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Prevalence of autoimmune diseases in in-patients with schizophrenia: nationwide population-based study

  • Shaw-Ji Chen (a1), Yu-Lin Chao (a2), Chuan-Yu Chen (a3), Chia-Ming Chang (a4), Erin Chia-Hsuan Wu (a5), Chi-Shin Wu (a6), Hsueh-Han Yeh (a7), Chia-Hsiang Chen (a7) and Hui-Ju Tsai (a8)...
Abstract
Background

The association between autoimmune diseases and schizophrenia has rarely been systematically investigated.

Aims

To investigate the association between schizophrenia and a variety of autoimmune diseases and to explore possible gender variation in any such association.

Method

Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database was used to identify 10 811 hospital in-patients with schizophrenia and 108 110 age-matched controls. Univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed, separately, to evaluate the association between autoimmune diseases and schizophrenia. We applied the false discovery rate to correct for multiple testing.

Results

When compared with the control group, the in-patients with schizophrenia had an increased risk of Graves' disease (odds ratio (OR) = 1.32, 95% CI 1.04–1.67), psoriasis (OR = 1.48, 95% CI 1.07–2.04), pernicious anaemia (OR = 1.71, 95% CI 1.04–2.80), celiac disease (OR = 2.43, 95% CI 1.12–5.27) and hypersensitivity vasculitis (OR = 5.00, 95% CI 1.64–15.26), whereas a reverse association with rheumatoid arthritis (OR = 0.52, 95% CI 0.35–0.76) was also observed. Gender-specific variation was found for Sjögren syndrome, hereditary haemolytic anaemia, myasthenia gravis, polymyalgia rheumatica and dermatomyositis.

Conclusions

Schizophrenia was associated with a greater variety of autoimmune diseases than was anticipated. Further investigation is needed to gain a better understanding of the aetiology of schizophrenia and autoimmune diseases.

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Copyright
Corresponding author
Hui-Ju Tsai, MPH, PhD, Division of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, Institute of Population Health Sciences, National Health Research Institutes, 35 Keyan Road, Zhunan Town, Miaoli County 350, Taiwan. Email: tsaihj@nhri.org.tw
Footnotes
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See editorial, pp. 353–355, this issue.

This study was supported in part by grants from the National Health Research Institutes (PH-099-PP-56, PH-100-PP-14).

Declaration of interest

None.

Footnotes
References
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Prevalence of autoimmune diseases in in-patients with schizophrenia: nationwide population-based study

  • Shaw-Ji Chen (a1), Yu-Lin Chao (a2), Chuan-Yu Chen (a3), Chia-Ming Chang (a4), Erin Chia-Hsuan Wu (a5), Chi-Shin Wu (a6), Hsueh-Han Yeh (a7), Chia-Hsiang Chen (a7) and Hui-Ju Tsai (a8)...
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