision (8th edn) (ICD–8). Geneva: WHO.Google Scholar
Yearbook of Legal Statistics (1980) Official Statistics of Sweden. Stockholm: The National Central Bureau of Statistics.Google ScholarPubMed
Submit a response

eLetters

No eLetters have been published for this article.
171
Cited by

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Schizophrenia and Crime
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Schizophrenia and Crime
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Schizophrenia and Crime
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *