Poulton, R, Caspi, A, Moffitt, TE, Cannon, M, Murray, R, Harrington, H. Children's self-reported psychotic symptoms and adult schizophreniform disorder: a 15-year longitudinal study. Arch Gen Psychiatry
2000; 57: 1053–8.
Johns, LC, Cannon, M, Singleton, N, Murray, RM, Farrell, M, Brugha, T, et al. Prevalence and correlates of self-reported psychotic symptoms in the British population. Br J Psychiatry
2004; 185: 298–305.
Van Os, J, Hanssen, M, Bijl, RV, Vollebergh, W. Prevalence of psychotic disorder and community level of psychotic symptoms: an urban–rural comparison. Arch Gen Psychiatry
2001; 58: 663–8.
Hanssen, M, Bak, M, Bijl, R, Vollebergh, W, van, OJ. The incidence and outcome of subclinical psychotic experiences in the general population. Br J Clin Psychol
2005; 44: 181–91.
Horwood, J, Salvi, G, Thomas, K, Duffy, L, Gunnell, D, Hollis, C, et al. IQ and nonclinical psychotic symptoms in 12-year-olds: results from the ALSPAC birth cohort. Br J Psychiatry
2008; 193: 185–91.
Cannon, M, Caspi, A, Moffitt, TE, Harrington, H, Taylor, A, Murray, RM, et al. Evidence for early-childhood, pan-developmental impairment specific to schizophreniform disorder: results from a longitudinal birth cohort. Arch Gen Psychiatry
2002; 59: 449–56.
Gunnell, D, Harrison, G, Whitley, E, Lewis, G, Tynelius, P, Rasmussen, F. The association of fetal and childhood growth with risk of schizophrenia. Cohort study of 720,000 Swedish men and women. Schizophr Res
2005; 79: 315–22.
Wahlbeck, K, Forsen, T, Osmond, C, Barker, DJ, Eriksson, JG. Association of schizophrenia with low maternal body mass index, small size at birth, and thinness during childhood. Arch Gen Psychiatry
2001; 58: 48–52.
Cannon, M, Jones, PB, Murray, RM. Obstetric complications and schizophrenia: an historical and meta-analytic review. Am J Psychiatry
2002; 159: 1080–92.
Weinberger, DR. Implications of normal brain development for the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Arch Gen Psychiatry
1987; 44: 660–9.
Golding, J, Pembrey, M, Jones, R, ALSPAC study team. ALSPAC – the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. I. Study methodology. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiology
2001; 15: 74–87.
American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th edn) (DSM–IV). APA, 1994.
World Health Organization. International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Tenth Revision (ICD–10) (2nd edn). WHO, 2005.
Cameron, N. The methods of auxological anthropometry. In Human Growth. A Comprehensive Treatise (3rd edn) (ed Falkner, F): 3–46. Plenum Press, 1986.
Office of Population Censuses and Surveys. Standard Occupational Classification. HMSO, 1991.
Wechsler, D, Golombok, S, Rust, J. Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (3rd edn) . Psychological Corporation, 1992.
Richards, M, Hardy, R, Kuh, D, Wadsworth, ME. Birth weight and cognitive function in the British 1946 birth cohort: longitudinal population based study. BMJ
2001; 322: 199–203.
David, AS, Malmberg, A, Brandt, L, Allebeck, P, Lewis, G. IQ and risk for schizophrenia: a population-based cohort study. Psychol Med
1997; 27: 1311–23.
Gunnell, D, Harrison, G, Rasmussen, F, Fouskakis, D, Tynelius, P. Associations between premorbid intellectual performance, early-life exposures and earlyonset schizophrenia. Cohort study. Br J Psychiatry
2003; 181: 298–305.
Phillips, AN, Davey Smith, G. How independent are ‘independent’ effects? Relative risk estimation when correlated exposures are measured imprecisely. J Clin Epidemiol
1991; 44: 1223–31.
Callaway, LK, McIntyre, HD, O'Callaghan, M, Williams, GM, Najman, JM, Lawlor, DA. The association of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy with weight gain over the subsequent 21 years: findings from a prospective cohort study. Am J Epidemiol
2007; 166: 421–8.
Plewis, I, Calderwoof, L, Hawkes, D, Nathan, G. National Child Development Study and 1970 British Cohort Study Technical Report: Changes in the NCDS and BCS70 populations and samples over time. Centre for Longitudinal Studies, Institute of Education, 2004.
Gillberg, C. Infantile autism and other childhood psychoses in a Swedish urban region. Epidemiological aspects. J Child Psychol Psychiatry
1984; 25: 35–43.
Wiles, NJ, Peters, TJ, Heron, J, Gunnell, D, Emond, A, Lewis, G. Fetal growth and childhood behavioral problems: results from the ALSPAC cohort. Am J Epidemiol
2006; 163: 829–37.
Zammit, S, Rasmussen, F, Farahmand, B, Gunnell, D, Lewis, G, Tynelius, P, et al. Height and body mass index in young adulthood and risk of schizophrenia: a longitudinal study of 1 347 520 Swedish men. Acta Psychiatr Scand
2007; 116: 378–85.
Weiser, M, Knobler, H, Lubin, G, Nahon, D, Kravitz, E, Caspi, A, et al. Body mass index and future schizophrenia in Israeli male adolescents. J Clin Psychiatry
2004; 65: 1546–9.
Harrison, PJ. The neuropathology of schizophrenia. A critical review of the data and their interpretation. Brain
1999; 122: 593–624.
Zammit, S, Horwood, J, Thompson, A, Thomas, K, Menezes, P, Gunnell, D, et al. Investigating if psychosis-like symptoms (PLIKS) are associated with family history of schizophrenia or paternal age in the ALSPAC birth cohort. Schizophr Res
2008; 104: 279–86.
Zammit, S, Odd, D, Horwood, J, Thompson, A, Thomas, K, Menezes, P et al. Investigating whether adverse prenatal and perinatal events are associated with non-clinical psychotic symptoms at age 12 years in the ALSPAC birth cohort. Psychol Med