Adshead, G. A., Drummond, L. M. & Mercer, S. (1988) Paradoxical intention and anti-exposure: a case report of its use in a non-com pliant, negativistic obsessive-compulsive ritualiser. British Journal of Psychiatry, 153, 821–823.
American Psychiatric Association (1987) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Psychiatric Disorders (3rd edn, revised) . Washington, DC: APA.
Bartlett, A. E. A. & Drummond, L. M. (1990) Hysterical conversion and dissociation arising as a complication of behavioural psychotherapy treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder. British Journal of Medical Psychology, 163, 109–115.
Beck, A. T., Rial, W. Y. & Rickels, K. (1974) Short form of the depression inventory: cross validation. Psychological Reports, 34, 1184–1186.
Drummond, L. M. & Gravestock, S. (1988) Delayed emergence of obsessive-compulsive neurosis following head injury: case report and review of its theoretical implications. British Journal of Psychiatry, 153, 839–842.
Foa, E. B. (1979) Failures in treating obsessive-compulsives. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 17, 169–176.
Foa, E. B. & Goldstein, A. (1978) Continuous exposure and complete response prevention in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive neurosis. Behaviour Therapy, 9, 821–829.
Goodman, W. K., Price, L. H., Delgado, P. L., et al (1990) Specificity of serotonin reuptake inhibitors in the treatment of obsessive disorder: comparison of fluvoxamine and desipramine. Archives of General Psychiatry, 47, 277–585.
Headland, K. & McDonald, R. (1987) Rapid audiotaped treatment of obsessional ruminations. Behavioural Psychotherapy, 15, 188–192.
Hoogduin, C. A. L. & Hoogduin, W. A. (1984) The out-patient treatment of patients with an obsessive-compulsive disorder. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 22, 455–459.
Insel, T. R., Murphy, D. L., Cohen, R., et al (1983) Clomipramine and clorygyline in OCD. Archives of General Psychiatry, 40, 605–612.
Lovell, K., Marks, I. M., Noshirvani, H. F., et al (1993) Should treatment distinguish anxiogenic from anxiolytic obsessive-compulsive ruminations?
Results of a pilot controlled study and clinical audit.
Marks, I. M. (1983) Are there anticompulsive or antiphobic drugs? Review of the evidence. British Journal of Psychiatry, 143, 338–347.
Marks, I. M., Hodgson, R. & Rachman, S. (1975) Treatment of chronic obsessive-compulsive disorder 2 years after in vivo exposure. British Journal of Psychiatry, 127, 349–364.
Marks, I. M., Stern, R. S., Mawson, D., et al (1980) Clomipramine and exposure for obsessive-compulsive rituals. British Journal of Psychiatry, 136, 1–25.
Marks, I. M., Leluot, P., Basoglu, M., et al (1988) Clomipramine, selfexposure and therapist-aided exposure for obsessive-compulsive rituals. British Journal of Psychiatry, 152, 522–534.
Mavikassalion, M., Turner, S., Michelson, L., et al (1985) Tricyclic antidepressants in obsessive-compulsive disorder: antiobsessional or antidepressant agents?
American Journal of Psychiatry, 142, 572–576.
Mawson, D., Marks, I. M. & Ramm, E. (1982) Clomipramine and exposure for chronic oc rituals: III. Two-year follow-up. British Journal of Psychiatry, 140, 11–18.
McDougle, C. J. & Goodman, W. K. (1991) Obsessive-compulsive disorder: pharmacotherapy and pathophysiology. Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 4, 267–272.
Montgomery, S. A. (1980) Clomipramine in obsessional neurosis: a placebo controlled trial. Pharmaceutical Medicine, 1, 189–192.
Noshirvani, H. F., Kasvikis, Y., Marks, I. M., et al (1991) Gender divergent aetiological factors in obsessive-compulsive disorder. British Journal of Psychiatry, 158, 260–263.
Pigott, T. A., Pato, M. T., Berstein, S. E., et al (1990) Controlled comparisons of clomipramine and fluoxetine in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 47, 926–932.
Rachman, S. (1976) obsessional-compulsive checking. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 14, 269–277.
Rachman, S. & Hodgson, R. J. (1980) Obsessions and Compulsions.
New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.
Rasmussen, S. A. & Tsuang, M. T. (1986) Clinical characteristics and family history in DSM-III obsessive-compulsive disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 143, 317–322.
Salkovskis, P. M. (1983) Treatment of an obsessional patient using habituation to audiotaped ruminations. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 22, 311–313.
Salkovskis, P. M. & Warwick, H. M. C. (1985) Cognitive therapy of obsessive-compulsive disorder: treating treatment failures. Behavioural Psychotherapy, 13, 243–255.
Stern, R. S. & Cobb, J. P. (1978) Phenomenology of obsessive-compulsive neurosis. British Journal of Psychiatry, 132, 233–239.
Thornicroft, G., Colson, L. & Marks, I. M. (1991) An in-patient behavioural psychotherapy unit: description and audit. British Journal of Psychiatry, 158, 362–367.
World Health Organization (1978) Glossary of Mental Disorders and Guide for their Classification in Accordance with the Ninth Revision of the International Classification of Diseases
. Geneva: WHO.