American Psychiatric Association (1987) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (3rd edn, revised) (DSM–III–R). Washington, DC: APA.
Birtchnell, J. (1971) Social class, parental social class, and social mobility in psychiatric patients and general population controls. Psychological Medicine, 1, 209–221.
Dohrenwend, B. P. (1990) Socioeconomic status (SES) and psychiatric disorders. Are the issues still compelling? Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 25, 41–47.
Eaton, W. W. (1985) Epidemiology of schizophrenia. Epidemiologic Reviews, 7, 105–126.
Eaton, W. W. & Kessler, L. G. (1981) Rates of symptoms of depression in a national sample. American Journal of Epidemiology, 114, 528–538.
Gift, T. E., Strauss, J. S., Ritzler, B. A., et al (1986) Social class and psychiatric outcome. American Journal of Psychiatry, 143, 222–225.
Goldberg, E. M. & Morrison, S. L. (1963) Schizophrenia and social class. British Journal of Psychiatry, 109, 785–802.
Harder, D. W., Strauss, J. S., Greenwald, D. F., et al (1990) Predictors of outcome among adult psychiatric first-admissions. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 46, 119–128.
Hirschfeld, R. M. A. & Cross, C. K. (1982) Epidemiology of affective disorders. Psychosocial risk factors. Archives of General Psychiatry, 39, 35–46.
Hollingshead, A. B. & Redlich, F. C. (1958) Social Class and Mental Illness.
New York: Wiley.
Holzer, C. E., Shea, B. M., Swanson, J. W., et al (1986) The increased risk for specific psychiatric disorders among persons of low socioeconomic status. Evidence from the Epidemiologic Catchment Area Surveys. American Journal of Social Psychiatry, 6, 259–271.
Jones, P. B., Bebbington, P., Foerster, A., et al (1993) Premorbid social underachievement in schizophrenia. Results from the Camberwell Collaborative Psychosis Study. British Journal of Psychiatry, 162, 65–71.
Keskimäki, I. & Aro, S. (1991) Accuracy of data on diagnosis, procedures and accidents in Finnish Hospital Discharge Register. International Journal of Health Sciences, 2, 15–21.
Kleinbaum, D. G., Kupper, L. L. & Morgenstern, H. (1982) Epidemiologic Research. Principles and Quantitative Methods.
London: Lifetime Learning.
Kloreman, R., Strauss, J. S. & Kokes, R. F. (1977) Premorbid adjustments in schizophrenia: concepts, measures, and implications. II. The relationship of demographic and diagnostic factors to measures of premorbidity in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 3, 214–245.
Kohn, M. L. (1973) Social class and schizophrenia: a critical review and a reformulation. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 1, 60–79.
Lehtinen, V. & Joukamaa, M. (1994) Epidemiology of depression: prevalence, risk factors and treatment situations. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, (suppl. 377), 7–10.
Marneros, A., Steinmeyer, E.M., Deister, A., et al (1989) Long-term outcome of schizoaffective and schizophrenic disorders: a comparative study. III. Social consequences. European Archives of Psychiatry and Neurological Sciences, 238, 135–139.
Marneros, A., Deister, A. & Rohde, A. (1990) Psychopathological and social status of patients with affective, schizophrenic and schizoaffective disorders after long-term course. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 82, 352–358.
National Agency for Welfare and Health (1992) Census of Patients in Psychiatric Wards 1984–1991 (Health 7).
Helsinki: National Agency for Welfare and Health.
Pakaslahti, A. (1987) On the diagnosis of schizophrenic psychoses in clinical practice. Psychiatria Fennica, 18, 63–72.
Weissman, M. M. & Myers, J. K. (1978) Affective disorders in a US urban community. The use of Research Diagnostic Criteria in an epidemiological survey. Archives of General Psychiatry, 35, 1304–1311.
Wiersma, D., Giel, R., De Jong, A., et al (1983) Social class and schizophrenia in a Dutch cohort. Psychological Medicine, 13, 141–150.
World Health Organization (1978) Mental Disorders: Glossary and Guide to their Classification in Accordance with the Ninth Revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD–9).