Murray, CJ, Lopez, AD. Alternative projections of mortality and disability by cause 1990-2020: Global Burden of Disease Study. Lancet
1997; 349: 1498–504.
Bryant, RA, Creamer, M, O'Donnell, M, Silove, D, Clark, CR, McFarlane, AC. The psychiatric sequelae of traumatic injury. Am J Psychiatry
2010; 167: 312–20.
Zatzick, DF, Rivara, FP, Nathens, AB, Jurkovich, GJ, Wang, J, Fan, M-Y, et al. A nationwide US study of post-traumatic stress after hospitalization for physical injury. Psychol Med
2007; 37: 1469–80.
Stein, MB, Walker, JR, Hazen, AL, Forde, DR. Full and partial posttraumatic stress disorder: findings from a community survey. Am J Psychiatry
1997; 154: 1114–9.
Muthén, B. Latent variable analysis: growth mixture modeling and related techniques for longitudinal data. In Handbook of Quantitative Methodology for the Social Sciences (ed Kaplan, D): 345–68. Sage, 2004.
Norris, FH, Tracy, M, Galea, S. Looking for resilience: understanding the longitudinal trajectories of responses to stress. Soc Sci Med
2009; 68: 2190–8.
Pietrzak, RH, Van Ness, PH, Fried, TR, Galea, S, Norris, FH. Trajectories of posttraumatic stress symptomatology in older persons affected by a large-magnitude disaster. J Psychiatr Res
2013; 47: 520–6.
Bonanno, GA, Mancini, AD, Horton, JL, Powell, TM, Leardmann, CA, Boyko, EJ, et al. Trajectories of trauma symptoms and resilience in deployed U.S. military service members: prospective cohort study. Br J Psychiatry
2012; 200: 317–23.
deRoon-Cassini, TA, Mancini, AD, Rusch, MD, Bonanno, GA. Psychopathology and resilience following traumatic injury: a latent growth mixture model analysis. Rehabil Psychol
2010; 55: 1–11.
American Psychiatric Association.
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder (4th edn) (DSM-IV).
Carroll, LJ, Cassidy, JD, Holm, L, Kraus, J, Coronado, VG. Methodological issues and research recommendations for mild traumatic brain injury: the WHO Collaborating Centre Task Force on Mild Traumatic Brain Injury. J Rehabil Med
2004; 36: 113–25.
Baker, SP, O'Neil, B, Haddon, W, Long, WB. The injury severity score: a method for describing patients with multiple injuries and evaluating emergency care. J Trauma
1974; 14: 187–96.
Blake, DD, Weathers, FW, Nagy, LM, Kaloupek, DG, Charney, DS, Keane, TM. Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale for DSM-IV.
National Center For Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, 1998.
Weathers, FW, Keane, TM, Davidson, J. Clinician-administered PTSD scale: a review of the first ten years of research. Depress Anxiety
2001; 13: 132–56.
Aziz, M, Kenford, S. Comparability of telephone and face-to-face interviews in assessing patients with posttraumatic stress disorder. J Psychiatr Pract
2004; 10: 307–13.
Sheehan, DV, Lecrubier, Y, Harnett-Sheehan, K, Amorim, P, Janavs, J, Weiller, E, et al. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I.): the development and validation of a structured diagnostic psychiatric interview. J Clin Psychiatry
1998; 59 (suppl 20): 22–33.
World Health Organization.
The ICD-10 Classification of Mental and Behavioural Disorders: Clinical Descriptions and Diagnostic Guidelines.
Harper, A, Power, M. Development of the World Health Organization WHOQOLBREF quality of life assessment. Psychol Med
1998; 28: 551–8.
Hawthorne, G, Herrman, H, Murphy, B. Interpreting the WHOQOL-Brèf: preliminary population norms and effect sizes. Soc Indicat Res
2006; 77: 37–59.
Brugha, T, Bebbington, P, Tennant, C, Hurry, J. The list of threatening experiences: a subset of 12 life event categories with considerable long-term contextual threat. Psychol Med
1985; 15: 189–94.
Muthén, LK, & Muthén, BO. Mplus User's Guide.
Muthén, & Muthén, 1998–2011.
Brewin, CR, Andrews, B, Valentine, JD. Meta-analysis of risk factors for posttraumatic stress disorder in trauma-exposed adults. J Consult Clin Psychol
2000; 68: 748–66.
Zlotnick, C, Franklin, CL, Zimmerman, M. Does “subthreshold” posttraumatic stress disorder have any clinical relevance?
2002; 43: 413–9.
Bonanno, GA, Kennedy, P, Galatzer-Levy, IR, Lude, P, Elfstrom, ML. Trajectories of resilience, depression, and anxiety following spinal cord injury. Rehabil Psychol
2012; 57: 236–47.
Bryant, RA. Early predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder. Biol Psychiatry
2003; 53: 789–95.
Rauch, SL, Shin, LM, Phelps, EA. Neurocircuitry models of posttraumatic stress disorder and extinction: human neuroimaging research-past, present, and future. Biol Psychiatry
2006; 60: 376–82.
Bryant, RA. Disentangling mild traumatic brain injury and stress reactions. N Engl J Med
2008; 358: 525–7.
Smid, GE, van der Velden, PG, Lensvelt-Mulders, GJ, Knipscheer, JW, Gersons, BP, Kleber, RJ. Stress sensitization following a disaster: a prospective study. Psychol Med
2012; 42: 1675–86.
Norrholm, SD, Jovanovic, T, Vervliet, B, Myers, KM, Davis, M, Rothbaum, BO, et al. Conditioned fear extinction and reinstatement in a human fear-potentiated startle paradigm. Learn Mem
2006; 13: 681–5.
Post, RM, Weiss, SRB, Smith, MA. Sensitization and kindling. Implications for the evolving neural substrates of post-traumatic stress disorder. In Neurobiological and Clinical Consequences of Stress: from Normal Adaptation to PTSD (ed Friedman, MJ, Charney, DS and Deutch, AY): 203–24. Lipincott-Raven, 1995.
Hobfoll, SE, Tracy, M, Galea, S. The impact of resource loss and traumatic growth on probable PTSD and depression following terrorist attacks. J Traum Stress
2006; 19: 867–78.
McFarlane, AC. The long-term costs of traumatic stress: intertwined physical and psychological consequences. World Psychiatry
2010; 9: 3–10.
Breslau, N, Davis, GC, Andreski, P. Risk factors for PTSD-related traumatic events: a prospective analysis. Am J Psychiatry
1995; 152: 529–35.
Shalev, AY, Peri, T, Brandes, D, Freedman, S, Orr, SP, Pitman, RK. Auditory startle response in trauma survivors with posttraumatic stress disorder: A prospective study. Am J Psychiatry
2000; 157: 255–61.