American Psychiatric Association (1980) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (3rd edn) . Washington, DC: APA.
American Psychiatric Association (1987) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (3rd edn, revised) . Washington, DC: APA.
Bebbington, P. E., Hurry, J., Tennant, C., et al (1986) Adversity and working class vulnerability to minor affective disorder. Journal of Affective Disorders, 11, 115–120.
Bierut, L. J., Heath, A. C., Bucholz, K. K., et al (1999) Major depressive disorder in a community-based twin sample. Archives of General Psychiatry, 56, 557–563.
Brown, G. W. & Harris, T. (1978) Social Origins of Depression: A Study of Psychiatric Disorder in Women.
London: Tavistock Press.
Dohrenwend, B. P. & Dohrenwend, B. S. (1969) Social Status and Psychological Disorder.
New York: John Wiley.
Dohrenwend, B. P., Levav, I., Shrout, P. E., et al (1992) Socioeconomic status and psychiatric disorders: the causation–selection issue. Science, 255, 946–952.
Dohrenwend, B. P., Levav, I., Shrout, P. E., et al (1998) Ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and psychiatric disorders: a test of the social causation – social selection issue. In Adversity, Stress, and Psychopathology (ed. Dohrenwend, B. P.). New York: Oxford University Press.
Dunham, H. W. (1965) Community and Schizophrenia: An Epidemiological Analysis.
Detroit: Wayne State University Press.
Gruenberg, E. M. (1961) Comments on social structures and mental disorders: competing hypotheses of explanation by H. Warren Durham. In Causes of Mental Disorders: A Review of Epidemiological Knowledge (eds Gruenberg, E. M. & Huxley, M.), pp. 266–270. New York: Millbank Memorial Fund.
Hollingshead, A. B. & Redlich, F. C. (1958) Social Class and Mental Illness.
New York: John Wiley.
Holzer, C. M., Brent, M., Swanson, J., et al (1986) The increased risk for specific psychiatric disorders among persons of low socioeconomic status: evidence from the Epidemiologic Catchment Area Study. American Journal of Social Psychiatry, 6, 259–271.
Jarvis, E. (1855) Insanity and Idiocy in Massachusetts: Report of the Commission on Lunacy
. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Johnson, J. G., Cohen, P., Dohrenwend, B. P., et al (1999) A longitudinal investigation of social causation and social selection processes involved in the association between socioeconomic status and psychiatric disorders. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 108, 490–499.
Mannuzza, S., Fyer, A. J., Klein, D. F., et al (1986) Schedule for affective disorders and schizophrenia – Lifetime version modified for the study of anxiety disorders (SADS–LA): rationale and conceptual development. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 20, 317–325.
Miech, R. A., Caspi, A., Moffitt, T. E., et al (1999) Low socioeconomic status and mental disorders: a longitudinal study of selection and causation during young adulthood. American Journal of Sociology, 104, 1096–1131.
Moos, R. H., Cronkite, R. C. & Moos, B. S. (1998) The long-term interplay between family and extrafamily resources and depression. Journal of Family Psychology, 12, 326–343.
Myers, J. K. & Bean, L. L. (1968) A Decade Later: A Follow-up of Social Class and Mental Illness.
New York: John Wiley.
Shah, B. V., Barnwell, B. G. & Bieler, G. S. (1996) SUDAAN User's Manual, Release 7.0.
Research Triangle Park, NC: Research Triangle Institute.
Shrout, P. & Link, B. G. (1998) Mathematical modeling and simulation in studies of stress and adversity. In Adversity, Stress, and Psychopathology (ed. Dohrenwend, B. P.). New York: Oxford University Press.
Spitzer, R., Endicott, J. & Robins, E. (1978) Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC) for a Selected Group of Functional Disorders.
New York: Biometrics Research.
Stueve, A., Dohrenwend, B. P. & Skodol, A. E. (1998) Relationships between stressful life events and episodes of major depression and nonaffective psychotic disorders: selected results from a New York risk factor study. In Adversity, Stress, and Psychopathology (ed. Dohrenwend, B. P.). New York: Oxford University Press.
Timms, D. W. (1996) Social mobility and mental health in a Swedish cohort. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 31, 38–48.
Warner, V., Weissman, M. M., Mufson, L., et al (1999) Grandparents, parents, and grandchildren at high risk for depression: a three-generation study. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 38, 289–296.
Weich, S. & Lewis, G. (1998) Poverty, unemployment, and common mental disorders: population based cohort study. British Medical Journal, 317, 115–119.
Weissman, M. M. & Bothwell, S. (1976) The assessment of social adjustment by patient self-report. Archives of General Psychiatry, 33, 1111–1115.
Weissman, M. M., Kidd, K. K. & Prusoff, B. A. (1982) Variability in rates of affective disorders in relatives of depressed and normal probands. Archives of General Psychiatry, 39, 1397–1403.
Weissman, M. M., Merikangas, K. R., Wickramaratne, P., et al (1986) Understanding the clinical heterogeneity of major depression using family data. Archives of General Psychiatry, 43, 430–434.
Weissman, M. M., Fendrich, M., Warner, V., et al (1992) Incidence of psychiatric disorder in offspring at high and low risk for depression. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 31, 640–648.
Weissman, M. M., Warner, V., Wickramaratne, P., et al (1997) Offspring of depressed parents: 10 years later. Archives of General Psychiatry, 54, 932–940.