Goenjian, AK, Pynoos, RS, Steinberg, A, Najarian, LM, Asarnow, J, Karayan, I, et al. Psychiatric comorbidity in children after the
1988 earthquake in Armenia. J Am Acad Child
1995; 34: 1174–84.
Hsu, C-C, Choong, M-Y, Yang, P, Yen, C-F. Posttraumatic stress disorder among adolescent
earthquake victims in Taiwan. J Am Acad Child
2002; 4: 875–81.
Goenjian, AK, Molina, L, Steinberg, AM, Fairbanks, LA, Alvarez, ML, Goenjian, HA, et al. Posttraumatic stress and depressive reactions
among Nicaraguan adolescents after hurricane Mitch.
Am J Psychiatry
2001; 158: 788–94.
La Greca, AM, Silverman, WK, Wasserstein, SB. Children's predisaster functioning as a predictor of
posttraumatic stress following hurricane Andrew.
J Consult Clin Psychol
1998; 66: 883–92.
Shaw, JA, Applegate, B, Schorr, C. Twenty-one month follow-up study of school-age
children exposed to hurricane Andrew. J Am Acad
Child Adolesc Psychiatry
1996; 35: 359–64.
Dollinger, SJ. Lightning-strike disaster among
children. Br J Med Psychol
1985; 58: 375–83.
Green, BL, Grace, M, Vary, MG, Kramer, TL, Gleser, GC, Leonard, AC. Children of disaster in the second decade: a 17-year
follow-up of Buffalo Creek survivors. J Am Acad
Child Adolesc Psychiatry
1994; 33: 71–9.
Yule, W, Bolton, D, Udwin, O, Boyle, S, O'Ryan, D, Nurrish, J. The long-term psychological effects of a disaster
experienced in adolescence: I: the incidence and course of
PTSD. J Child Psychol Psychiatry
2000; 41: 503–11.
Bolton, D, O'Ryan, D, Udwin, O, Boyle, S, Yule, W. The long-term psychological effects of a disaster
experienced in adolescence: II: general psychopathology.
J Child Psychiat
2000; 41: 513–23.
Udwin, O, Boyle, S, Yule, W, Bolton, D, O'Ryan, D. Risk factors for long-term psychological effects of
a disaster experienced in adolescence: predictors of post traumatic
stress disorder. J Child Psychiat
2000; 41: 969–79.
Terr, LC. Chowchilla revisited: the effects of psychic trauma
four years after a school-bus kidnapping. Am J
1983; 140: 1543–50.
Pfefferbaum, B, Nixon, SJ, Tucker, P, Tivis, RD, Moore, VL, Gurwitch, RH, et al. Posttraumatic stress responses in bereaved
children after the Oklahoma city bombing. J Am
Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry
1999; 38: 1372–9.
Nader, K, Pynoos, RS, Fairbanks, L, Frederick, C. Children's PTSD reactions one year after a sniper
attack at their school. Am J Psychiatry
1990; 147: 1526–30.
Pynoos, RS, Frederick, C, Nader, K, Arroyo, W, Steinberg, A, Eth, S, et al. Life threat and posttraumatic stress in
school-age children. Arch Gen Psychiatry
1987; 44: 1057–63.
Tyano, S, Iancu, I, Solomon, Z, Sever, J, Goldstein, I, Touviana, Y, et al. Seven-year follow-up of child survivors of a
bus-train collision. J Am Acad Child Adolesc
1996; 35: 365–73.
Winje, D, Ukik, A. Long-term outcome of trauma in children: the
psychological consequences of a bus accident. J
Child Psychol Psychiatry
1998; 39: 635–42.
Morgan, L, Scourfield, J, Williams, D, Jasper, A, Lewis, G. The Aberfan disaster: 33-year follow-up of
survivors. Br J Psychol
2003; 182: 532–6.
Goenjian, AK, Walling, D, Steinberg, AM, Karayan, I, Najarian, LM, Pynoos, RS. A prospective study of posttraumatic stress and
depressive reactions among treated and untreated adolescents 5 years
after a catastrophic disaster. Am J
2005; 162: 2302–8.
Creamer, M, Burgess, P, McFarlane, AC. Post-traumatic stress disorder: findings from the
Australian National Survey of Mental Health and
Well-being. Psychol Med
2001; 31: 1237–47.
Kessler, A, Sonnega, A, Bromet, E, Hughes, M, Nelson, C. Posttraumatic stress disorder in the National
Comorbidity Survey. Arch Gen Psychiatry
1995; 52: 1048–60.
McFarlane, AC. Family functioning and overprotection following a
natural disaster: the longitudinal effects of post-traumatic
morbidity. Aust N Z J Psychiatry
1987; 21: 210–8.
McFarlane, AC. Posttraumatic phenomena in a longitudinal study of
children following a natural disaster. J Am Acad
Child Adolesc Psychiatry
1987; 26: 764–9.
McFarlane, AC, Policansky, SK, Irwin, C. A longitudinal study of the psychological morbidity
in children due to a natural disaster. Psychol
1987; 17: 727–38.
Australian Bureau of Statistics. Census of
Population and Housing: Socio-Economic Indexes for Areas (SEIFA),
Australia – Data Cube only.
Australian Bureau of Statistics. National Survey of
Mental Health and Wellbeing of Adults: Users' Guide, 1997.
Australian Bureau of Statistics. Australian
Standard Classification of Occupations (ASCO) (2nd
American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and
Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th edn) (DSM–IV).
World Health Organization. Composite International
Goldney, RD, Wilson, D, Dal Grande, E, Fisher, LJ, McFarlane, AC. Suicidal ideation in a random community sample:
attributable risk due to depression and psychosocial and traumatic
events. Aust N Z J Psychiatry
Weiss, D, Marmar, C. The impact of event scale-revised.
In Assessing Psychological Trauma and PTSD (eds Wilson, J, Keane, T). Guilford Press,
Saunders, JB, Aasland, OG, Babor, TF, de la Fuente, JR, Grant, M. Development of the Alcohol Use Disorders
Identification Test (AUDIT): WHO collaborative project on early detection
of persons with harmful alcohol consumption – II.
McFarlane, A. The effects of stressful life events and disasters:
research and theoretical issues. Aust N Z J
1985; 19: 409–21.
Andrews, G, Henderson, S, Hall, W. Prevalence, comorbidity, disability and service
utilisation. Overview of the Australian National Mental Health
Survey. Br J Psychiatry
2001; 178: 145–53.
Green, BL, Goodman, LA, Krupnick, JL, Corcoran, CB, Petty, RM, Stockton, P, et al. Outcomes of single versus multiple trauma
exposure in a screening sample. J Trauma
2000; 13: 271–86.
Breslau, N, Peterson, EL, Schultz, LR. A second look at prior trauma and the posttraumatic
stress disorder effects of subsequent trauma: a prospective
epidemiological study. Arch Gen
2008; 65: 431–7.
McFarlane, A. Avoidance and intrusion in posttraumatic stress
disorder. J Nerv Ment Dis
1992; 180: 439–45.
Grayson, DA, O'Toole, BI, Marshall, RP, Schureck, RJ, Dobson, M, Ffrench, M, et al. Interviewer effects on epidemiologic
diagnoses of posttraumatic stress disorder. Am J
1996; 144: 589–97.
Schulz, KF, Chalmers, I, Altman, DG. The landscape and lexicon of blinding in randomized
trials. Ann Intern Med
2002; 136: 254–9.
Erdman, HP, Klein, MH, Greist, JH. Direct patient computer
interviewing. J Consult Clin Psychol
1985; 53: 760–73.
World Health Organization. The ICD–10
Classification of Mental and Behavioural Disorders: Clinical Descriptions
and Diagnostic Guidelines. WHO,
Peters, L, Issakidis, C, Slade, T, Andrews, G. Gender differences in the prevalence of DSM–IV and
ICD–10 PTSD. Psychol Med
Peters, L, Slade, T, Andrews, G. A comparison of ICD–10 and DSM–IV criteria for
posttraumatic stress disorder. J Trauma
1999; 12: 335–43.
Sayer, NA, Spoont, M, Nelson, D. Veterans seeking disability benefits for
posttraumatic stress disorder: who applies and the self-reported meaning
of disability compensation. Soc Sci Med
2004; 58: 2133–43.