American Psychiatric Association (1952) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (1st edn) . Washington, DC: APA.
American Psychiatric Association (1980) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (3rd edn) , Washington, DC: APA.
Anderson, E. W. (1959) Preface In Clinical Psychopathology. (5th edn) (ed. Schneider, K.). New York: Grune & Stratton.
Blackburn, R. (1975) An empirical classification of psychopathic personality. British Journal of Psychiatry, 127, 456–460.
Blackburn, R. (1979) Cortical and autonomic arousal in primary and secondary psychopaths. Psychophysiology, 16, 143–150.
Blackburn, R. (1983a) Psychopathy, delinquency and crime In Physiological Correlates of Human Behaviour (eds Gale, A. & Edwards, J.). London: Academic Press.
Blackburn, R. (1983b) Are personality disorders treatable? In Mental Disorder and the Law: Effects of the New Legislation. Issues in Crimonological and Legal Psychology, No. 4 (eds Shapland, J. & Williams, T.). Leicester: British Psychological Society.
Blackburn, R. (1986) Patterns of personality deviation among violent offenders: replication and extension of an empirical taxonomy. British Journal of Criminology, 26, 254–269.
Blackburn, R. & Maybury, C. (1985) Identifying the psychopath: the relation of Cleckley's criteria to the interpersonal domain. Personality and Individual Differences, 6, 375–386.
Blashfield, R. K. & Draguns, J. G. (1976) Evaluative criteria for psychiatric classification. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 85, 140–150.
Carson, R. C. (1970) Interaction Concepts of Personality.
London: Allen & Unwin.
Cleckley, H. (1976) The Mask of Sanity (6th edn). St Louis: Mosby.
Foulds, G. A. (1965) Personality and Personal Illness.
Foulds, G. A. (1971) Personality deviance and personal symptomatology. Psychological Medicine, 1, 222–233.
Hare, R. D. (1980) A research scale for the assessment of psychopathy in criminal populations. Personality and Individual Differences, 1, 111–119.
Hare, R. D. (1983) Diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder in two prison populations. American Journal of Psychiatry, 140, 887–890.
Hare, R. D. (1985) A comparison of procedures for the assessment of psychopathy. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 53, 7–16.
Hare, R. D. (1986) Twenty years of experience with the Cleckley psychopath In Unmasking the Psychopath: Antisocial Personality and Related Syndromes (eds Reid, W. H., Dorr, D., Walker, J. & Bonner, J. W.). New York: Norton.
Henderson, D. (1955) The classification and treatment of psychopathic states. British Journal of Delinquency, 6, 5–14.
Henderson, M. (1982) An empirical classification of convicted violent offenders. British Journal of Criminology, 22, 1–20.
Home Office/Department of Health and Social Security. (1975) Report of the Committee on Abnormal Offenders.
Karpman, B. (1948) The myth of the psychopathic personality. American Journal of Psychiatry, 104, 523–534.
Khantzian, E. J. & Treece, C. (1985) DSM–III psychiatric diagnosis of narcotic addicts: recent findings. Archives of General Psychiatry, 42, 1067–1071.
Koch, J. L. (1891) Die Psychopathischen Minderwertigkeiten.
Kosten, T. R., Rounsaville, B. J. & Kleber, H. D. (1982) DSM–III personality disorders in opiate addicts. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 23, 572–581.
Kraepelin, E. (1904) Psychiatrie: Ein Lehrbuch (7th edn). Leipzig: Barth.
Lykken, D. T. (1957) A study of anxiety in the sociopathic personality. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 55, 6–10.
Maughs, S. (1941) A concept of psychopathy and psychopathic personality: its evolution and historical development. Journal of Criminal Psychopathology, 2, 329–356.
Mayer-Gross, W., Slater, E. & Roth, M. (1969) Clinical Psychiatry (3rd edn). London: Baillière Tindall & Cassell.
McGurk, B. (1978) Personality types among normal homicides. British Journal of Criminology, 18, 146–161.
McLemore, C. W. & Benjamin, L. S. (1979) Whatever happened to interpersonal diagnosis? A psychosocial alternative to DSM–III. American Psychologist, 34, 17–34.
McManus, M., Alessi, N. E., Grapentine, W. L. & Brickman, A. (1984) Psychiatric disturbance in serious delinquents. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 23, 602–615.
Millon, T. (1981) Disorders of Personality: DSM–III, Axis II.
New York: Wiley.
Millon, T. (1983) Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (3rd edn). Minneapolis: Interpretive Scoring Systems.
Partridge, G. E. (1930) Current conceptions of psychopathic personality. American Journal of Psychiatry, 10, 53–99.
Pfohl, B., Coryell, W., Zimmerman, M. & Stangl, D. (1986) DSM–III personality disorders: diagnostic overlap and internal consistency of individual DSM–III criteria. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 27, 21–34.
Pichot, P. (1978) Psychopathic behaviour: a historical overview In Psychopathic Behaviour: Approaches to Research (eds Hare, R. D. & Schalling, D. S.). Chichester: Wiley.
Presly, A. S. & Walton, H. J. (1973) Dimensions of abnormal personality. British Journal of Psychiatry, 122, 269–276.
Quay, H. C. (1978) Classification. In Quay, H. C. & Werry, J. S. (eds). Psychopathological Disorders of Childhood (2nd edn) (eds Quay, H. C. & Werry, J. S.). New York: Wiley.
Raine, A. (1985) A psychometric assessment of Hare's Checklist for psychopathy on an English prison sample. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 24, 247–258.
Robins, L. N. (1966) Deviant Children Grown Up.
Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins.
Schneider, K. (1950) Psychopathic Personalities (9th edn).
Spitzer, R. L., Endicott, J. & Robins, E. (1978) Research diagnostic criteria. Archives of General Psychiatry, 35, 773–782.
Tyrer, P. & Alexander, J. (1979) Classification of personality disorder. British Journal of Psychiatry, 135, 163–167.
Vaillant, G. E. (1975) Sociopathy as a human process: a viewpoint. Archives of General Psychiatry, 32, 178–183.
Walker, N. & McCabe, S. (1973) Crime and Insanity in England, vol. 2. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
Watts, F. N. & Bennett, D. H. (1978) Social deviance in a day hospital. British Journal of Psychiatry, 132, 455–462.
Widiger, T. A. & Francis, A. (1985) The DSM–III personality disorders: perspectives from psychology. Archives of General Psychiatry, 42, 615–623.
Widom, C. S. (1977) An empirical classification of female offenders. Criminal Justice and Behaviour, 5, 35–52.
Wiggins, J. S. (1982) Circumplex models of interpersonal behaviour in clinical psychology In Handbook of Research Methods in Clinical Psychology (eds Kendall, P. C. & Butcher, J. N.). New York: Wiley.
World Health Organization (1967) Manual of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases, Injuries, and Causes of Death, (8th edn) . Geneva: WHO.
World Health Organization (1978) Mental Disorders: Glossary and Guide to their Classification in Accordance with the Ninth Revision of the International Classification of Diseases
. Geneva: WHO.
Wulach, J. (1983) Diagnosing the DSM–III antisocial personality disorder. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 14, 330–340.