American Psychiatric Association (1987) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (3rd edn, revised) (DSM – III – R). Washington, DC: APA.
American Psychiatric Association (1994) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th edn) (DSM-IV). Washington, DC: AM.
Beekman, A. T. F., Deeg, D. J. H., van Tilburg, T., et al (1995) Major and minor depression in later life: a study of prevalence and associated factors. Journal of Affective Disorders, 36, 65–75.
Beekman, A. T. F., Braam, A. W., et al (1997a) Consequences of major and minor depression in later life: a study of disability, well-being and service utilisation. Psychological Medicine, 27. 1065–1077.
Beekman, A. T. F., Penninx, B. W. J. H., Deeg, D. J. H., et al (1997b) Depression and physical health in later life: results from the Longitudinal Ageing Study Amsterdam (LASA). Journal of Affective Disorders. 46, 219–231.
Berkman, L. F., Berkman, C. S., Kasl, S. V., et al (1986) Depressive symptoms in relation to physical health and functioning in the elderly. American Journal of Epidemiology, 124, 372–388.
Billings, A. G. & Moos, R. H. (1982) Psychosocial theory and research on depression: an integrative framework and review. Clinical Psychology Review, 2, 213–237.
Bland, R. C., Newman, S. & Orn, H. (1988) Prevalence of psychiatric disorders in the elderly in Edmonton. Acta Psychiotrica Scanenavica, 77, 57–63.
Blazer, D. G. (1989) Depression in the elderly. New England Journal of Medicine, 320, 164–166.
Blazer, D. G. (1994) Epidemiology of late-life depression. In Depression and Treatment of Late Life Depression; Results of the NIH Consensus Development Conference (eds Schneider, L. J., Reynolds, C. F. III, Lebowitz, B. D., et al), pp. 9–21. Washington, DC: APA.
Blazer, D. G., & Williams, C. D. (1980) Epidemiology of dysphoria and depression in an elderly population. American Journal of Psychiatry, 137, 439–444.
Blazer, D. G., Burchett, B., Service, C., et al (1991) The association of age and depression among the elderly: an epidemiologic exploration. Journal of Gerontology
Bosma, A. (1990) Psychiatrische problematiek bij zelfstandig wonende ouderen en verzorgingstehuis bewoners. Tijdschrif. Psychiatrie, 32, 173–183.
Boyd, J. H. & Weissman, M. M. (1981) Epidemiology of affective disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry, 38, 1039–1046.
Brown, G. W. & Prudo, R. (1901) Psychiatric disorder in a rural and an urban population: I. Aetiology of depression. Psychological Medicine, 11, 581–599.
Burviil, P. W. & Hall, W. D. (1994) Predictors of increased mortality in elderly depressed patients. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
Copeland, J. R. M., Kellehar, M. J., Kellett, J. M., et al (1976) “A semi-structured clinical interview for the assessment of diagnosis and mental state in the elderly”. The Geriatric Mental State Schedule I. Development and reliability. Psychological Medicine, 6, 439–449.
Copeland, J. R. M., Dewey, M. E. & Grifflths-Jones, H. M. (1986) Computerised psychiatric diagnostic system and case nomenclature for elderly subjects: GMS and AGECAT. Psychological Medicine, 14, 89–99.
Copeland, J. R. M., Dewey, M. E., Wood, N., et al (1987) Range of mental illness among the elderly in the community. Prevalence in Liverpool using the GMS-AGECAT package. British Journal of Psychiatry, 150, 815–823.
Cwikel, J. & Ritchie, K. (1989) Screening for depression among the elderly in Israel: an assessment of the Short Geriatric Depression Scale (S-GDS). Israel Journal of Medical Sciences, 25, 131–137.
Eaton, W. W. & Kessier, L. G. (1981) Rates of symptoms of depression in a national sample. American Journal of Epidemiology. 114, 528–538.
Essen-Moller, E. (1956) Individual traits and morbidity in a Swedish rural population. Acta Psychiotrica et Neurohgica Scandinavica, Suppl. 100.
Fuhrer, R., Antonucci, T. C., Gagnon, M., et al (1992) Depressive symptomatology and cognitive functioning: an epidemiological survey in an elderly community sample in France. Psychological Medicine, 22, 159–172.
George, L. K., Blazer, D. G., Hughes, D. C., et al (1989) Social support and the outcome of major depression. British Journal of Psychiatry, 154, 478–485.
Gershon, E. S. & Hamovit, J. H. (1987) Birth-cohort changes in manic and depressive disorders in relatives of bipolar and schizoaffective patients. Archives of General Psychiatry, 44, 314–319.
Gurland, B. J. (1992) The impact of depression quality of life of the elderly. Clinical Geriatric Medicine, 8, 377–386.
Gurland, B. J., Fleiss, J. L., Golderberg, K., et al (1976) A semi-structured clinical interview for the assessment of diagnosis and mental state in the elderly. The Geriatric Mental State Schedule 2. A factor analysis. Psychological Medicine, 4, 451–459.
Gurland, B. J., Copeland, J. R. M., Kellehar, M. J., et al (1983) The Mind and Mood of Ageing: The Mental Health Problems of the Community Elderly in New fork and London. New York: Haworth Press; London: Croom Helm.
Gurland, B. J., Golden, R. R., Teresi, J. A., et al (1984) The SHORT-CARE: an efficient instrument for the assessment of depression, dementia and disability. Journal of Gerontology, 39, 166–169.
Hasin, D. & Link, B. (1988) Age and recognition of depression: implications for a cohort effect in major depression. Psychological Medicine, 10, 683–688.
Henderson, A. S., Jorm, A. F., McKinnon, A., et al (1993) The prevalence of depressive disorders and the distribution of depressive symptoms in later life: a survey using the draft ICD-10 and DSM – III – R. Psychological Medicine, 23, 719–729.
Ihara, K. (1993) Depressive states and their correlates in elderly people living in a rural community. Japanese Journal of Public Health, 40, 85–94.
Jorm, A. F. (1987) Sex and age differences in depression: a quantitative synthesis of published research. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry. 21, 46–53.
Kay, D. W. K. & Beamish, P. (1964) Old age mental disorders in Newcastle upon Tyne. British Journal of Psychiatry, 110, 146–158.
Kay, D. W. K., Henderson, A. S., Scott, R., et al (1985) Dementia and depression among the elderly living in the Hobart community: the effect of the diagnostic criteria on the prevalence rates. Psychological Medicine, 15, 771–788.
Kennedy, G. J., Kelman, H. R., Wisniewsky, W., et al (1989) Hierarchy of characteristics associated with depressive symptoms in an urban elderly sample. American Journal of Psychiatry, 146, 220–225.
Kivela, S. L., Pahkala, K. & Laipala, P. (1988) Prevalence of depression in an elderly Finnish population. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 78, 401–413.
Klerman, G. L. & Lavori, P. W. (1985) Birth-cohort trends in rates of major depressive disorder among relatives of patients with affective disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 42, 689–683.
Komahashi, M., Ohmori, K. & Nakano, T. (1994) Epidemiological survey of dementia and depression among the aged living in the community in Japan. Japanese Journal of Psychiatry and Neurology, 48, 517–526.
Krause, N. (1986) Stress and sex differences in depressive symptoms among older adults. Journal of Gerontology. 41, 727–731.
Kua, E. H. (1992) A community study of mental disorders in elderly Singaporean Chinese using the GMS–AGECAT package. Australia and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry. 26, 502–506.
Lauritzen, L. U. & Korner, E. A. (1996) Occurrence of dementia and depression in an elderly Danish population. Ugeskrift for Laeger, 158, 5453–5456.
Lindesay, J., Briggs, K. & Murphy, E. (1989) The Guy's/Age Concern Survey. Prevalence rates of cognitive impairment, depression and anxiety in an urban elderly community. British Journal of Psychiatry, 155, 317–329.
Livingston, G., Hawkins, A., Graham, N., et al (1990) The Gospel Oak Study: prevalence rates of dementia, depression and activity limitation among elderly residents in inner London. Psychological Mediane, 20, 137–146.
Lobo, A., Saz, P., Marcos, G., et al (1995) The prevalence of dementia and depression in the elderly community in a southern European population: the Zaragoza study. Archives of General Psychiatry, 52, 497–506.
Madianos, M. G., Gournas, G. & Stefanis, C. N. (1992) Depressive symptoms and depression among elderly people in Athens. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 86, 320–326.
Morgan, K., Dallosso, H. M., Arie, T., et al (1987) Mental hearth and psychological well-being among the old and very old living at home. British Journal of Psychiatry, 150, 801–807.
Mueller, D. P. (1981) The current status of urban–rural differences in psychiatric disorder: an emerging trend for depression. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 169, 18–27.
Murphy, E. (1982) Social origins of depression in old age. British Journal of Psychiatry, 141, 135–142.
Murrell, S. A., Himmelfarb, S. & Wright, K. (1983) Prevalence of depression and its correlates in older adults. American Journal of Epidemiology, 117, 173–185.
Neff, J. A. (1983) Urbanicity and depression reconsidered. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 171, 546–552.
Newman, J. P. (1989) Aging and depression. Psychology and Aging, 4, 150–165.
Newman, J. P. & Engel, R. J. (1991) Age differences in depressive experiences. Journal of Gerontology, 46, 224–235.
O'Hara, M. W., Kohout, F. J. & Wallace, R. B. (1985) Depression among the rural elderly. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 173, 582–589.
Ormel, J., von Korff, M., Ustun, T. B., et al (1994) Common mental disorders and disability across cultures: results from the WHO collaborative study on psychological problems in general health care. Journal of the American Medical Association, 272, 1741–1748.
Pahkala, K., Kesti, E., Kongas-Saviaro, P., et al (1995) Prevalence of depression in an aged population in Finland. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 30, 99–106.
Parsons, P. L. (1965) Mental health of Swansea's old folk. British Journal of Preventative and Social Medicine, 19, 43–47.
Robins, L., Melzer, B. E., Croughan, B., et al (1981) National Institute of Mental Hearth Diagnostic Interview Schedule: its history, characteristics, and validity. Archives of General Psychiatry. 38, 381–389.
Romaniuk, M., McAuley, W. J. & Arling, G. (1983) An examination of the prevalence of mental disorders among the elderly in the community. Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Saunders, P. A., Copeland, J. R. M., Dewey, M. E., et al (1993) The prevalence of dementia, depression and neurosis in later life: the Liverpool MRC–ALPHA study. International Journal of Epidemiology, 22, 838–847.
Schwab, J. J. & Holzer, C. E. (1973) Depressive symptomatology and age. Psychosomatics, 14, 135–141.
Snowdon, J. (1990) The prevalence of depression in old age. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 5, 141–144.
Srole, L. & Fischer, A. (1980) The Midtown Manhattan longitudinal study vs ‘the mental paradise lost’ doctrine. Archives of General Psychiatry, 37, 209–221.
Tannock, C. & Katone, C. (1995) Minor depression in the aged: concepts prevalence and optimal management. Drugs and Aging, 6, 278–292.
Warheit, G. J. & Holzer, C. E. (1973) An analysis of social class and racial differences in depressive symptomatology: a community study. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 14, 291–299.
Weissman, M. M. & Klerman, G. L. (1977) Sex differences and the epidemiology of depression. Archives of General Psychiatry, 34, 99–111.
Weissman, M. M., Leaf, P. J., Tischler, G. L., et al (1988) Affective disorders in five United States communities. Psychological Medicine, 18, 141–153.
Wells, K. B., Stewart, A., Hays, R. D., et al (1989) The functioning and well-being of depressed patients: results from the Medical Outcomes Study. Journal of the American Medical Association, 262, 914–919.
Woo, J., Ho, S. C., Lau, J., et al (1994) The prevalence of depressive symptoms and predisposing factors in an elderly Chinese population. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 89, 8–13.
Zung, W. W. K. (1967) Depression in the normal aged. Psychosomatics, 8, 287–292.