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Measuring patient-reported outcomes in psychosis: conceptual and methodological review

  • Ulrich Reininghaus (a1) and Stefan Priebe (a2)



There are calls to use patient-reported outcomes (PROs) routinely across mental health services. However, the use of PROs in patients with psychosis has been questioned.


To examine the concepts and measures of four widely used PROs: treatment satisfaction, subjective quality of life, needs for care and the quality of the therapeutic relationship.


We conducted a literature search of academic databases on concepts, characteristics and psychometric properties of the four PROs in patients with psychosis.


Although numerous concepts and measures have been published, evidence on the methodological quality of existing PROs is limited. Measures designed to assess distinct PROs showed a considerable conceptual, operational and empirical overlap, and some of them also included specific aspects. The impact of symptoms and cognitive deficits appears unlikely to be of clinical significance.


The popularity of PROs has not been matched with progress in their conceptualisation and measurement. Based on current evidence, some recommendations can be made. Distinct and short measures with clinical relevance and sufficient psychometric properties should be preferred. Future research should optimise the validity and measurement precision of PROs, while reducing assessment burden.

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Corresponding author

Dr Ulrich Reininghaus, Section of Social Psychiatry, PO Box 33, Health Service and Population Research Department, Institute of Psychiatry, De Crespigny Park, London SE5 8AF, UK. Email:


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Measuring patient-reported outcomes in psychosis: conceptual and methodological review

  • Ulrich Reininghaus (a1) and Stefan Priebe (a2)
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