American Psychiatric Association (1987) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (3rd edn, revised) (DSM–III–R). Washington, DC: APA.
Brennan, P. A., Grekin, E. R. & Mednick, S. A. (1999) Maternal smoking during pregnancy and adult male criminal outcomes. Archives of General Psychiatry, 56, 215–219.
Burt, S. A., Krueger, R. F., McGue, M., et al (2001) Sources of covariation among attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder: the importance of shared environment. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 110, 516–525.
Cohen, D. J., Dibble, E., Grawe, J. M., et al (1975) Reliably separating identical from fraternal twins. Archives of General Psychiatry, 32, 1371–1375.
Cornelius, M. D. & Day, N. L. (2000) The effects of tobacco use during and after pregnancy on exposed children. Alcohol Health and Research World, 24, 242–249.
DuPaul, G. J. (1981) Parent and teacher ratings of ADHD symptoms. Psychometric properties in a community-based sample. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 20, 245–253.
Fergusson, D. M. & Horwood, L.J. (1995) Early disruptive behavior, IQ, and later school achievement and delinquent behavior. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 23, 183–199.
Fergusson, D. M., Woodward, L. J. & Horwood, L. J. (1998) Maternal smoking during pregnancy and psychiatric adjustment in late adolescence. Archives of General Psychiatry, 55, 721–727.
Kinnear, P. R. & Gray, C. D. (2000) SPSS for Windows Made Simple. Hove:
Maughan, B., Taylor, C., Taylor, A., et al (2001) Pregnancy, smoking and childhood conduct problems: a causal association?
Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 42, 1021–1028.
Maughan, B., Taylor, A., Caspi, A., et al (2004) Prenatal smoking and early childhood conduct problems: testing genetic and environmental explanations of the association. Archives of General Psychiatry, 61, 836–843.
McGue, M. & Bouchard, T.J. (1984) Adjustment of twin data for the effects of age and sex. Behavior Genetics, 14, 325–343.
Mick, E., Biederman, J., Faraone, S. V., et al (2002) Case–control study of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and maternal smoking, alcohol use, and drug use during pregnancy. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 41, 378–385.
Neale, M. C. (1997) Mx: Statistical Modeling. Richmond, VA: Department of Psychiatry, Medical College of Virginia.
Rutter, M. (1970) Appendix 6: A children's behaviour questionnaire for completion by parents. In Education, Health and Behaviour (eds Rutter, M., Tizard, J. & Whitmore, K.), pp. 412–421. New York: J. Wiley & Sons.
Schachar, R. & Tannock, R. (2002) Syndromes of hyperactivity and attention deficit. In Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (eds Rutter, M. & Taylor, E.), pp. 399–418. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific.
Silberg, J. L., Rutter, M., Meyer, J., et al (1996) Genetic and environmental influences on the covariation between hyperactivity and conduct disturbance in juvenile twins. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 37, 803–816.
Silberg, J. L., Parr, T., Neale, M. C., et al (2003) Maternal smoking during pregnancy and risk to boys' conduct disturbance: an examination of the causal hypothesis. Biological Psychiatry, 53, 130–135.
Taylor, E., Chadwick, O., Heptinstall, E., et al (1996) Hyperactivity and conduct problems as risk factors for adolescent development. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 35, 1213–1226.
Thapar, A., Harrington, R., Ross, K., et al (2000) Does the definition of ADHD affect heritability?
Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 39, 1528–1536.
Thapar, A., Harrington, R. & McGuffin, P. (2001) Examining the comorbidity of ADHD-related behaviours and conduct problems using a twin study design. British Journal of Psychiatry, 179, 224–229.
Thapar, A., Fowler, T., Rice, F., et al (2003) Maternal smoking during pregnancy and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms in offspring. American Journal of Psychiatry, 160, 1985–1989.
van den Bree, M. B., Whitmer, M. D. & Pickworth, W. B. (2004) Predictors of smoking development in a population-based sample of adolescents. A prospective study. Journal of Adolescent Health, 35, 172–181.
Wakschlag, L. S., Pickett, K. E., Cook, E. Jr, et al (2002) Maternal smoking during pregnancy and severe antisocial behavior in offspring: a review. American Journal of Public Health, 92, 966–974.
World Health Organization (1993) The ICD–10 Classification of Mental and Behavioural Disorders: Diagnostic Criteria for Research. Geneva: