Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Acute intermittent porphyria: Comorbidity and shared familial risks with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder in Sweden

  • Martin Cederlöf (a1), Sarah E. Bergen (a1), Henrik Larsson (a2), Mikael Landén and Paul Lichtenstein (a3)...
Summary

Acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) has been associated with schizophrenia in some studies, but prior research is limited by the absence of comparison populations. Here, we linked Swedish registers to examine the risk of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder in 717 individuals diagnosed with AIP and their first-degree relatives, compared with matched individuals without AIP and their first-degree relatives. Individuals with AIP had a fourfold increased risk of schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. Similarly, relatives of individuals with AIP had double the risk of schizophrenia or bipolar disorder, suggesting that these associations may be as a result of common genetic influences.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Acute intermittent porphyria: Comorbidity and shared familial risks with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder in Sweden
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Acute intermittent porphyria: Comorbidity and shared familial risks with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder in Sweden
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Acute intermittent porphyria: Comorbidity and shared familial risks with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder in Sweden
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
Corresponding author
Martin Cederlöf, Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Box 281, SE-171 77 Stockholm, Sweden. Email: Martin.Cederlof@ki.se
Footnotes
Hide All

Declaration of interest

None.

Footnotes
References
Hide All
1 Crimlisk, HL. The little imitator-porphyria: a neuropsychiatric disorder. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1997; 62: 319–28.
2 Waldenström, J. Neurological symptoms caused by so-called acute porphyria. Acta Psychiatr Neurol Scand 1939; 14: 375–9.
3 Wetterberg, L. A Neuropsychiatric and Genetical Investigation of Acute Intermittent Porphyria. Svenska Bokförlaget, 1967.
4 Sanders, AR, Rincon-Limas, DE, Chakraborty, R, Grandchamp, B, Hamilton, JD, Fann, WE, et al. Association between genetic variation at the porphobilinogen deaminase gene and schizophrenia. Schizophr Res 1993; 8: 211–21.
5 Owen, MJ, Mant, R, Parfitt, E, Williams, J, Asherson, P, O'Mahoney, J, et al. No association between RFLPs at the porphobilinogen deaminase gene and schizophrenia. Hum Genet 1992; 90: 131–2.
6 World Health Organization. International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD–9). WHO, 1978.
7 World Health Organization. The ICD-10 Classification of Mental and Behavioural Disorders: Clinical Descriptions and Diagnostic Guidelines. WHO, 1992.
8 World Health Organization. International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD–8). WHO, 1967.
9 Ekholm, B, Ekholm, A, Adolfsson, R, Vares, M, Osby, U, Sedvall, GC, et al. Evaluation of diagnostic procedures in Swedish patients with schizophrenia and related psychoses. Nord J Psychiatry 2005; 59: 457–64.
10 Sellgren, C, Landén, M, Lichtenstein, P, Hultman, CM, Långström, N. Validity of bipolar disorder hospital discharge diagnoses: file review and multiple register linkage in Sweden. Acta Psychiatr Scand 2011; 124: 447–53.
11 Szatmari, P, White, J, Merikangas, KR. The use of genetic epidemiology to guide classification in child and adult psychopathology. Int Rev Psychiatry 2007; 19: 483–96.
12 Bylesjö, I, Wikberg, A, Andersson, C. Clinical aspects of acute intermittent porphyria in northern Sweden: a population-based study. Scand J Clin Lab Invest 2009; 69: 612–8.
13 Miller, CL, Llenos, IC, Dulay, JR, Barillo, MM, Yolken, RH, Weis, S. Expression of the kynurenine pathway enzyme tryptophan 2, 3-dioxygenase is increased in the frontal cortex of individuals with schizophrenia. Neurobiol Dis 2004; 15: 618–29.
14 Olsson, SK, Samuelsson, M, Erhardt, S, Engberg, G, Nordin, C, Landén, M. Elevated levels of kynurenic acid in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with bipolar disorder. J Psychiatry Neurosci 2010; 35: 195–9.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

The British Journal of Psychiatry
  • ISSN: 0007-1250
  • EISSN: 1472-1465
  • URL: /core/journals/the-british-journal-of-psychiatry
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×
Type Description Title
PDF
Supplementary materials

Cederlöf et al. supplementary material
Supplementary Table S1

 PDF (37 KB)
37 KB

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed

Acute intermittent porphyria: Comorbidity and shared familial risks with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder in Sweden

  • Martin Cederlöf (a1), Sarah E. Bergen (a1), Henrik Larsson (a2), Mikael Landén and Paul Lichtenstein (a3)...
Submit a response

eLetters

No eLetters have been published for this article.

×

Reply to: Submit a response


Your details


Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *