Atakan, Z, Davies, T.
ABC of mental health. Mental health
1997; 314: 1740–2.
McAllister-Williams, RH, Ferrier, IN.
Rapid tranquillisation: time for a reappraisal of options for
parenteral therapy. Br J Psychiatry
2002; 180: 485–9.
Huf, G, Coutinho, ES, Adams, CE.
Rapid tranquillisation in psychiatric emergency settings in
Brazil: pragmatic randomised controlled trial of intramuscular
haloperidol versus intramuscular haloperidol plus
Powney, MJ, Adams, CE, Jones, H.
Haloperidol for psychosis-induced aggression or agitation
(rapid tranquillisation). Cochrane Database Syst
2012; 11: CD009377.
National Institute for Health and Care Excellence.
Violence: The Short-term Management of Disturbed/Violent
Behaviour in In-patient Psychiatric Settings and Emergency
. Clinical Guideline CG25.
The use of emergency psychiatric medication: a survey from 21
countries. J Clin Psychopharmacol
2013; 33: 240–2.
Pilowsky, LS, Ring, H, Shine, PJ, Battersby, M, Lader, M.
Rapid tranquillisation. A survey of emergency prescribing in
a general psychiatric hospital. Br J
1992; 160: 831–5.
Isbister, GK, Calver, LA, Page, CB, Stokes, B, Bryant, JL, Downes, MA.
Randomized controlled trial of intramuscular droperidol
versus midazolam for violence and acute behavioral disturbance: the DORM
study. Ann Emerg Med
Knott, JC, Taylor, DM, Castle, DJ.
Randomized clinical trial comparing intravenous midazolam and
droperidol for sedation of the acutely agitated patient in the emergency
department. Ann Emerg Med
Calver, LA, Downes, MA, Page, CB, Bryant, JL, Isbister, GK.
The impact of a standardised intramuscular sedation protocol
for acute behavioural disturbance in the emergency
department. BMC Emerg Med
2010; 10: 14.
Calver, LA, Stokes, B, Isbister, GK.
Sedation assessment tool to score acute behavioural
disturbance in the emergency department. Emerg
2011; 23: 732–40.
Calver, L, Drinkwater, V, Isbister, GK.
A prospective study of high dose sedation for rapid
tranquilisation of acute behavioural disturbance in an acute mental
health unit. BMC Psychiatry
2013; 13: 225.
Innes, J, Sethi, F.
Current rapid tranquillisation documents in the UK: a review
of the drugs recommended, their routes of administration and clinical
parameters influencing their use. J Psychiatr
2013; 9: 8.
Thomas, H, Schwartz, E, Petrilli, R.
Droperidol versus haloperidol for chemical restraint of
agitated and combative patients. Ann Emerg
1992; 21: 407–13.
Resnick, M, Burton, BT.
Droperidol vs. haloperidol in the initial management of
acutely agitated patients. J Clin
1984; 45: 298–9.
Richards, JR, Derlet, RW, Duncan, DR.
Chemical restraint for the agitated patient in the emergency
department: lorazepam versus droperidol. J Emerg
1998; 16: 567–73.
Martel, M, Sterzinger, A, Miner, J, Clinton, J, Biros, M.
Management of acute undifferentiated agitation in the
emergency department: a randomized double-blind trial of droperidol,
ziprasidone, and midazolam. Acad Emerg
2005; 12: 1167–72.
Kao, LW, Kirk, MA, Evers, SJ, Rosenfeld, SH.
Droperidol, QT prolongation, and sudden death: what is the
evidence? Ann Emerg Med
2003; 41: 546–58.
Chase, PB, Biros, MH.
A retrospective review of the use and safety of droperidol in
a large, high-risk, inner-city emergency department patient
population. Acad Emerg Med
2002; 9: 1402–10.
Wang, HR, Woo, YS, Bahk, WM.
Atypical antipsychotics in the treatment of
delirium. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci
2013; 67: 323–31.
Sharma, ND, Rosman, HS, Padhi, ID, Tisdale, JE.
Torsades de Pointes associated with intravenous haloperidol
in critically ill patients. Am J Cardiol
1998; 81: 238–40.
Muzyk, AJ, Rayfield, A, Revollo, JY, Heinz, H, Gagliardi, JP.
Examination of baseline risk factors for QTc interval
prolongation in patients prescribed intravenous
haloperidol. Drug Saf
2012; 35: 547–53.
Wilhelm, S, Schacht, A, Wagner, T.
Use of antipsychotics and benzodiazepines in patients with
psychiatric emergencies: results of an observational
trial. BMC Psychiatry
2008; 8: 61.
Meehan, K, Zhang, F, David, S, Tohen, M, Janicak, P, Small, J, et al.
A double-blind, randomized comparison of the efficacy and
safety of intramuscular injections of olanzapine, lorazepam, or placebo
in treating acutely agitated patients diagnosed with bipolar
mania. J Clin Psychopharmacol
2001; 21: 389–97.
Meehan, KM, Wang, H, David, SR, Nisivoccia, JR, Jones, B, Beasley, CM, et al.
Comparison of rapidly acting intramuscular olanzapine,
lorazepam, and placebo: a double-blind, randomized study in acutely
agitated patients with dementia.
Lesem, MD, Tran-Johnson, TK, Riesenberg, RA, Feifel, D, Allen, MH, Fishman, R, et al.
Rapid acute treatment of agitation in individuals with
schizophrenia: multicentre, randomised, placebo-controlled study of
inhaled loxapine. Br J Psychiatry
2011; 198: 51–8.
Wright, P, Birkett, M, David, SR, Meehan, K, Ferchland, I, Alaka, KJ, et al.
Double-blind, placebo-controlled comparison of intramuscular
olanzapine and intramuscular haloperidol in the treatment of acute
agitation in schizophrenia. Am J
2001; 158: 1149–51.
Breier, A, Meehan, K, Birkett, M, David, S, Ferchland, I, Sutton, V, et al.
A double-blind, placebo-controlled dose-response comparison
of intramuscular olanzapine and haloperidol in the treatment of acute
agitation in schizophrenia. Arch Gen
2002; 59: 441–8.