Leff, J, Vaughn, C. Expressed Emotion in Families. Guilford, 1985.
Bebbington, P, Kuipers, L. The predictive utility of expressed emotion in schizophrenia: an aggregate analysis. Psychol Med
1994; 24: 707–18.
Falloon, IR, Boyd, JL, McGill, CW, Razani, J, Moss, HB, Gilderman, AM. Family management in the prevention of exacerbation of schizophrenia: a controlled study. New Engl J Med
1982; 306: 1437–40.
Leff, J, Kuipers, L, Berkowitz, R, Eberlein-Vries, R, Sturgeon, D. A controlled trial of social intervention in the families of schizophrenic patients. Br J Psychiatry
1982; 141: 121–34.
Shimodera, S, Inoue, S, Mino, Y, Tanaka, S, Kii, M, Motoki, Y. Expressed emotion and psychoeducational intervention for relatives of patients with schizophrenia: a randomized controlled study in Japan. Psychiatry Res
2000; 96: 141–8.
Miklowitz, D, Goldstein, MJ, Nuechterlein, KH, Snyder, KS, Mintz, J. Family factors and the course of bipolar affective disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry
1988; 45: 225–31.
Kim, EY, Miklowitz, DJ. Expressed emotion as predictor of outcome among bipolar patients undergoing family therapy. J Affect Disord
2004; 82: 343–52.
Reinares, M, Colom, F, Sanchez-Moreno, J, Torrent, C, Martinez-Aran, A, Comes, M, et al. Impact of caregiver group psychoeducation on the course and outcome of bipolar patients in remission: a randomized controlled trial. Bipolar Disord
2008; 10: 511–9.
Miklowitz, DJ, George, EL, Richards, JA, Simoneau, TL, Suddath, RL. A randomized study of family-focused psychoeducation and pharmacotherapy in the outpatient management of bipolar disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry
2003; 60: 904–12.
Rea, MM, Tompson, MC, Miklowitz, DJ, Goldstein, MJ, Hwang, S, Mintz, J. Family-focused treatment versus individual treatment for bipolar disorder: results of a randomized clinical trial. J Consult Clin Psychol
2003; 71: 482–92.
Vaughn, CE, Leff, JP. The influence of family and social factors on the course of psychiatric illness. A comparison of schizophrenic and depressed neurotic patients. Br J Psychiatry
1976; 129: 125–37.
Hooley, JM, Orley, J, Teasdale, JD. Levels of expressed emotion and relapse in depressive patients. Br J Psychiatry
1986; 148: 642–7.
Priebe, S, Wildgrube, C, Müller-Oerlinghausen, B. Lithium prophylaxis and expressed emotion. Br J Psychiatry
1989; 154: 396–9.
Okasha, A, El Akabawi, AS, Snyder, KS, Wilson, AK, Youssef, I, el Dawla, AS. Expressed emotion, perceived criticism, and relapse in depression: a replication in an Egyptian community. Am J Psychiatry
1994; 151: 1001–5.
Hayhurst, H, Cooper, Z, Paykel, ES, Vearnals, S, Ramana, R. Expressed emotion and depression. A longitudinal study. Br J Psychiatry
1997; 171: 439–43.
Mino, Y, Shimodera, S, Inoue, S, Fujita, H, Tanaka, S, Kanazawa, S. Expressed emotion of families and the course of mood disorders: a cohort study in Japan. J Affect Disord
2001; 63: 43–9.
Kessler, RC, Demler, O, Frank, RG, Olfson, M, Pincus, HA, Walters, EE, et al. Prevalence and treatment of mental disorders, 1990 to 2003. New Engl J Med
2005; 16: 2515–23.
Kanai, T, Takeuchi, H, Furukawa, TA, Yoshimura, R, Imaizumi, T, Kitamura, T, et al. Time to recurrence after recovery from major depressive episodes and its predictors. Psychol Med
2003; 33: 839–45.
Ramana, R, Paykel, ES, Cooper, Z, Hayhurst, H, Saxty, M, Surtees, PG. Remission and relapse in major depression: a two-year prospective follow-up study. Psychol Med
1995; 25: 1161–70.
Greenberg, PE, Kessler, RC, Birnbaum, HG, Leong, SA, Lowe, SW, Berglund, PA, et al. The economic burden of depression in the United States: how did it change between 1990 and 2000?
J Clin Psychiatry
2003; 64: 1465–75.
American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th edn) (DSM–IV). APA, 1994.
Folstein, MF, Folstein, SE, McHugh, PR. ‘Mini-mental state’: a practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician. J Psychiatr Res
1975; 12: 189–98.
Magaña, AB, Goldstein, JM, Karno, M, Miklowitz, DJ, Jenkins, J, Falloon, IR. A brief method for assessing expressed emotion in relatives of psychiatric patients. Psychiatry Res
1986; 17: 203–12.
Shimodera, S, Mino, Y, Inoue, S, Izumoto, Y, Kishi, Y, Tanaka, S. Validity of a Five-Minute Speech Sample in measuring expressed emotion in the families of patients with schizophrenia in Japan. Compr Psychiatry
1999; 40: 372–6.
Kavanagh, DJ, O'Halloran, P, Manicavasagar, V, Clark, D, Piatkowska, O, Tennant, C, et al. The Family Attitude Scale: reliability and validity of a new scale for measuring the emotional climate of families. Psychiatry Res
1997; 70: 185–95.
Fujita, H, Shimodera, S, Izumoto, Y, Tanaka, S, Kii, M, Mino, Y, et al. Family attitude scale: measurement of criticism in the relatives of patients with schizophrenia in Japan. Psychiatry Res
2002; 31: 273–80.
Shimodera, S, Mino, Y, Fujita, H, Izumoto, Y, Kamimura, N, Inoue, S. Validity of a five-minute speech sample for the measurement of expressed emotion in the families of Japanese patients with mood disorders. Psychiatry Res
2002; 112: 231–7.
Uehara, T, Yokoyama, T, Goto, M, Ihda, S. Expressed emotion and short-term treatment outcome of outpatients with major depression. Compr Psychiatry
1996; 37: 299–304.
Hamilton, M. Development of a rating scale for primary depressive illness. Br J Soc Clin Psychol
1967; 6: 278–96.
Beck, AT, Ward, CH, Mendelson, M, Mock, J, Erbaugh, J. An inventory for measuring depression. Arch Gen Psychiatry
1961; 4: 561–71.
Leff, J, Vearnals, S, Wolff, G, Alexander, B, Chisholm, D, Everitt, B, et al. The London Depression Intervention Trial. Randomised controlled trial of antidepressants v. couple therapy in the treatment and maintenance of people with depression living with a partner: clinical outcome and costs. Br J Psychiatry
2000; 177: 95–100.
Sackeim, HA. Continuation therapy following ECT: directions for future research. Psychopharmacol Bull
1994; 30: 501–21.
National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. Depression: The Treatment and Management of Depression in Adults
. NICE, 2009.