2Office for National Statistics. Suicides in the UK: 2015 Registrations. ONS, 2016.
3Haste, F, Charlton, J, Jenkins, R. Potential for suicide prevention in primary care? An analysis of factors associated with suicide. Br J Gen Pract 1998; 48: 1759–63.
4Luoma, JB, Martin, CE, Pearson, JL. Contact with mental health and primary care providers before suicide: a review of the evidence. Am J Psychiatry 2002; 159: 909–16.
5Pearson, A, Saini, P, Da Cruz, D, Miles, C, While, D, Swinson, N, et al. Primary care contact prior to suicide in individuals with mental illness. Br J Gen Pract 2009; 59: 825–32.
6Andersen, UA, Andersen, M, Rosholm, J, Gram, L. Contacts to the health care system prior to suicide: a comprehensive analysis using registers for general and psychiatric hospital admissions, contacts to general practitioners and practising specialists and drug prescriptions. Acta Psychiatr Scand 2000; 102: 126–34.
7Stanistreet, D, Gabbay, MB, Jeffrey, V, Taylor, S. The role of primary care in the prevention of suicide and accidental deaths among young men: an epidemiological study. Br J Gen Pract 2004; 54: 254–8.
8Windfuhr, K, While, D, Kapur, N, Ashcroft, DM, Kontopantelis, E, Carr, MJ, et al. Suicide risk linked with clinical consultation frequency, psychiatric diagnoses and psychotropic medication prescribing in a national study of primary-care patients. Psychol Med 2016; 46: 3407–17.
9Goldman, LS, Nielsen, NH, Champion, HC. Awareness, diagnosis, and treatment of depression. J Gen Intern Med 1999; 14: 569–80.
10Hirschfeld, RM, Keller, MB, Panico, S, Arons, BS, Barlow, D, Davidoff, F, et al. The National Depressive and Manic-Depressive Association consensus statement on the undertreatment of depression. JAMA 1997; 277: 333–40.
11Mann, JJ, Apter, A, Bertolote, J, Beautrais, A, Currier, D, Haas, A, et al. Suicide prevention strategies - a systematic review. JAMA 2005; 294: 2064–74.
12Starfield, B, Shi, L, Macinko, J. Contribution of primary care to health systems and health. Milbank Q 2005; 83: 457–502.
13Van Herck, P, De Smedt, D, Annemans, L, Remmen, R, Rosenthal, MB, Sermeus, W. Systematic review: effects, design choices, and context of pay-for-performance in health care. BMC Health Serv Res 2010; 10: 247–60.
14Roland, M. Linking physicians’ pay to the quality of care--a major experiment in the United Kingdom. N Engl J Med 2004; 351: 1448–54.
15Roland, M, Campbell, S. Successes and failures of pay for performance in the United Kingdom. N Engl J Med 2014; 370: 1944–9.
16Campbell, SM, Reeves, D, Kontopantelis, E, Sibbald, B, Roland, M. Effects of pay for performance on the quality of primary care in England. N Engl J Med 2009; 361: 368–78.
17Kontopantelis, E, Reeves, D, Valderas, JM, Campbell, S, Doran, T. Recorded quality of primary care for patients with diabetes in England before and after the introduction of a financial incentive scheme: a longitudinal observational study. BMJ Qual Saf 2013; 22: 53–64.
18Harrison, MJ, Dusheiko, M, Sutton, M, Gravelle, H, Doran, T, Roland, M. Effect of a national primary care pay for performance scheme on emergency hospital admissions for ambulatory care sensitive conditions: controlled longitudinal study. BMJ 2014; 349: g6423.
19Kontopantelis, E, Springate, DA, Ashworth, M, Webb, RT, Buchan, IE, Doran, T. Investigating the relationship between quality of primary care and premature mortality in England: a spatial whole-population study. BMJ 2015; 350: h904.
20Ryan, AM, Krinsky, S, Kontopantelis, E, Doran, T. Long-term evidence for the effect of pay-for-performance in primary care on mortality in the UK: a population study. Lancet 2016; 388: 268–74.
21Roland, M. Does pay-for-performance in primary care save lives? Lancet 2016; 388: 217–8.
22Doran, T, Fullwood, C, Kontopantelis, E, Reeves, D. Effect of financial incentives on inequalities in the delivery of primary clinical care in England: analysis of clinical activity indicators for the quality and outcomes framework. Lancet 2008; 372: 728–36.
23Kontopantelis, E, Olier, I, Planner, C, Reeves, D, Ashcroft, DM, Gask, L, et al. Primary care consultation rates among people with and without severe mental illness: a UK cohort study using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink. BMJ Open 2015; 5: e008650.
24Diez Roux, AV, Mair, C. Neighborhoods and health. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2010; 1186: 125–45.
25Brock, A, Baker, A, Griffiths, C, Jackson, G, Fegan, G, Marshall, D. Suicide trends and geographical variations in the United Kingdom, 1991–2004. HealthStat Q 2006; 31: 6–22.
26Middleton, N, Whitley, E, Frankel, S, Dorling, D, Sterne, J, Gunnell, D. Suicide risk in small areas in England and Wales, 1991–1993. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 2004; 39: 45–52.
27Congdon, P. Suicide and parasuicide in London: a small-area study. Urban Stud 1996; 33: 137–58.
28Whitley, E, Gunnell, D, Dorling, D, Smith, GD. Ecological study of social fragmentation, poverty, and suicide. BMJ 1999; 319: 1034–7.
29Rezaeian, M, Dunn, G, St Leger, S, Appleby, L. The ecological association between suicide rates and indices of deprivation in English local authorities. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 2005; 40: 785–91.
30While, D, Bickley, H, Roscoe, A, Windfuhr, K, Rahman, S, Shaw, J, et al. Implementation of mental health service recommendations in England and Wales and suicide rates, 1997–2006: a cross-sectional and before-and-after observational study. Lancet 2012; 379: 1005–12.
31Hegerl, U, Wittmann, M, Arensman, E, Van Audenhove, C, Bouleau, JH, Van der Feltz-Cornelis, C, et al. The ‘European alliance against depression (EAAD)’: a multifaceted, community-based action programme against depression and suicidality. World J Biol Psychiatry 2008; 9: 51–8.
32Linsley, KR, Schapira, K, Kelly, TP. Open verdict v. suicide - importance to research. Br J Psychiatry 2001; 178: 465–8.
33Department of Health. The National Service Framework for Mental Health. Modern Standards and Service Models. Department of Health, 1999.
34NHS Digital. Quality and Outcomes Framework Achievement, Prevalence and Exceptions Data, 2015/16: Frequently Asked Questions. NHS Digital, 2016.
35Mitchell, AJ, Vaze, A, Rao, S. Clinical diagnosis of depression in primary care: a meta-analysis. Lancet 2009; 374: 609–19.
36Rutz, W, Vonknorring, L, Walinder, J. Long-term effects of an educational-program for general-practitioners given by the Swedish-committee-for-the-prevention-and-treatment-of-depression. Acta Psychiatr Scand 1992; 85: 83–8.
37National Confidential Inquiry into Suicide and Homicide by People with Mental Illness. Annual Report, England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales. University of Manchester, 2013.
38Carey, M, Jones, K, Meadows, G, Sanson-Fisher, R, D'Este, C, Inder, K, et al. Accuracy of general practitioner unassisted detection of depression. Aust N Z J Psychiatry 2014; 48: 571–8.
39Chew-Graham, CA, Mullin, S, May, CR, Hedley, S, Cole, H. Managing depression in primary care: another example of the inverse care law? Fam Pract 2002; 19: 632–7.
40Elliott, I. Poverty and Mental Health: A Review to Inform the Joseph Rowntree Foundation's Anti-Poverty Strategy. Mental Health Foundation, 2016.
41Kendrick, T, Stuart, B, Newell, C, Geraghty, AWA, Moore, M. Changes in rates of recorded depression in English primary care 2003-2013: time trend analyses of effects of the economic recession, and the GP contract quality outcomes framework (QOF). J Affect Disorders 2015; 180: 68–78.
42Saini, P, Windfuhr, K, Pearson, A, Da Cruz, D, Miles, C, Cordingley, L, et al. Suicide prevention in primary care: general practitioners’ views on service availability. BMC Res Notes 2010; 3: 246.