Thapar, A, Rutter, M. Do prenatal risk factors cause psychiatric disorder?
Be wary of causal claims. Br J
2009; 195: 100–1.
Pawlby, S, Hay, DF, Sharp, D, Waters, CS, O'Keane, V. Antenatal depression predicts depression in
adolescent offspring: prospective longitudinal community based
study. J Affect Disord
2009; 113: 236–43.
Hay, DF, Pawlby, S, Waters, CS, Perra, O, Sharp, D. Mothers' antenatal depression and their children's
antisocial outcomes. Child Dev
2010; 81: 149–65.
O'Connor, TG, Heron, J, Golding, J, Beveridge, M, Glover, V. Maternal antenatal anxiety and children's
behavioural/emotional problems at 4 years. Report from the Avon
Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Br J
2002; 180: 502–8.
Oates, MR. Adverse effects of maternal antenatal anxiety on
children: causal effect or developmental continuum?
Br J Psychiatry
2002; 180: 478–9.
Bifulco, A, Moran, PM, Baines, R, Bunn, A, Stanford, K. Exploring psychological abuse in childhood: II.
Association with other abuse and adult clinical
depression. Bull Menninger Clin
2002; 66: 241–58.
Cicchetti, D, Toth, S. A developmental psychopathology perspective on child
abuse and neglect. J Am Acad Child Adolesc
1995; 34: 541–65.
Widom, SP, DuMont, K, Czaia, SJ. A prospective investigation of major depressive
disorder and comorbidity in abused and neglected children grown
up. Arch Gen Psychiatry
Danese, A, Moffitt, TE, Pariante, CM, Ambler, A, Poulton, R, Caspi, A. Elevated inflammation levels in depressed adults
with a history of childhood maltreatment. Arch
2008; 65: 409–15.
Zhou, Y, Hallisey, EJ, Freymann, GR. Identifying perinatal risk factors for infant
maltreatment: an ecological approach. Int J
Sharp, DJ, Hay, DF, Pawlby, SJ, Schmücker, G, Allen, H, Kumar, R. The impact of postnatal depression on boys'
intellectual development. J Child Psychol
1995; 36: 1315–36.
Goldberg, D, Cooper, B, Eastwood, MT, Kedward, HB, Shepherd, M. A standardised psychiatric interview for use in
community surveys. Br J Prev Soc Med
Spitzer, RL, Endicott, J, Robbins, E. The Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia –
Lifetime version (SADS-L) 3rd Edn. Biometric
Angold, A, Prendergast, M, Cox, A, Harrington, R, Simonoff, E, Rutter, M. The Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Assessment
(CAPA). Psychol Med
1995; 25: 739–53.
Angold, A, Erkanli, A, Costello, EJ, Rutter, M. Precision, reliability and accuracy in the dating of
symptom onsets in child and adolescent psychopathology.
J Child Psychol Psychiatry
1996; 37: 657–64.
Angold, A, Costello, EJ. The Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Assessment
(CAPA). J Am Acad Child Adolesc
Goodman, R, Meltzer, H, Bailey, V. The strengths and difficulties questionnaire: A
pilot study on the validity of the self-report version.
Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry
1998; 7: 125–30.
Hay, DF, Pawlby, S, Waters, CS, Sharp, D. Antepartum and postpartum exposure to maternal
depression: Different effects on different adolescent
outcomes. J Child Psychol Psychiatry
2008; 49: 1079–88.
National Research Council, Commission on Behavioral and Social
Sciences and Education. Understanding Child Abuse and
Neglect. National Academy
Kaplan, SJ, Sunday, SR, Labruna, V, Pelcovitz, D, Salzinger, S. Psychiatric disorders of parents of physically
abused adolescents. Fam Viol
2009; 24: 273–81.
Oliver, JE. Successive generations of child maltreatment: social
and medical disorders in the parents. Br J
1985; 147: 484–90.
Misri, S, Kendrick, K. Perinatal depression, fetal bonding, and
mother-child attachment: a review of the literature.
Curr Pediatr Rev
Pariante, CM, Seneviratne, G, Howard, L. Should we stop using tricyclic antidepressants in
2011; 41: 15–7.
Champagne, FA, Meaney, MJ. Stress during gestation alters postpartum maternal
care and the development of the offspring in a rodent
model. Biol Psychiatry
2006; 59: 1227–35.
O'Keane, V, Lightman, S, Marsh, M, Pawlby, S, Papadopoulos, AS, Taylor, A, et al. Increased pituitary-adrenal activation and
shortened gestation in a sample of depressed pregnant women: a pilot
study. J Affect Disord
2010; 130: 300–5.
Feldman, R, Weller, A, Zagoory-Sharon, O, Levine, A. Evidence for a neuroendocrinological foundation of
human affiliation: plasma oxytocin levels across pregnancy and the
postpartum period predict mother-infant bonding.
2007; 18: 965–70.
Pariante, CM, Lightman, SL. The HPA axis in major depression: classical theories
and new developments. Trends Neurosci
2008; 31: 464–8.
Kashani, J, Shekim, W, Burk, J, Beck, N. Abuse as a predictor of psychopathology in children
and adolescents. J Clin Child Psychol
Famularo, RMD, Kinscherff, R, Fenton, T. Psychiatric diagnoses of maltreated children:
Preliminary findings. J Am Acad Child Adolesc
1992; 31: 863–7.
Danese, A, Caspi, A, Williams, B, Ambler, A, Sugden, K, Mika, J, et al. Biological embedding of stress through
inflammation processes in childhood. Mol
2011; 16: 244–6.
Shin, SH, Hong, HG, Hazen, AL. Childhood sexual abuse and adolescent substance use:
a latent class analysis. Drug Alcohol
2010; 109: 226–35.
Fergusson, DM, Horwood, LJ, Lynskey, MT. Childhood sexual abuse, adolescent sexual behaviors
and sexual revictimization. Child Abuse
Kaufman, J, Birmaher, B, Brent, D, Dahl, R, Bridge, J, Ryan, ND. Psychopathology in the relatives of depressed-abused
children. Child Abuse Negl
1998; 22: 171–81.
De Bellis, MD, Broussard, ER, Herring, DJ, Wexler, S, Moritz, G, Benitez, JG. Psychiatric co-morbidity in caregivers and children
involved in maltreatment: a pilot research study with policy
implications. Child Abuse Negl
2001; 25: 923–44.
Chambers, C. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and
congenital malformations. BMJ
Heim, C, Newport, DJ, Mletzko, T, Miller, AH, Nemeroff, CB. The link between childhood trauma and depression:
insights from HPA axis studies in humans.
Danese, A, Pariante, CM, Caspi, A, Taylor, A, Poulton, R. Childhood maltreatment predicts adult inflammation
in life-course study. Proc Natl Acad Sci
2007; 104: 1319–24.
Hart, J, Gunnar, M, Cicchetti, D. Salivary cortisol in maltreated children: evidence
of relations between neuroendocrine activity and social
competence. Dev Psychopathol
Glover, V, O'Connor, TG, O'Donnell, K. Prenatal stress and the programming of the HPA
axis. Neurosci Biobehav Rev
Goldthorpe, JH, Hope, K. The Social Grading of Occupations: A New Approach and
Scale. Oxford University Press,