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Depression in Medical In-Patients

  • H. S. Moffic (a1) and E. S. Paykel (a2)

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Although there have been many accounts of depression in medical in-patients, there have been relatively few systematic studies of its prevalence and features. With respect to prevalence, most studies have concerned single medical diagnoses (4) or have been based on ward referrals to psychiatrists, in which referral practices may be of more importance than actual occurrences (10). Schwab et al. (12, 13) studied prevalence in 153 medical patients. They used multiple rating scales and compared depressed and non-depressed patients to investigate aetiological factors. Stewart et al. (14), who carried out a smaller study, also compared symptoms of five medical depressives with those of manic depressives.

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A synopsis of this paper was published in the November 1974 Journal.

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References

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1 Beck, A. T. (1967) Depression: Clinical, Experimental, and Theoretical Aspects. New York: Hoeber Medical Division, Harper and Row.
2 Beck, A. T. Ward, C. H., Mendelson, M., Mock, J. & Erbaugh, J. (1961) An inventory for measuring depression. Archives of General Psychiatry, 4, 561—71.
3 Clayton, P., Desmarais, L. & Winokur, G. (1968) A study of normal bereavement. American Journal of Psychiatry, 125, 168—78.
4 Dovenmuehle, R. H. & Verwoerdt, A. (1962) Physical illness and depressive symptomatology. I. Incidence of depressive symptoms in hospitalized cardiac patients. Journal of the American Geriatric Society, 10, 932—47.
5 Duff, R. S. & Hollingshead, A. B. (1968) Sickness and Society. New York: Harper and Row.
6 Engel, G. L. (1967) A psychological setting of somatic disease: the ‘giving-up—given-up’ complex. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine, 60, 553—5.
7 Hamilton, M. (1960) A rating scale for depression. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 23, 5662.
8 Kubler-Ross, E. (1969) On Death and Dying. New York: Macmillan & Co.
9 Paykel, E. S., Klerman, G. L. & Prusoff, B. A. (1970) Treatment setting and clinical depression. Archives of General Psychiatry, 22, 1121.
10 Ripley, H. S. (1947) Depressive reactions in a general hospital. American Journal of Medical Science, 199, 261.
11 Salkind, M. R. (1969) Beck Depression Inventory in general practice. Journal of the Royal College of Medical Practitioners, 18, 267—71.
12 Schwab, J. J., Bialow, M., Brown, J. M. & Holzer, C. E. (1967) Diagnosing depression in medical inpatients. Annals of Internal Medicine, 67, 695707.
13 Schwab, J. J., Bialow, M., Clemmons, R., Martin, P. & Holzer, C. E. (1967) The Beck Depression Inventory with medical inpatients. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 43, 255—66.
14 Stewart, M. A., Drake, I. & Winokur, G. (1965) Depression among medically ill inpatients. Diseases of the Nervous System, 26, 479—85.

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Depression in Medical In-Patients

  • H. S. Moffic (a1) and E. S. Paykel (a2)
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