Moussavi, S, Chatterji, S, Verdes, E, Tandon, A, Patel, V, Ustun, B. Depression, chronic diseases, and decrements in health: results from the World Health Surveys. Lancet
2007; 370: 851–8.
Murray, CJL, Lopez, AD. The Global Burden of Disease. Harvard University Press, 2008.
Bromet, E, Andrade, LH, Hwang, I, Sampson, NA, Alonso, J, de Girolamo, G, et al Cross-national epidemiology of DSM-IV major depressive episode. BMC Med
2011; 9: 90.
Simon, GE, Goldberg, DP, Von Korff, M, Ustun, TB. Understanding cross-national differences in depression prevalence. Psychol Med
2002; 32: 585–94.
Demyttenaere, K, Bruffaerts, R, Posada-Villa, J, Gasquet, I, Kovess, V, Lepine, JP, et al Prevalence, severity, and unmet need for treatment of mental disorders in the World Health Organization World Mental Health Surveys. JAMA
2004; 291: 2581–90.
Weissman, MM, Bland, RC, Canino, GJ, Faravelli, C, Greenwald, S, Hwu, HG, et al Cross-national epidemiology of major depression and bipolar disorder. JAMA
1996; 276: 293–9.
Pickett, KE, Wilkinson, RG. inequality: an underacknowledged source of mental illness and distress. Br J Psychiatry
2010; 197: 426–8.
Gresenz, CR, Sturm, R, Tang, L. Income and mental health: unraveling community and individual level relationships. J Meat Health Policy Econ
2001; 4: 197–203.
Henderson, C, Liu, X, Diez Roux, AV, Link, BG, Hasin, D. The effects of US state income inequality and alcohol policies on symptoms of depression and alcohol dependence. Soc Sci Med
2004; 58: 565–75.
Kahn, RS, Wise, PH, Kennedy, BP, Kawachi, I. State income inequality, household income, and maternal mental and physical health: cross sectional national survey. BMJ
2000; 321: 1311–5.
Pickett, KE, James, OW, Wilkinson, RG. Income inequality and the prevalence of mental illness: a preliminary international analysis. J Epidemiol Community Health
2006; 60: 646–7.
Sturm, R, Gresenz, CR. Relations of income inequality and family income to chronic medical conditions and mental health disorders: national survey. BMJ
2002; 324: 20–3.
Weich, S, Twigg, L, Holt, G, Lewis, G, Jones, K. Contextual risk factors for the common mental disorders in Britain: a multilevel investigation of the effects of place. J Epidemiol Community Health
2003; 57: 616–21.
Cifuentes, M, Sembajwe, G, Tak, S, Gore, R, Kriebel, D, Punnett, L. The association of major depressive episodes with income inequality and the human development index. Soc Sci Med
2008; 67: 529–39.
Laaksonen, E, Martikainen, P, Lahelma, E, Lallukka, T, Rahkonen, O, Head, J, et al Socioeconomic circumstances and common mental disorders among Finnish and British public sector employees: evidence from the Helsinki Health Study and the Whitehall II Study. Int J Epidemiol
2007; 36: 776–86.
Lahelma, E, Laaksonen, M, Martikainen, P, Rahkonen, O, Sarlio-Lahteenkorva, S. Multiple measures of socioeconomic circumstances and common mental disorders. Soc Sci Med
2006; 63: 1383–99.
Ayuso-Mateos, JL, Nuevo, R, Verdes, E, Naidoo, N, Chatterji, S. From depressive symptoms to depressive disorders: the relevance of thresholds. Br J Psychiatry
2010; 196: 365–71.
Ustun, TB, Chatterji, S, Mechbal, A, Murray, CJL. The World Health Surveys, in Health Systems Performance Assessment: Debates, Methods and Empiricism (eds Murray, CJL, Evans, DB): 797–808. World Health Organization, 2003.
Kessler, RC, Ustun, TB. The World Mental Health (WMH) Survey initiative version of the World Health Organization (WHO) Composite international Diagnostic interview (CIDI). Int J Methods Psychiatr Res
2004; 13: 93–121.
World Health Organization. The ICD-10 Classification of Mental and Behavioural Disorders Diagnostic Criteria for Research. WHO, 1993.
Lequiller, F, Blades, D.
Understanding National Accounts. OECD, 2006.
Lynch, JW, Smith, GD, Kaplan, GA, House, JS. Income inequality and mortality: importance to health of individual income, psychosocial environment, or material conditions. BMJ
2000; 320: 1200–4.
Xu, K, Ravndal, F, Evans, DB, Carrin, G. Assessing the reliability of household expenditure data: results of the World Health Survey. Health Policy
2009; 91: 297–305.
Ferguson, B, Tandon, A, Gakidou, E, Murray, C. Estimating permanent income using indicator variables. In Health Systems Performance Assessment: Debates, Methods and Empiricism (eds Murray, CJL, Evans, DB): 747–60. World Health Organization, 2003.
Rasbash, J, Steele, F, Browne, WJ, Goldstein, H. A User's Guide to MLwiN, v2.10.
2009. Centre for Multilevel Modelling, University of Bristol.
Merlo, J, Chaix, B, Ohlsson, H, Beckman, A, Johnell, K, Hjerpe, P, et al A brief conceptual tutorial of multilevel analysis in social epidemiology: using measures of clustering in multilevel logistic regression to investigate contextual phenomena. J Epidemiol Community Health
2006; 60: 290–7.
Goldstein, H, Rasbash, J.
Improved approximations for multilevel models with binary responses. J R Stat Soc Ser A Stat Soc
1996; 159: 505–13.
Cross-national comparisons of the prevalences and correlates of mental disorders. WHO international Consortium in Psychiatric Epidemiology. Bull World Health Organ
2000; 78: 413–26.
Phillips, MR, Zhang, J, Shi, Q, Song, Z, Ding, Z, Pang, S, et al Prevalence, treatment, and associated disability of mental disorders in four provinces in China during 2001-05: an epidemiological survey. Lancet
2009; 373: 2041–53.
Araya, R, Dunstan, F, Playle, R, Thomas, H, Palmer, S, Lewis, G. Perceptions of social capital and the built environment and mental health. Soc Sci Med
2006; 62: 3072–83.
Thomas, H, weaver, N, Patterson, J, Jones, P, Bell, T, Playle, R, et al Mental health and quality of residential environment. Br J Psychiatry
2007; 191: 500–5.
Weich, S, Holt, G, Twigg, L, Jones, K, Lewis, G. Geographic variation in the prevalence of common mental disorders in Britain: a multilevel investigation. Am J Epidemiol
2003; 157: 730–7.
Wilkinson, RG, Pickett, KE. The problems of relative deprivation: why some societies do better than others. Soc Sci Med
2007; 65: 1965–78.
Subramanian, SV, Jones, K, Kaddour, A, Krieger, N. Revisiting Robinson: the perils of individualistic and ecologic fallacy. Int J Epidemiol
2009; 38: 342–60.
Lynch, J, Smith, GD, Hillemeier, M, Shaw, M, Raghunathan, T, Kaplan, G. Income inequality, the psychosocial environment, and health: comparisons of wealthy nations. Lancet
2001; 358: 194–200.
McGillivray, M. The Human-Development index - yet another redundant composite development indicator, world Development
1991; 19: 1461–8.
Wolff, H, Chong, H, Auffhammer, M. Classification, detection and consequences of data error; evidence from the Human Development Index. Econ J
2011; 121: 843–70.
Fiscella, K, Franks, P.
Individual income, income inequality, health, and mortality: what are the relationships?
Health Serv Res
2000; 35: 307–18.
Weich, S, Lewis, G, Jenkins, SP. Income inequality and the prevalence of common mental disorders in Britain. Br J Psychiatry
2001; 178: 222–7.
Seedat, S, Scott, KM, Angermeyer, MC, Berglund, P, Bromet, EJ, Brugha, TS, et al Cross-national associations between gender and mental disorders in the World Health Organization World Mental Health Surveys. Arch Gen Psychiatry
2009; 66: 785–95.
Lorant, V, Deliege, D, Eaton, W, Robert, A, Philippot, P, Ansseau, M. Socioeconomic inequalities in depression: a meta-analysis. Am J Epidemiol
2003; 157: 98–112.
Araya, R, Lewis, G, Rojas, G, Fritsch, R. Education and income: which is more important for mental health?
J Epidemiol Community Health
2003; 57: 501–5.
Galobardes, B, Shaw, M, Lawlor, DA, Lynch, JW, Davey, SG. Indicators of socioeconomic position (part 1). J Epidemiol Community Health
2006; 60: 7–12.
Krieger, N, Williams, DR, Moss, NE. Measuring social class in US public health research: concepts, methodologies, and guidelines. Annu Rev Public Health
1997; 18: 341–78.
Patel, V, Kleinman, A.
Poverty and common mental disorders in developing countries. Bull World Health Organ
2003; 81: 609–15.
Zimmerman, FJ, Bell, JF. Income inequality and physical and mental health: testing associations consistent with proposed causal pathways. J Epidemiol Community Health
2006; 60: 513–21.