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Prenatal Exposure to Influenza as a Cause of Schizophrenia: There are inconsistencies and contradictions in the evidence

  • T. J. Crow (a1)
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References
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Adams, W., Kendell, R. E., Hare, E. H., et al (1993) Epidemiological evidence that maternal influenza contributes to the aetiology of schizophrenia: an analysis of Scottish, English and Danish data. British Journal of Psychiatry, 163, 522534.
Barr, C. E., Mednick, S. A. & Munk-Jørgensen, P. (1990) Exposure to influenza epidemics during gestation and adult schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry, 47, 869874.
Cannon, M., Cotter, D., Sham, P. C., et al (1994) Schizophrenia in an Irish sample following prenatal exposure to the 1957 epidemic: a case-controlled, prospective follow-up study. Schizophrenia Research, 11, 95.
Crow, T. J., Done, D. J. & Johnstone, E. C. (1991) Schizophrenia and influenza. Lancet, 338, 116117.
Crow, T. J., Done, D. J. & Johnstone, E. C. (1992) Prenatal exposure to influenza does not cause schizophrenia. British Journal of Psychiatry, 161, 390393.
Kendell, R. E. & Kemp, I. W. (1989) Maternal influenza in the aetiology of schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry, 46, 878882.
Kendell, R. E. & Kemp, I. W. (1990) Influenza and schizophrenia: Helsinki vs Edinburgh. Archives of General Psychiatry, 47, 877878.
Mednick, S. A., Machon, R. A., Huttunen, M. O., et al (1988) Adult schizophrenia following prenatal exposure to an influenza epidemic. Archives of General Psychiatry, 45, 189192.
O'Callaghan, E., Sham, P., Takei, N., et al (1991a) Schizophrenia after prenatal exposure to 1957 A2 influenza epidemic. Lancet, 337, 12481250.
O'Callaghan, E., Sham, P., Takei, N., et al (1991b) Schizophrenia and influenza Lancet, 338, 118119.
Sham, P. C., O'Callaghan, E., Takei, N., et al (1992) Schizophrenia following pre-natal exposure to influenza epidemics between 1939 and 1960. British Journal of Psychiatry, 160, 461466.
Torrey, E. F., Bowler, A. E. & Rawlings, R. (1991) An influenza epidemic and the seasonality of schizophrenic births. In Psychiatry and Biological Factors (ed. Kurstak, E.), pp. 109116. New York: Plenum.
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The British Journal of Psychiatry
  • ISSN: 0007-1250
  • EISSN: 1472-1465
  • URL: /core/journals/the-british-journal-of-psychiatry
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Prenatal Exposure to Influenza as a Cause of Schizophrenia: There are inconsistencies and contradictions in the evidence

  • T. J. Crow (a1)
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