Schneider, LS, Dagerman, KS, Insel, P. Risk of death with atypical antipsychotic drug treatment for dementia: meta-analysis of randomized placebo-controlled trials. JAMA
2005; 294: 1934–43.
Wang, PS, Schneeweiss, S, Avorn, J, Fischer, MA, Mogun, H, Solomon, DH, et al. Risk of death in elderly users of conventional vs. atypical antipsychotic medications. N Engl J Med
2005; 353: 2335–41.
Schneider, LS, Dagerman, K, Insel, PS. Efficacy and adverse effects of atypical antipsychotics for dementia: meta-analysis of randomized, placebo-controlled trials. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry
2006; 14: 191–210.
Maher, AR, Maglione, M, Bagley, S, Suttorp, M, Hu, JH, Ewing, B, et al. Efficacy and comparative effectiveness of atypical antipsychotic medications for off-label uses in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA
2011; 306: 1359–69.
Ballard, C, Creese, B, Corbett, A, Aarsland, D. Atypical antipsychotics for the treatment of behavioral and psychological symptoms in dementia, with a particular focus on longer term outcomes and mortality. Expert Opin Drug Saf
2011; 10: 35–43.
Ballard, C, Howard, R. Neuroleptic drugs in dementia: benefits and harm. Nat Rev Neurosci
2006; 7: 492–500.
Crystal, S, Olfson, M, Huang, C, Pincus, H, Gerhard, T. Broadened use of atypical antipsychotics: safety, effectiveness, and policy challenges. Health Aff (Millwood)
2009; 28: w770–81.
Shah, SM, Carey, IM, Harris, T, Dewilde, S, Cook, DG. Antipsychotic prescribing to older people living in care homes and the community in England and Wales. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry
2011; 26: 423–34.
Gill, SS, Bronskill, SE, Normand, SL, Anderson, GM, Sykora, K, Lam, K, et al. Antipsychotic drug use and mortality in older adults with dementia. Ann Intern Med
2007; 146: 775–86.
Schneeweiss, S, Setoguchi, S, Brookhart, A, Dormuth, C, Wang, PS. Risk of death associated with the use of conventional versus atypical antipsychotic drugs among elderly patients. CMAJ
2007; 176: 627–32.
Liperoti, R, Onder, G, Landi, F, Lapane, KL, Mor, V, Bernabei, R, et al. All-cause mortality associated with atypical and conventional antipsychotics among nursing home residents with dementia: a retrospective cohort study. J Clin Psychiatry
2009; 70: 1340–7.
Rochon, PA, Normand, SL, Gomes, T, Gill, SS, Anderson, GM, Melo, M, et al. Antipsychotic therapy and short-term serious events in older adults with dementia. Arch Intern Med
2008; 168: 1090–6.
Kales, HC, Valenstein, M, Kim, HM, McCarthy, JF, Ganoczy, D, Cunningham, F, et al. Mortality risk in patients with dementia treated with antipsychotics versus other psychiatric medications. Am J Psychiatry
2007; 164: 1568–76.
Dorsey, ER, Rabbani, A, Gallagher, SA, Conti, RM, Alexander, GC. Impact of FDA black box advisory on antipsychotic medication use. Arch Intern Med
2010; 170: 96–103.
Gerhard, T, Lucas, J, Olfson, M, Hoover, D, Kalay, E, Crystal, S. Effect of regulatory warnings on antipsychotic prescribing for nursing home residents with dementia. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf
2008; 17: S120.
Kales, HC, Zivin, K, Kim, HM, Valenstein, M, Chiang, C, Ignacio, RV, et al. Trends in antipsychotic use in dementia 1999–2007. Arch Gen Psychiatry
2011; 68: 190–7.
Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency. Drug Safety Update March 2009: vi. MHRA, 2009.
Jano, E, Johnson, M, Chen, H, Aparasu, RR. Determinants of atypical antipsychotic use among antipsychotic users in community-dwelling elderly, 1996–2004. Curr Med Res Opin
2008; 24: 709–16.
Kamble, P, Sherer, J, Chen, H, Aparasu, R. Off-label use of second-generation antipsychotic agents among elderly nursing home residents. Psychiatr Serv
2010; 61: 130–6.
Child, A, Clarke, A, Fox, C, Maidment, I. A pharmacy led program to review anti-psychotic prescribing for people with dementia. BMC Psychiatry
2012; 12: 155.
Huybrechts, KF, Gerhard, T, Crystal, S, Olfson, M, Avorn, J, Levin, R, et al. Differential risk of death in older residents in nursing homes prescribed specific antipsychotic drugs: population based cohort study. BMJ
2012; 344: e977.
Kales, HC, Kim, HM, Zivin, K, Valenstein, M, Seyfried, LS, Chiang, C, et al. Risk of mortality among individual antipsychotics in patients with dementia. Am J Psychiatry
2011; 169: 71–9.
Rossom, RC, Rector, TS, Lederle, FA, Dysken, MW. Are all commonly prescribed antipsychotics associated with greater mortality in elderly male veterans with dementia?
J Am Geriatr Soc
2010; 58: 1027–34.
Moride, Y, Abenhaim, L. Evidence of the depletion of susceptibles effect in non-experimental pharmacoepidemiologic research. J Clin Epidemiol
1994; 47: 731–7.
Ray, WA. Evaluating medication effects outside of clinical trials: new-user designs. Am J Epidemiol
2003; 158: 915–20.
Woods, SW. Chlorpromazine equivalent doses for the newer atypical antipsychotics. J Clin Psychiatry
2003; 64: 663–7.
Andreasen, NC, Pressler, M, Nopoulos, P, Miller, D, Ho, BC. Antipsychotic dose equivalents and dose-years: a standardized method for comparing exposure to different drugs. Biol Psychiatry
2009; 67: 255–62.
Doody, MM, Hayes, HM, Bilgrad, R. Comparability of national death index plus and standard procedures for determining causes of death in epidemiologic studies. Ann Epidemiol
2001; 11: 46–50.
Fillenbaum, GG, Burchett, BM, Blazer, DG. Identifying a national death index match. Am J Epidemiol
2009; 170: 515–8.
World Health Organization. International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-10).
Sesso, HD, Gaziano, JM, Glynn, RJ, Buring, JE. Value of an Endpoints Committee versus the use of nosologists for validating cause of death. Contemp Clin Trials
2006; 27: 333–9.
Schneeweiss, S, Rassen, JA, Glynn, RJ, Avorn, J, Mogun, H, Brookhart, MA. High-dimensional propensity score adjustment in studies of treatment effects using health care claims data. Epidemiology
2009; 20: 512–22.
Preskorn, SH. Clinical relevance of relative receptor binding affinity: quetiapine and ziprasidone as examples. J Psychiatr Pract
2007; 13: 393–8.
Shayegan, DK, Stahl, SM. Atypical antipsychotics: matching receptor profile to individual patient's clinical profile. CNS Spectr
2004; 9 (suppl 11): 6–14.
Curran, S, Turner, D, Musa, S, Wattis, J. Psychotropic drug use in older people with mental illness with particular reference to antipsychotics: a systematic study of tolerability and use in different diagnostic groups. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry
2005; 20: 842–7.
Huybrechts, KF, Brookhart, MA, Rothman, KJ, Silliman, RA, Gerhard, T, Crystal, S, et al. Comparison of different approaches to confounding adjustment in a study on the association of antipsychotic medication with mortality in older nursing home patients. Am J Epidemiol
2011; 174: 1089–99.
Fillit, H, Geldmacher, DS, Welter, RT, Maslow, K, Fraser, M. Optimizing coding and reimbursement to improve management of Alzheimer's disease and related dementias. J Am Geriatr Soc
2002; 50: 1871–8.
Lin, PJ, Kaufer, DI, Maciejewski, ML, Ganguly, R, Paul, JE, Biddle, AK. An examination of Alzheimer's disease case definitions using Medicare claims and survey data. Alzheimers Dement
2010; 6: 334–41.
Bradford, A, Kunik, ME, Schulz, P, Williams, SP, Singh, H. Missed and delayed diagnosis of dementia in primary care: prevalence and contributing factors. Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord
2009; 23: 306–14.
Newcomer, R, Clay, T, Luxenberg, JS, Miller, RH. Misclassification and selection bias when identifying Alzheimer's disease solely from Medicare claims records. J Am Geriatr Soc
1999; 47: 215–9.
Corbett, A, Ballard, C. Antipsychotics and mortality in dementia. Am J Psychiatry
2012; 169: 7–9.
McCleery, J, Fox, R. Antipsychotic prescribing in nursing homes. BMJ
2012; 344: e1093.
Steinberg, M, Lyketsos, CG. Atypical antipsychotic use in patients with dementia: managing safety concerns. Am J Psychiatry
2012; 169: 900–6.
National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence/Social Care Institute for Excellence. Dementia - Supporting People with Dementia and Their Carers in Health and Social Care. . NICE/SCIE, 2006.
Ayalon, L, Gum, AM, Feliciano, L, Arean, PA. Effectiveness of nonpharmacological interventions for the management of neuropsychiatric symptoms in patients with dementia: a systematic review. Arch Intern Med
2006; 166: 2182–8.
Cohen-Mansfield, J, Thein, K, Marx, MS, Dakheel-Ali, M. What are the barriers to performing nonpharmacological interventions for behavioral symptoms in the nursing home?
J Am Med Dir Assoc
2012; 13: 400–5.
Ballard, CG, Gauthier, S, Cummings, JL, Brodaty, H, Grossberg, GT, Robert, P, et al. Management of agitation and aggression associated with Alzheimer disease. Nat Rev Neurol
2009; 5: 245–55.
Mitka, M. CMS seeks to reduce antipsychotic use in nursing home residents with dementia. JAMA
2012; 308: 119–21.
Banerjee, S. The Use of Antipsychotic Medication for People With Dementia: Time for Action. A Report for the Minister of State for Care Services.
Department of Health, 2009.
Pollock, BG, Mulsant, BH. Between Scylla and Charybdis: antipsychotic and other psychotropic medications in older nursing home residents. CMAJ
2011; 183: 778–9.